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THE THIRTEEN PRINCIPAL 
UPANISHADS 

TRANSLATED FROM THE SANSKRIT 



PRINTED IN ENGLAND 

AT TJIK OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRKHS 

DY FREDERICK II ALL 



THE THIRTEEN PRINCIPAL 

UPANI SHADS 

TRANSLATED FROM THE SANSKRIT 

WITH AN OUTLINE OF 

THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

AND 

AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 
BY 

ft 

ROBERT ERNEST HUME, M.A., PH.D. 

PROFESSOR OF THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS IN 
UNION THEOLOGICAL &MINARY, NEW YORK 



HUMPHREY MILFORD 
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK 

TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY 

1921 



TO MY COUSIN 

JANE PORTER WILLIAMS 

IN LOVE AND GRATITUDE 



The One who, himself without color, by the manifold appli- 
cation, of his power 

Distributes many colors in his hicklon pwpose, 

And into whom, its end and its beymnini*, the whole 
dissolves He is God ! 

May He endow us with clear intellect ! 

&VETASVATARA Ui'ANISHAP, 4 I (p 4 



VI 



PREFACE 

IN THE LONG HISTORY of man's endeavor to grasp the 
fundamental truths of being, the metaphysical tieatiscs known 
as the Upanishads l hold an honored place. They represent 
the earnest efforts of the profound thinkers of early India 
to solve the problems of the origin, the nature, and the destiny 
of man and of the universe, ormore technically the mean- 
ing and value of ' knowing ' and ' being/ Though they con- 
tain some fanciful ideas, naive speculations, and inadequate 
conclusions, yet they arc replete with sublime conceptions 
and \\ith intuitions of universal truth. 2 

Here are found intimations of the inadequacy of mere 
nature-worship and of the falsity of an empty ceremonialism. 
Here are expiesscd the momentous discoveries that the 
various gods of polytheistic belief are but numerous special 
manifestations of the One Power of the universe, and that 
the supreme object of worship is this variously revealed, 
pattiiilly elusive, all-comprehending unitary Reality.) Still 
more momentous arc the discernments that man is of more 
significance than all the forces of Nature; that man himself 
is the interpretation as well as the interpreter of Nature, 
becau.se he is akin to the reality at the heart of the universe ; 
indeed/that the One God, the great intelligent Person who 
is immanent in the universe, is to be found most directly in 
the heart of man. Here in the Upanishads are set forth, in 
concrete example as well as in dogmatic instruction, two 
opposing theories of life: an ignorant, narrow, selfish way 
of life which seeks temporary, unsatisfying, unreal ends ; and 
a way of life which seeks to relate itself to the Supreme 
Reality of the universe, so as to escape from the needless 
misery of ordinary existence into undying bliss/ 

These important texts, the earliest of which can hardly 

1 According to the derivation of the word, they are ' sittings under [a teacher]' ; 
in the acmal usage of the Upanishads themselves, ' mystic teachings.' 

2 C)u the position of the Upanishads in the history of philosophy and the estimate 
of them in East and West at the present day, see pp. 1-9, 7 I ~7 3 ' 

vii 



have taken form later than the seventh century H.c., 1 arc surely 
finding, and will continue to find, more than a limited circle 
of readers. The student of the history of philosophy who 
desires to know the answers reached in India for the ever 
insistent problems of man and the universe and the ideals of 
the highest existence ; the special student of India who strives 
to understand the essence as well as the externals of its 
culture ; the religious teacher and worker in Kast and West 
who seeks to apprehend the aspii aliens and spiritual ideals of 
the Hindu soul; the educated English-speaking Hindu who 
feels a special affection for, and inteiest in, the sacied writings 
of his native land; and the deep thinker who searches in 
arcane doctrine for a clue to the solution of life's mysleiics 
all of these will turn constantly to the Upanibhads as an 
authoritative compendium of Indian metaphysical speculation. 
To meet the need of these varying types of readers for a 
faithful rendering of the original text -an English version 
that will enable them to know exactly what the icvercd 
Upanishads say has been my constant aim in the piepaui- 
tion of this work. 

It is hardly necessary to dwell here on the difficulties and 
perplexities that confront anyone engaged on such a task ; 
texts such as these are among the hardest to present adequately 
in another language, and a completely satisfying translation 
is wcllnigh unattainable. I trust that I have succeeded at 
least in being literal without becoming cryptic, and in attain- 
ing clearness without exegctical accretions. Further remarks 
on the plan and anangemcnt of the translation will be found 
on subsequent pages (pp. xii~xiv), which those making use 
of this book are requested to consult. 

In publishing this new version I would first pay due respect 
to Professor F. Max Mliller, that eminent figure of the past 
generation of Sanskrit scholars, who, in volumes I and XV 
of the Sacred Books of the East (1879, 1884), published an 
English translation of twelve of the thirteen Upanishads here 
presented. For comment on that translation the reader is 

1 'They lepresent a time probably from the 8lh to the 6th century fiu'.],' 
Garbe, Die bamkhya Philosophic, p. 107. 'The earliest of them can hnnlly be 
dated later than 600 B.C.' Macdonell, History of Samknt Literature, p, 226, 

viii 



referred to the Bibliography, p. 462 below. In the present 
status of Sanskrit scholarship, as well as of comparative 
religion and comparative philosophy, it is no unappreciative 
aspersion to asscit that the same work can be done better 
now than it was done nearly forty years ago. Indeed, Max 
Muller himself predicted such improvement 1 

Among previous translators my indebtedness is greatest to 
the late Piofessor Paul Dcusscn, of the University of Kiel. 
No Western scholar of his time has made a more thorough 
study of the Upnnishads, both in themselves and in their 
i elation to the wide field of Sanskiit literature. As a philo- 
sophical inteipreter as well as an exact translator of the 
Upanishads, Deusscn has no equal. I most gladly and grate- 
fully acknowledge the help derived from constant reference 
to his German translation, Sccksig Upanishads des Veda? as 
well as the stimulus of personal association with him, many 
years ago, at his home in Kiel 

It is a pleasure to express here the debt of gratitude that 
I owe to Professor E. Washburn Hopkins, of Yale University. 
Under his supervision the introductoiy essay and part of the 
translation oiiginally took form, and he has since been good 
enough to revise the entire work in manuscript. His instiuc- 
tion and encouragement have been of the greatest assistance 
in the prepaiation of this volume, and many a passage has 
been clarified as a result of his helpful comments and con- 
structive suggestions. 

This volume has also had the benefit of the scholarship and 
technical skill of my friend Geoigc C. 0. Haas, A.M., Ph.D., 
for some years an editor of the Journal of the American 
Oriental Society and at present holding an administrative post 
under the United States Government. He not only revised 
the entire manuscript before it went to press, solving problems 
of typographical detail and securing consistency throughout 

* *J have no doubt tlut future translators will find plenty of work to do.* 
(Ltotttm on the l^ddnta Philosophy t p. 119.) ' Each one [of the previous trans- 
lators] has contributed something, but there is still much left to be improved. In 
these studies everybody does the best he can , and scholars should never forget 
how easy it is to weed a field winch has once been ploughed, and how difficult to 
plough unbroken soil* (Saered Jfooks ofth& East, vol. I, American ed v preface, p, f.) 

3 Sec the liibliogiaphy, p. 464 below. 

ix 



PREFACE 

the different parts of the entire work, but also undertook the 
laborious task of seeing the book through the pi ess. For 
this generous assistance extending over a long .series of 
years I feel deeply and sincerely grateful. 

For assistance in connection with the compilation of the 
Bibliography thanks are due to James Southgate, E.sq , who, 
as a member of the Department of Oriental Books and 
Manusciipts of the Biitish Museum, revised and amplified the 
collection of titles which I had myself gathered dining the 
progress of the work. 

A word must be said also in appreciation of the unfailing 
courtesy and helpfulness of the Oxfoid University Press, 
whose patience during the long course of putting the \voik 
through the press, even amid the trials and difficulties of 
recent years, deserves hearty recognition, 

In conclusion I would add a reveicnt salutation to India, 
my native land, mother of more religions than have oriin;xtrd 
or flourished in any other country of the woild. In the early 
years of childhood and later in the first period of adult service, 
it was the chief vernacular of the Bombay Presidency which 
furnished a medium, along with the English language, for 
intercourse with the wistful people of India, among whom are 
still many of my dearest friends. It Jhas been a satisfaction 
that some part of the preparation of this book, begun in the 
West, could be carried on in the land that gave these Upani- 
slmds to the world. Many of the MS. pages have been worked 
over in conjunction with native scholars in Calcutta and Bom- 
bay, and I wish to acknowledge especially the patient counsels 
of Mahdmahopadhyaya Hara Piasfid Shastri and some of his 
group of pandits. 

May this translation, with its introductory survey of the 
philosophy of the Upanishacls, prove a means of bringing 
about a wider knowledge of the contents of these venerated 
texts and a discriminating appreciation of their teachings 1 



ROBERT ERNEST HUMK. 



UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, 
NEW YORK. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE vii 

REMARKS CONCERNING TEIE TRANSLATION: ITS 

METHOD AND ARRANGEMENT . . . xit 

LIST OF AIWRILVIATIONS xv 

AN OUTLINE OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE 

UPANISIIADS I 

3*KHTAI>-AUAKYAKA UPANISIIAD .... 73 

CHAN1XX5YA UPANISIIAD 177 

TAITTIKIYA UPANISIIAD 375 

AITARKYA UPANISIIAD 394 

KAUSIIITAKI UPANISIIAD 302 

KKNA UPANISIIAD 335 

KATHA UPANISIIAD ...... 341 

TA UPANISHAD ,,..... 362 

Muis'DAKA UPANISIIAD 366 

TRASNA UPANISIIAD 378 

MANUUKYA UPANISIIAD 391 

SVKTASVATARA UPANISIIAD 394 

MAITIU UPANISIIAD 41* 

A BlBLIOCaiAPIIY OP THE UPANISIIADS, 

SKLKCTED, CLASSIFIED, AND ANNOTATED . 459 

SANSKRIT INDEX 509 

GENERAL INDEX 514 



XI 



REMARKS CONCERNING THE TRANSLATION 
ITS METHOD AND ARRANGEMENT 

Principles observed in. tlie translation 

It has been the aim of the tianslator to prepare a rendering that 
lepiesents, as faithfully as possible, the foim and meaning of the 
Sanskrit text A liteial equivalent, even though lacking in fluency 
or giace of expression, has been preferred thioughout to a fine phnise 
that less exactly reproduces the original. The version has been made 
in accordance \vith philological principles, with constant and com- 
prehensive comparison of recuircnt words and phi uses, and due 
attention has been paid to the native commentaries as \vell as to the 
\voik of previous scholars in East and West. 

The text on which, it is based 

The text of the Upanishads here translated may be said to be in 
fairly good condition, and the readings of the printed editions could 
in the main be followed. Occasional adoption of variants or eou- 
jectuial emendations is mentioned and explained in the footnotes (as 
on pp. 207, 226, 455). In the Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad the text 
of the Kanva recension has been used as the basis; some of the 
variations of the Madhyathdina recensionN aie noted at the foot of 
the page. In the Kaushitaki Upanibhad the pnncipal divergencies 
between the Bibhotheca Indica edition and that in the Anandasrawa 
Series are set foilh m the notes. 

Order of the Upanishads in this volume 

The traditional sequence of the ten principal Upanishads is that 
given in the following useful versus memonaUs : 



aitareyam ca chandogyam brhaddranyakam 
In the present volume, which adds the Maitri Upanishatl to the usual 
group of twelve, they are anangcd in the probable order of their 
original composition. Though the determination of this order is 

1 From A Catechism of flinduum, by Si is Chandia Vasu, Benares, 1899, j>, 3. 

xii 



CONCERNING THE TRANSLATION 

difficult and at best conjectural, yet a careful study of the style and 
contents of these texts points to a relative sequence nearly like that 
fust foimulatcd by Deussen. 1 The only depaiture in this volume from 
Deussen's oider consists in placing the vetasvataza in the later group 
with the Maitii, rather than in the earlier group before the Mundaka. 2 

Treatment of metrical portions 

Metrical poitions of the text are indicated by the use of type of 
a smalloi size and by an arrangement that suggests verse form to the 
eye. The meter of each stanza is shown by the width of the margin : 
ii maijrin of modciate width denotes the n -syllable tnstitbh, whereas 
a wider maigin denotes the familiar sloka, or 8-syllable anustubh. 
The number of lines accoids with the number of veises in the original, 
and wherever possible the tianslation follows the text line for line. 
It has frequently been possible to attain in English the same number 
of syllables as in the Sanskiit, though no attempt has been made to 
pioducc a consistently metiical translation to the detiiment of the 
sense. 

Additions in square brackets 

Matter in square brackets is matter not actually expiessed in the 
wouls of the Sanskiit text. It comprises 

(a) the Knglish equivalent of a woid or words omitted or to be 

understood in the Sanskiit (as at Ait. 4. 6, p. 300; Katha 4.3, 
P- 3S4); 

(b) words added to complete or improve the English grammatical 

structure (as at Chanel. 5. 3. 3, p. 230); 

(r) explanations added by the translator to make clear the import 
of the passage (as at Prasna 5. 3-5, p. 388 ; Maitri 6, 14, 
P- 433)- 

Additions in parentheses 

Matter in parentheses is always identical in meaning with the pre- 
ceding woi d or words. It comprises 

(a) translations or equivalents of pioper names or other designa- 

tions, as: * the Golden Germ (Hiranyagaibha)'; 

(b) Sanskrit words in italics, immediately after their English trans- 

lation as : * peace (santf)? 

1 See Peussen, Die Philosophic der Upanishatf s , pp. 22-25; English tr., 
pp. aa -2<> (of. the Bibliography, p. 501 below). See also Macdonell, History of 
$&mkrit IMtrature, London, 1900, p. 226. 

* See Hopkins, Notes on the <Jveta9vatara, etc,,' JAOS. 22 (1901), pp. 380- 
387, where he controverts Deussen on this very point 

xiii' 



CONCERNING THE TRANSLATION 

TJse of italics 

Sanskrit words have been quoted freely in italics enclosed in 
paientheses 

(a) to aid the special student in his search for the exact shade of 

meaning by giving the original of which the word or phrase 
immediately picceding is a translation ; 

(b) to render evident to the eye the play on woids 01 the etymo- 

logical explanation that frequently occms in the exposition 
or argumentation of the Upanishads (cf. Chand. i. 2. 10-12, 
p. 179), 

Nouns and adjectives are usually given in their uninflected stcm- 
foim; occasionally, however, an inflected form is used for the take of 
clearness (as at Chand. 8, 3. 3, p. 265). 

Transliteration of Sanskrit words 

The transliteration of Sanskrit words in italics follows thr current 
usage of Western Oriental scholars (except that anuwara is repre- 
sented by m instead of by the customary #;). In rotmm XiyV, as pan 
of the English tianslation, however, proper names (as of divinities, 
persons, texts, and ceremonies) aie given in a slightly less technical 
transliteration, with some concession to popular usage ; the vowel 
r is lepresented by f ri' (except in 'Rig/ 'Rig- Veda '), and the 
sibilant s by ' sh.' 

Headings in heavy-faced type 

The headings in heavy-faced type have been inserted by the 
translator to summarize the contents of the ensuing sections and to 
interpret, as far as possible in a few words, the development of thought 
in the text, 



xiv 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 



A ... the recension of Kaush. published in the Anan- 

dasrama Sanskrit Series, 
Ait. . . Aitarcya Upanishad. 
Ait. Br. . Aitarcya Biahmana. 
Ay P. . American Journal of Philology. 
Asv. . . Asvalayana (Grihya Sutra). 
AV. . * Atharva-Vcda. 
A VTr. - Atharva-Vcda Translation, by Whitney and Lan- 

man, in the Harvard Oriental Series, vols. 7 

and 8, Cambridge, Mass., 1905. 
B . . . the recension of Kaush. published in the Biblio- 

thcca Indica. 

BhG. , Bhagavad-Git5. 
BR. . . Bohtlingk and Roth's great Sanskrit Dictionary, 

7 vols., St. Petersburg, 1855-1875. 
Brih. . . Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad. 
7>/r/p. . Bohtlingk's shoiter Sanskrit Dictionary, 7 parts, 

St. Petorsbuig, 1879-1889. 
Chanel. * Chandogya Upanishad. 
com, . , commentator, commentators. 
ccL . , edited, edition. 

JAOS. . Journal of the American Oriental Society. 
K * . Kanva recension of Brih. 
Kaush. Kaushitaki Upanishad. 
Lc. . . (loco ctiato)) at the place cited. 
M . - Mudhyamdina recension of Brih. 
MBh. . Mahabhfirata. 
Mahanan MahanFirfiyana Upanishad. 
Mfind. . Mandukya Upanishad. 
MS. . . Maitrayani Samhita. 
Mund. . Mundaka Upanishad. 
MW* + Monier-Williams's Sanskrit Dictionary, ad edition, 

Oxford, 1899. 
xv 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 

Par. . . Paraskara (Grihya Sutra). 

RV. . . Rig- Veda. 

Sat, Br . Satapatha Biahmana- 

SJ1E. . Sacred Books of the East. 

SV. . . Sama-Vcda. 

s.v. . . (sub Tcrbo)^ under the word. 

Svet. . Svctasvatara TJpanishad. 

TA. . . Taittirlya Aranyaka. 

Talt. * . Taittirlya Upanishad. 

tr. . . . translated, translation. 

TS. . . Taittirlya Samhita. 

VS. . . Vajasaneyi Sariihita. 



ERRATA 

Page 48, line 2 for Madhyarhdina read Mildhyathdina 

Page 483 line 3 for Kanva read Ktiuva 

Page 143, line 26 for ibis home read this world 

Page 172, line 6 for Tvashtri read Tvashtri 

Page 175, line 26 for yajur r^Wyajus 
Page 330, line 26 

and note 4 for Tvashtri read Tvashtri 



AN OUTLINE OF THE PHILOSOPHY 
OF THE UPANISHADS 

CHAPTER I 

TIIK PLACE OF TIIK UPANISHADS IN THE HISTORY 
OF PHILOSOPHY 

ALMOST contemporaneous with that remarkable period of 
active philosophic and religious thought the world over, about 
the sixth century r.c., when Pythagoi as, Confucius, Buddha, and 
Zoroaster were thinking out new philosophies and inaugurating 
great religions, there was taking place, in the land of India, 
a quiet movement which has exercised a continuous influence 
upon the entire subsequent philosophic thought of that country 
and which has also been making itself felt in the West. 

The Aryan invaders of Hindustan, after having conquered the 
territory and gained an undisputed foothold, betook themselves 
to the consideration of those mighty problems which thrust 
themselves upon eveiy serious, thoughtful person the problems 
of the meaning of life and the world and the great unseen powers. 
They cast about on this side and on that for explanation. Thus 
we find, for example, in the Sveta^vatara Upanishad (i. i) : 

* What is the cause? Brahma? Whence aie we born? \ 
Whereby do \vc live? And on what arc we established? 

Overruled by whom, in pains and pleasures, / 

Do we live our various conditions, O ye theologians ? ' j 

In childlike manner, like the early Greek cosmologists, they 
accepted now one thing and now another as the primary material 
out of which the whole xvorld is made. Yet, again like the 
early Greek philosophers and also with 'the subtlety and 
directness of childlike insight, they discerned the underlying 
unity of all being. Out of this penetrating intuition those 
early Indian thinkers elaborated a system of pantheism which 
has proved most fascinating to their descendants. If there is 

i B 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISIIADS 

any one intellectual tenet which, explicitly or implicitly, is held 
by the people of India, furnishing a fundamental presuppo- 
sition of all their thinking", it is this doctrine of pantheism. 

The beginnings of this all-pervading form of theorizing are 
recorded in the Upanishacls. In these ancient documents are 
found the earliest serious attempts at construing the world 
of experience as a rational whole. Furthcrmoie, they have 
continued to be the generally accepted authoiitative state- 
ments with which every subsequent oithodox philosophic 
formulation has had to show itself in accord, or at least not in 
discord. Even the materialistic Carvfikas, who denied the 
Vedas, a future life, and almost every sacred doctrine of the 
orthodox Brahmans, avowed respect for these Upanishads. 
That interesting later epitome of the Vcdfmla, the Vedftnta-sfira, 1 
shows how these Carvakas and the adherents of the Buddhistic 
theory and also of the litualistic Purva-mlmfunsa and of the 
logical Nyaya appealed to the Upanishads in .support of their 
varying theories. Even the clualistic Sankhya philosophers 
claimed to find scripture authority in the Upanishads.^ For 
the orthodox Vedanta, of course, the Upanishads, with 
Badarfiyana's Vedanta-Sutras and Sankara's Commentary on 
them, have been the very text-books. 

Not only have they been thus of histoiical impoitancc in 
the past development of philosophy in India, but they are of 
present-day influence. * To every Indian Brahman today the 
Upanishads are what the New Testament is to the Christian.' 3 
Max Muller calls attention to the fact that there arc more new 
editions published of the Upanishads and Saankara, in India 
than of Dcscaites and Spinoza in Europe.' 1 Especially now, 
in the admitted inadequacy of the existing degraded form of 
popular Hinduism, the educated Hindus arc turning to their 
old Scriptures and are finding there much which they con- 

1 Translated by Col. Jacob in his Manual of Hindu Pantheism > homlon, 1(891, 
pp 76-78* Text published by him m Bombay, 1894, and by Bohllinfjk in his 
Sanskrit- Chrestoviath ie. 

2 See the Sarva-daxiaaa-samgiaha, a later summary of the vanous philosophers, 
translated by Cowell and Cough, p. 227 (and ed., London, 1894). 

3 Deussen, The Philosophy of the Ufianishads, tr. by Gedt k n, p, viii, J&Uuburah, 
1906, 

4 Max Muller, Lectures on the Vedanta, Philosophy > p, 39, 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

fidcnlly stake against the claims of superiority of any foreign 
religion 01 philosophy. It k noteworthy that the significant 
movement indicated by the reforming and theistic Samajas 
of modem times was inaugurated by one who was the 
first to prepare an English tianslation of the Upanishads. 
Rammohun Roy expected to restore Hinduism to its pristine 
purity and superiority through a resuscitation of Upanishadic 
philosophy with an infusion of certain eclectic elements. 

They <ue also being taken up and exploited by a certain 
class who have found a rich reward and an attractive field of 
operation in the mysticism and cicdulity of India. Having 
hopes foi ' the Upanishads as a world-scripture, that is to say, 
a scripture appealing to the lovers of religion and truth in all 
races and at all times, without distinction, 5 theosophists have 
been endeavoring to make them available for their converts. 1 

Not only have the Upanishads thus furnished the regnant 
philosophy for India from their date up to the present time 
and proved fascinating to mystics outside of India, but their 
philosophy presents nianj^tej'esting^jjaralljeb ft&d . contrasts ,, 
to the elaborate philosophizings of Western lands. And 
Western professional students of philosophy, as well as liteiary 
historians, have felt and expressed the importance of the 
Upanishads. In the case of Arthur Schopenhauer, the chief 
of modem pantheists of the West, his philosophy is unmis- 
takably transfused with the doctrines expounded in the 
Upanishads, a fact that might be surmised from his oft-quoted 
eulogy : * It pu c, Anquetil du Perron's Latin translation of a 
Persian rendering of the Upanishads] is the most rewarding 
and the most elevating reading which (with the exception of 
the original text) there can possibly be in the world. It has 
been the solace of my life and will be of my death.' 2 

Professor Deussen, the Professor' of Philosophy in the 
University of Kiel (Germany), has always regarded his 
thorough study of the Vedanta philosophy as a reward in 



1 The VfanishadS) by Mead and Chaftopadhyaya, p. 5, London, Theosophical 
Publishing Society, 1896. See also The Theosophy of the Upanishads (anonymous), 
London, Theosophical Publishing Society, 1896, and The. Upanishads with 
tankards Commentary ', a translation made by several Hindus, published by V. C 
fteshacharri, Madras, 1898 (dedicated to Mrs* Annie Besant), 

fl P&rtrga, 2, 185 (Werke, 6, 427). 

3 B 2 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

itself, apait from the satisfaction of contributing so largely to 
our understanding of its teachings. Foi in the UpunLshads he 
has found Parmcnidcb, Plato, and Kant in a nutshell, and on 
leaving India in 1^93, in an address before the Bombay Hianch 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1 he gave it as his paiting advice 
that 'the Veddnta, in its imfalsified form is the strongest support 
of pure morality, is the greatest consolation in the sufferings 
of life and death Indians, keep to it ! ; 

Professor Royce of Harvard University deemed the philo- 
sophy of the Upanishads sufficiently important to expound it 
in his Gifford Lectures, 2 before the University of Aberdeen, 
and to introduce sonic original translations especially made by 
his colleague Professor Lanman. 

So, in East and West, the Upanishads have made and will 
make their influence felt. A broad survey of the facts will 
hardly sustain the final opinion expressed by Regnaucl ; 
4 Arbitrary or Icgcndaiy doctrines, that is to say, those which 
have sprung from individual or popular imagination, such as 
the Upanishads, resemble a gallery of portraits whose originals 
have long since been dead. They have no more than a his- 
torical and comparative value, the principal interest of which is 
for supplying important elements for the study of the human 
mind.' 3 

Historical and comparative value the Upanishads undoubt- 
edly have, but they are also of great present-day importance. 
No one can thoroughly understand the workings and conclusions 
Df the mind of an educated Hindu of today who does not know 
something of the fountain from which his ancestors for cen- 
turies past have drunk, and from which he too has been deriving 
h]s intellectual life. The imagery under which his philosophy 
is conceived, the phraseology in which it Is couched, and the 
analogies by which it is supported arc largely the same in the 
discussions of today as arc found in the Upanishads and in 
Sankara's commentaries on them and on the Sutras. Further- 
more, although some elements arc evidently of local interest 

1 Printed as a pamphlet, Bombay, 1897,, and also contained in hi /Memento of 
Metaphysics, English translation, p 337, London, 1894. 

2 Royce, The World and the Individual, i. 156-175, New York, 1900, 

3 Regnaud, Mat&riaitx pour scrvir & Phi stain de la philosophic dc /'///<#, a, 304, 
Paris, 1878. 

4 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

and of past value, ii is evident that the pantheism of the 
Upanishads has exerted and will continue to exert an influence 
on the pantheism of the West, for it contains certain elements 
which penetrate deeply into the truths which every philosopher 
must reach in a thoroughly grounded explanation of experience. 
The intelligent and sympathetic discrimination of these ele- 
ments will constitute a philosophic work of the first importance. 
As a preliminary step to that end, the mass of unorganized 
material contained in the Upanishads has been culled and the 
salient ideas here arranged in the following outline. 



CHAPTER II 

THE UPANISHADS AND THEIR PLACE IN 
INDIAN PHILOSOPHY 

TIIK Upanishads are religious and philosophical treatises 
forming part of the early Indian Vedas. 1 The preceding por- 
tions are the Mantras, or Hymns to the Vedic gods, and the 
Brahmanas, or directories on and explanations of the sacrificial 
ritual. Accordingly these three divisions of the Sruti, 01 
4 Revelation,' may be roughly characterized as the utteiances 
successively of poct 3 pncst, and philosopher. The distinction 
of course, is not strictly exclusive ; for the Upanishads, being 
integral parts of the Brahmanas, 2 are continuations of the 
sacrificial rules and discussions, but_Jhey^pass over into .pixila- 
sophical considerations. Much that is in"lKe'"~Opanishads 
particularly in the Brihad-Aranyaka and in the Chandogya 
might more properly be included in the Brahmana portion 
and some that is in the Brahmanas is Upanishadic in charac- 
ter. The two groups are closely interwoven. 

1 * That which is hidden in the sccict of the Vedas, even the Upanishads.' 
vetaivntara Upixnishad 5, rt, 

u Technically, the older Upanishads i, with the exception of the I6a, which is th< 
last chapter of the Sarhhita of the White Yajur-Veda) form part of the Aranyakas 
' Forest JBooks/ which in turn are part of the Biahraanas, the second part of ih< 
Vedas. 

Later a distinct class of independent Upanishads arose, but even of several o 
the classical Upanishads the connection with the Brahmanas has been lost. Onl^ 
the thirteen oldest Upanishads, which might be called classical and which ar< 
translated in this volume, are here discussed. 

5 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

This fact, along with the general lack of data in Sanskiit 
literature for chronological orientation, makes it impossible to 
fix any definite dates for the Upanishacls. The Satapalha 
Brahmana, of which the Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishud forms 
the conclusion, is believed to contain material that comes down 
to 300 B.C. The UpanLshads themselves contain several 
references to writings which undoubtedly arc much latct than 
the beginnings of the UpanishacLs The best that can be done 
is to base conjcctuies upon the gcneial aspect of the contents 
compaied with what may be supposed to precede and to suc- 
ceed, The usual date that is thus assigned to the Upanishads 
is about 600 or J)OQ it. (J^Just prior to the Buddhist revival, 

Yet evidences of Buddhist influences are not wanting in 
them. In Brih. 3. a. 13 it is stated that after death the differ- 
ent parts of a person return to the different parts of Nature 
from whence they came, that even his soul (aim an) goes into 
space and that only his karma, or effect of work, remains over. 
This is out and put tbc.HuddhistJoctrine. Connections in the 
point of dialect may also be shown, Sarvavat is * a word 
which as yet has not been discovered in the whole range ol 
Sanskrit literature, except in Satapatha Brahmana 14. 7. i. 10 
[ = Brih. 4. 3. 9] and in Northern Buddhist writings,' l Its Tali 
equivalent is sabbavfi. In Brih. 4. 3. a-6 r is changed to / 
i. e, paly-ay ate for pary-ayatc a change which is regularly 
made in the Pali dialect in which the books of Southern Bud- 
dhism arc written. It may be that this is not a direct influence 
of the Pali upon the Sanskrit, but at least it is the same ten- 
dency which exhibits itself in Pali, and here the two languages 
are close enough together to warrant the assumption of contact 
and mutual influence. Somewhat surer evidence, however, is 
the use of the second person plural ending tha for la. Mitllcr 
pointed out in connection with the word acarathct (MtmcL 
i. 2, i) that this irregularity looks suspiciously Buddhistic. 
There are, however, four other similar instances. The word 
samvatsyatka (Prasiaa i. 2) might be explained as a future 
indicative (not an imperative), serving as a mild future imper- 
ative. But prcckatha (Pra&ia jr. 2), apadyatha (Pnufou a. 3), 
and/###Afctf and vimtmcatAa(Mu%d. 2, 3. 5) arc evidently meant 



1 Kern, *?# 2r, p. xvii, 
6 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

as imperatives, and as such arc formed with the Pali instead of 
with the regular Sanskrit ending. It has long been suspected 
that the later Siva sects, which recognized the Atharva-Veda 
as their chief scripture, were closely connected with the Bud- 
dhistic sects. Peihaps in this way the Buddhistic influence 1 
was transmitted to the Prasna and Mundaka Upanishads of 
the Atharva-VccUi. 

This shows that the Upanishads are not unaffected by out- 
side influences. Even irrespective of these, their inner structure 
reveals that they arc heterogeneous in their material and com- 
pound in then composition. The Brihad-Aianyaka, for 
instance, is composed of three divisions, each of which 
is concluded, as if it were a complete whole, by a vai'ufa t or 
genealogy of the doctrine (that is, a list of teachers through 
whom the doctrine there taught had originally been leceived 
from Brahma and handed down to the time of wilting). The 
first section, entitled ' The Honey Section,' contains a dialogue 
between Vajnavalkya and Maitrcyl which is almost verbally 
repeated in the second section, called ' The Yajnavalkya Sec- 
tion.' It seems quite evident that these two pieces could not 
have been parts of one continuous writing, but that they were 
parts of t\\o sepaiate works which were mechanically united 
and then connected with the third section, whose title, e Supple- 
mentary Section/ is in accord with the heterogeneous nature of 
its contents, 

Both the Brihad-Aranyaka and the Chandogya are very 
composite in character. Disconnected explanations of the 
sacrificial ritual, legends, dialogues, etymologizing^ (which now 
appear absurd, but which originally were regarded as im- 
portant explanations), 2 sayings, philosophical disquisitions, and 
so forth arc, in the main, merely mechanically juxtaposed. In 
the shorter and later Upanishads there is not room for such 
a collection ; but in them, more and more, quotations from the 
earlier Upanishads and from the Vedas are inserted. Many of 
these can be recognized as such. There are also certain 
passages, especially in the Katha and Svetasvatara, which, 
t "*""*" 

1 See on this point the interesting testimony adduced by Foucher, &tude sur 
I ' iconographic bbuddhiqnt de Flndc^ Paris, 1900. 

2 Such as Hrih. r, 2.7; i. 3. 22; i. 4. i ; 3.9. 8-9 ; Chanel, i. 2. 10-12 ; 6, 8. i. 

7 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

though not referable, arc evidently quotations, since they arc 
not grammatically construablc in the sentence, but contain 
a thought which seems to be commented upon in the words 
immediately following. 

Not only are the Upanishads thus heterogeneous in point of 
structure, but they also contain passages which .set forth the 
dualistic Sankhya philosophy, which has been the chief antag- 
onist of the monistic Vcdfmta. Of the earlier Upanishads 
the CbcTndogya, in 6. 4, explains all existing objects as a com- 
position of three elements, a reduction which has an analogue 
in the Sankhya with its three qualities. In Katha 4. 7, the 
prakrti or Nature 3 of the Sankhya is described. In Katha 
3. 10-13, and similarly in 6. 7~c8 5 there is a gradation of 
psychical principles in the order of their emanation from the 
Unmanifest (avyakta) which agrees closely with the Srmkhya 
order ; but a difference is added when that UmnamTcst, instead 
of being left as the ultimate, is suboidinated to the Person of 
the world-ground. Somewhat similar arc the genealogies of 
Munch i. i. 8 ; a. t. 3; and Prasna 6. ^. In Prasna 4, 8 is 
a combined Sankhya and Vedanta list, the major part of 
which, up to citta, 'thought and what can be thought/ Is 
Sankhyan. The term buddhi, 'intellect,' is an important 
Sankhyan word. It is noticeable that it docs not occur until 
the Katha, where other Sankhyan similarities are first 
prominent^and where this word is found four times. 

In the Svetasvatara the Sankhya is mentioned by name in 
the last chapter, and the statement is made that it icascms 
in search of the same object as is there being expounded The 
references in this Upanishad to the Sankhya arc unmistakable. 
The enumerations of i, 4-5 arc distinctly non-Vcdfmtic and 
quite Sankhyan. The passage at 6. j, where svah/tava, 'the 
nature of things, 3 evidently means prah-ti^ the c Nature J of the 
Sankhya, denounces that theory as the utterance of deluded 
men. Similarly I. 3 contradicts the Sfinkhyaa doctrine in 
placing the gunas, or c qualities/ in God and in attributing to 
him ' self-power/ But more numerous arc the instances where 
the Vedanta theory is interpreted in Sankhyan terms, as in 
4- 10, where the prakrti of the Sankhya is identified with the 
may a of the Vedanta. The passage 4. 5, where the cxplana- 

8 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

tion of experience is sensually analogized, is thoroughly 
Sankhyan. The relation of the Vedanta to the Sankhya has 
not yet been satisfactorily made out. Perhaps, as Professor 
Cowell maintained, 1 'the Svetasvatara Upanishad is the most 
direct attempt to reconcile the Sankhya and the Vedanta. 5 
The Maitri is even more evidently pervaded by Sankhyan 
influences, especially the explicit references to the gunas, 
or s qualities/ with the enumeration of their effects (3. 5) and 
the explanation of their origin '(5, 2). 

Even with due allowance made for a supposititious period 
when the terms of philosophy may have existed without 
distinction of systems, such as are known afterwards as 
Vedanta and Sankhya, it is nevertheless improbable that so 
complete a Sankhyan vocabulary as meets us in the Svetas- 
vatara and the Maitri Upanishads could belong to such a 
period. They seem rather to belong to a period when 
systems were not only recognized as such, but as antagonistic. 
^ These remarks have made it clear that the Upanishads are 
no homogeneous products, cogently presenting a philosophic 
theory, but that they are compilations from different sources 
recording the fi guesses at truth' of the early Indians. A 
single, well articulated system cannot be deduced from them ; 
but underlying all their expatiations, contradictions, and 
unordered matter there is a general basis of a developing 
pantheism which will now be placed in exposition. 



CHAPTER III 

FIRST ATTEMPTS AT THE CONCEPTION OF 
A UNITARY WORLD-GROUND 

AMONG the early Indians, as among the early Greeks, an 
explanation of the beginnings of the world, its original sub- 
stance, and its construction, formed the first and most inter- 
esting subject of philosophical speculation. In the Ve'das such 
speculation had gone on to some extent and had produced the 

a In his notes to Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, i. 257, London, 1873. 

But see 'more. especially: Professor Hopkins, JA OS. 22, 380-387. > ; '."': ; ! ' 

: : 9 



PHILOSOPHY OF TIIK UPANISHADS 

famous Creation Hymn, RV. 10. 1 29, as well as others (such as 
RV. TO. vju ; 10. 81 ; 10. 73 ; 10. 90) in which the origin of 
the world was conjectured under architectural, generative, and 
sacrificial analogies. In the Brahmanas speculation continued 
further along the same lines. When the peiiod of the 
Upanishads arrived, the same theme had not grown old and 
when will it? The quotation from Svet. T. i already cited 
(page i) shows how this theme was still discussed and indicates 
the alternatives that were offered late in the period. Hut 
among the early Upanishads these first crude cosmo^onic 
theories had not yet been displaced. 

Prominent among these is one which was advanced among 
the early Greeks by Thalcs and which was also a widely 
prevailing Semitic idea, namely, that the original stuff of the 
world was Water. Thus in Brih $. 5 we find it stated that { In 
the beginning this world was just Water.' c lt is just Water 
solidified that is this earth, that is the atmosphere, that is the 
sky, that is gods and men, that is animals and birds, grass 
and trees, beasts, together with worms, flies, and ants ; all 
these are just Water solidified' (Chanel 7. To. i), Gargi in 
Brih. 3. 6. i opens a discussion with the philosopher Yajnavalkya 
by asking for an explanation of the popular theory that *all 
this world is woven, warp and woof, on water. 1 

In the later Katha a more philosophic theory of the world- 
ground was added on to this older theory that water was the 
primal entity : ' [Atman], who was born of old from the waters ' 
(4- 6). Somewhat similar combinations of the earlier and laloi 
theories arc made in Ait. i. r. 3, where Atman, after creating 
the wateis, 'from the waters drew forth and shaped a person/ 
from whose members the different parts of the world and of 
man emanated; arid in Kaush. t, 7, where Brahma declares 
e thc waters, verily, indeed, arc my world/ 

In a little more philosophic fashion Space also was posited 
as the ultimate ground of the world. At Chand 1.89 three 
men are represented as having a discussion over the origin (or 
'what it goes to,' gati] of the Saman, ' Chant,' of the sacrificial 
ritual. One of the group traced it back to sound, to breath, to 
food, to water, to yonder world. When pressed as to what 
' yonder world goes back to/ he replied: 'One should not lead 

10 



PHILOSOPHY OK THE UPANISHADS 

beyond the heavenly world. We establish the Saman upon the 
heavenly woild, for the Saman is praised as heaven.' The second 
member of the group taunted the first that his Saman had no 
foundation, and when challenged himself to declaie the origin 
of that world, replied 'this world'; but he was immediately 
brought to the limit of his knowledge as regards the origin of 
this world. ' One should not lead beyond the world-support. 
We establish the Sfxman upon the world as a support, for the 
Saman Ls piaiscd as a support/ Then the third member put 
in his taunt . l Your Saman comes to an end,' said he. It is 
noticeable that he, who was the only one of the three not 
a Brahman, or professional philosopher, was able to explain: 
'Verily, all things here aiise out of space. They disappear 
back into space, for space alone is greater than these ; space 
is the final goal/ 

With still greater abstraction the origin of the world is 
traced back, as in the early Greek speculations and as in 
RV. 10. 73. 3-3 and AV. 17. j. 19, to Non-being (a-sad). 

fn the beginning, verily, this [world] was non-existent. 
Thcicfiom, vcnly, Being was pioduced/ (Tail:. 2. 7.) 

In Chdnd. 3. 19 the same theory is combined with another 
theory, which is found among the Greeks and which was 
popular among the Indians, continuing even after the time of 
Mann, namely, that of the cosmic egg. ' In the beginning 
this world was merely non-being (a~sad). It was existent. 
It developed. It turned into an egg. It lay for the period of 
a year. It was split asunder. One of the two eggshell-parts 
became silver, one gold. That which was of silver is this 
earth. That which was of gold is the sky. What was the 
outer membrane is the mountains. What was the inner 
membrane is cloud and mist. What were the veins are the 
rivers* What was the fluid within is the ocean/ 

This theory of the Rig- Veda, of the Atharva-Veda, of the 
Taittirlya, and of the early part of the Chandogya is expressly 
referred to and combated at Chand. 6. $. ' In the beginning, 
my dear, this world was just Being, one only, without a second. 
To be sure, some people say : C{ In the beginning this world 
was just Non-being, one only, without a second ; from that 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHAIXS 

Non-being Being was produced." But verily, my dcai, 
whence could this be? How from Non-being could Being 
be produced? On the contrary, my dear, in the beginning 
this world was Being, one only, without a second. It 
bethought itself: ''Would that I were many! Let me 
procreate myself!' 3 It emitted heat.' Similaily the heat 
procicatcd water, and the water food. Out of these three 
elements., after they had been infused by the oiiginal existent 
with name and form (i.e. a principle of individiuition), all 
physical objects and also the organic and psychical nature 
of man were composed. 

Still more abstract than the space-theory, but connected 
with it, is the cosmological speculation offeicd by Yfijfiavalkya 
to Gargl,who confronted him with two supposedly unanswerable* 
questions. c That which is above the sky, that which is beneath 
the earth, that which is between these two, sky and earth, 
that which people call the past and the present and the futmv 
across what is that woven, warp and woof? ' * Acioss space/ 
was Yajnavalkya's reply. l Across what then, pray, is spaa* 
woven ?' < That, O Gargi, Brahmans call the Imperishable,' 
answers Yajnavalkya, but he does not attempt to describe this, 
since it is beyond all earthly distinctions. However, with 
a directness and a grand simplicity that call to mind the 
Hebrew account of the creation by the mandatory word of 
the Divine Being, there follows an account of the governances 
of the world by that world-ground. 'Verily, () Gargi, at the 
command of that Imperishable the sun and moon stand apart. 
Verily, Gargi, at the command of that Imperishable the 
earth and the sky stand apart. Verily, C) Gurgi, at the 
command of that Imperishable the moments, the hours, 
the days, the nights, the fortnights, the months, the seasons, 
and the years stand apart. Verily, GargT, at the command 
of that Imperishable some rivers flow from the snowy 
mountains to the east, others to the west, in whatever direction 
each flows ' (Brih. 3. 8. 3-9). 

These searchings for the origin and explanation of the world 
of phenomena, first in a phenomenal entity like water and 
space, and then in a super-phenomenal entity like non-being, 
being, or the Imperishable, had even in the Rig- and Alharva- 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

Vcdas reached the conception of a necessarily unitary basis 
of the world and even the beginnings of monism. Thus : 
- Hiahmana.spati like a smith 

Did foige together all things heie.' (RV. 10. 72. 2.) 
VLsvakarman (Hteially, the < All-maker'), the one God, 
established all things (RV. 10. 81). From the sacrificial 
dismemberment of Purusha, the World-Person, all things 
were formed (RV. 10. 90). Again, in RV. 10. 131. i: 

' In the beginning aiose Hiranyagaibha, 
The cauli's begetter, ^ho cieated heaven.' 

So also in RV. 10. 129. i, 2, the Creation Hymn: 
'Tlu'ie was then neither being nor non-being.. .. 
Without hi oath breathed by Us own power That One.' 

So also RV, i, 1 64. 6 : 

' L unknowing, ignoiant, here 
Ahk the wise sages for the sake of knowledge : 
What was That One, in the form of the unborn, 
Who established these six worlds?' 

A glimpse into monism is seen in RV. i, 164. 46 : 

' Him who is the One existent, sages name variously/ 

Various, indeed, wcie the conjectures regarding the world- 
ground. Four Brahmanaspati, Visvakarman, Purusha, and 
Iliranyagarbha besides the indefinite That One, have just been 
cited from the Rig-Veda. Another, Prajapati (literally ' Lord 
of creatures ') began to rise towards the end of the Vedic period, 
increased in prominence through the Brahmanic, and continued 
on into the Upanishadic. But the conception which is the 
ground- woi k of the Vcdanta, which overthrew or absorbed into 
itself all other conceptions of the world-ground, was that of 
Brahma, Emerging in the Brahmanas, it obtained in the 
Upanishads a fundamental position which it never lost, In- 
deed, the philosophy of the Upanishads is sometimes called 
Brahma-Lsm from its central concept. 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISIIADS 



CHAPTER IV 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THTC CONCEPTION 
OF BRAHMA 

AS the early cosmologies started with one tiling and another, 
but always one particular thing, posited as the piimal entity, 
so in Brih. i. 4. 10-1 1 and again in Maitii 6. 17 we find the* 
statement: ' Verily, in the beginning this world was Brahma.' 
And as in the old cosmologies, especially in the Rig- Veda and 
in the Brahmanas, so also in the Upanishacls procreation was 
adopted as the specific analogy for world-production. Thus: 
' He desired: "Would that I were many' Let me procreate my- 
self! " He performed austerity. Having perfoimed austerity, 
he created this whole world, whatever thcic is here' (Tail. 
2. 6) It should be noticed that consciousness, which was 
absent in the water- and space-cosmologies, is here posited for 
the production of the world ; also that the creation of the 
world, as in the Purusha Hymn, RV, 30. 90, and all through 
the Brahmanas, is an act of religious significance accompanied 
by ceremonial rites. 

This last fact is not unnatural when the situation is considered. 
Every undertaking of importance had to be preceded by sani- 
ficcs and austerities in order to render it auspicious. The 
greater the importance of the affair, such as beginning a wat- 
er going on a journey, the greater was the need of abundant 
saciifice. And if saciifice was so essential and efficacious for 
human affairs, would it not be equally necessary and efficacious 
for so enormous an undertaking as the creation of the world ? 

These considerations probably had the greater weight in 
view of the meaning and historical importance of the word 
&ra/ima, which now and henceforth was to be employed as 
the designation of the world-ground. 

In the Rig- Veda brahma seems to have meant first ' hymn/ 
prayer/ ' sacred knowledge/ * magic formula/ In this very 
sense it is used in the Upanishads, e. g. Tait. 3. 10. 4, as well as 
in compounds such as brafivtavat, 'possessed of magic formulas/ 
and brahma-varcasa, ' superiority in sacred knowledge/ It 
also signified the power that was inherent in the hymns, 

14 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

piaycrs, sacicd foimulas, and sacicd knowledge. This latter 
meaning it was that induced the application of the word to the 
world-ground a power that created and pervaded and upheld 
the totality of the univeisc. 

Yet how difficult it was to preserve the penetrating philo- 
sophical insight which discerned that efficiency, that power, 
that brahnia undei lying the world an insight which dared 
to take the word from its religious connection and to infuse 
into it a philosophical connotation will be shown in the 
recorded attempts to grasp that stupendous idea, all of which 
fell back, because of figurative thinking, into the old cosmo- 
logies which this very Brahma-theory itself was intended to 
transcend. 

The unknown character of this newly discovered Being and 
the idea that only by its will do even the gods perform their 
functions, is indicated in a legend contained in the Kena 
Upanishad. Biahma appeared to the gods, but they did not 
understand who it was. They deputed Agni, the god of fire, 
to ascertain its identity. He, vaunting of his power to burn, 
was challenged to burn a straw, but was baffled. Upon his 
unsuccessful return to the gods, Vayu, the god of wind, was 
sent on the same mission. He, boasting of his power to blow 
anything away, was likewise challenged to blow a straw away 
and was likewise baffled. To Indra, the next delegate, 
a beautiful woman, allegorized by the commentator as Wis- 
dom, explained that the incognito was Brahma, through whose 
power the gods were exalted and enjoyed greatness. 

In Brih. 3. 9. 1-9 Yajnavalkya was pressed and further 
pressed by Sakalya to state the real number of the gods. Un- 
willingly he reduced, in seven steps, the popular number of 
3306 gods to one, and that one was Brahma, the only God. 

But apart from legend and apait from religion it was 
difficult for the ordinary person to understand who or what 
this Brahma was, 

Gargi, one of the two women in t the Upanishads who 
philosophize, takes up the old water-cosmology and asks 
Yajnavalkya, the most prominent philosopher of the Upani- 
shads (Brih. 3, 6) : ' On what, pray, is the water woven, warp 
and woof? 1 He replies, 'The atmosphere- wo rids/ On being 



PHILOSOPHY OF THK UPANLSIIADS 

asked again/ On what then, pray, arc the atmosphcrc-wotlds 
woven, warp and woof?' he .says, 'The Gandharva-xvorld 
[or^ world of spirits]; The rcgressus has been entered, and 
Yajnavalkya plays somewhat the part of Locke's 'poor 
Indian [i. c. American Indian] philosopher ' with his toitotsc, 
and elephant, and so forth, as the world's last standing- 
ground. Merc he takes Gaigl back to the worlds of the sun 
upon which the Gandharva-worlds arc woven, and then in turn 
to the worlds of the moon, the worlds of the stais, the woiUls 
of the gods, the woilds of Indra, the woilds of Prajapati, 
the worlds of Brahma. On what then, pray, arc the worlds 
of Brahma woven, warp and woof?' 'Gfugi, do not question 
too much, lest your head fall off. In tiuth you arc question- 
ing too much about a divinity about which furl her questions 
cannot be asked. GargI, do not over-question. 1 Thereupon 
Gargi ceased to question. 

It is a remnant of the old space-cosmology joined with the 
Brahma-theory when in Brih. 5. i it is stated that Brahma is 
ether the ether piimcval, the ether that blows' A little 
more b added when it is said that v Brahma is life, Brahma 
is joy. Brahma is the void ' (Chanel, 4. i o. 3). The abundance 
and variousncss of being in that world-ground which must 
also be the ground of the physical and of the mental life of 
persons is approached in Tait 3, where the instruction is 
successively given that Brahma is food, biealh, mind, under-* 
standing, and bliss, since out of each of those, as from the 
world-ground, things arc bora, by those they live, unto those 
they enter on departing hence. 

There arc four other passages where attempts are expressly 
made to define Brahma, 

In^Brih. a. i the renowned Brahman Gargya Ufilfiki came 
to Ajatasatru, king of Benares, and volunteered to tell him of 
Brahma, The wealthy king, In emulation of the lavish Janaka, 
offered a thousand cows for such an exposition, Gargya 
explained that he venerated the person in the sun as Brahma. 
Talk not to me about such a Brahma/ Ajataiitru protested 
He venerated as Brahma the Supreme Head and King of all 
beings. Then Gargya said that he also venerated the person 
m the moon as Brahma. Ajfita&tru again protested against 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

the inadequacy of such a conception of Brahma, He vener- 
ated It as the great white-robed king Soma (i.e. the person 
vivifying the moon). Again Gargya gave another definition 
of Brahma, namely, as the person in the lightning ; and again 
Ajfita^atru condemned his statement as inadequate by de- 
claring that he venerated as Brahma the Brilliant One, the 
principle of brilliancy, not only in the lightning but in all 
brilliant things. So the two converse back and forth, Gargya 
successfully giving new definitions and Ajatasatru declaring 
their inadequacy with a broader conception which included 
and went beyond Gfirgya's, and at the same time deducing a 
practical benefit to any who held such a conception. Gargya J s 
conception of Brahma as the person in space was supple- 
mented by the conception of Brahma as the Full, the 
non-active ; the person in the wind, by Indra, the terrible, 
and the unconquered army; the person in the fire, by the 
Vanquisher; the person in water, by the Counterpart (of 
all phenomenal objects); the person in the mirror, by the, 
Shining One ; the sound which follows after one, by Life ; 
the person in the quarters of heaven, by the Inseparable 
Companion ; the person consisting of shadow, by Death ; the 
person ia the body, by the Embodied One in all, twelve 1 
conceptions of Brahma, which exhaust Gargya Balakfs 
speculation on the subject. He, the challenger, the professional 
philosopher, then requests instruction from his vanquisher, who, 
it may be noticed again ? was not a Brahman, but a Kshatriya 
(i. a a man belonging to the second caste). Ajatasatru called 
attention to the anomaly of a Brahman's coming to a Kshatriya 
for instruction, but consented to make him know clearly this 
comparatively new and not fully comprehended conception of 
Brahma. * He, verily, Balaki, who is the maker of all these 
persons [whom you have mentioned in succession], of whom, 

* In KausL 4, which is evidently another version of the same dialogue, there 
arc sixteen conceptions, *thc person in the quarters of heaven* being omitted 
from the Bjiknd-Aranyaka list and there being added the person in thunder, in the 
echo, the conscious self by whom a sleeping person moves about in dreams, the 
person in the right eye, and the person in the left eye conceptions which are 
supplemented respectively by the soul of sound, the inseparable companion, Yama 
(king of the dead), the soul of name, of fire, of light, and the soul of truth, oi 
lightning:, of splendor, 

17 c 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISIIADS 

verily, this Is the work he, verity, should be known ' (Kaush. 
4.19). With the illustration at hand of a man awaking from sleep, 
Ajatasatru shows that finally Brahma is to be conceived of as 
that into which one goes to sleep and from which one wakes 
again. The conclusion Ls : < As a spicier might come out with 
his thread, as small sparks come forth from the fire, even so 
from this Soul come forth all vital energies, all worlds, 
all gods, all beings. The mystic meaning \itfanisa<f) there- 
of is k the Real of the real " } (Brih. 3. i. 30). 

This is the most important passage, for it is the first in the 
Upanishads where the conception of Biahrna Ls subjected to 
a regressive analysis leading to a conclusion which obtains 
throughout the remainder of the Upanishads, except us it is 
further supplemented. In it the following points an* to be 
noticed. The old cosmologies, accoidiny to which the woi Id- 
ground was to be discovered in some particular phenomenal 
object or substance, aic still clung to in so Eir as Urahmu, the 
newly postulated world-ground, is to be found in one and 
another individual object, such as the sun, the moon, lightning, 
space, fire, water, and so forth; they are transcended, however! 
in so far as those objects arc not regarded as themselves of the 
stuff out of which the world was fashioned, but arc looked upon 
only as a habitation of the world-ground, which is also a person, 
locally lodged. Such a conception of the first disputant is 
corrected by the second's pointing out that the world ground 
cannot be the substrate of only certain particular phenomena ; 
that the several principles must be referred back to a .single 
one, ' who is the maker of these persons, of whom this [ universe') 
is the work 5 (Kaush. 4. 19), and (more impoitant still) that if 
one would come close to the apprehension of this world-ground, 
it is chiefly to be known as the upholder of his own psychical 
existence through the period of sleep ; that it is a Soul (Atman] 
and that this Soul is the source of all existing things, vital 
energies, worlds, gods, all beings, which arc actual, to bo sure, 
but actual only because It is their Real. 

A very great advance in the conception of the world-ground 
is here made, and a doctrine is reached of which most of the 
later dialogues are further explications. There are two other 
dialogues, however, which by a similar succession of definitions 

18 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

and corrections arrive at the same fundamental conception of 
Brahma. 

In Brih. 4. 1-2 Janaka, at Yajfiavalkya's request, states the 
various philosophical theories that have been piopounded to 
him. Six diffeient conceptions of Brahma, taught by different 
teachers, arc thus elicited- First, that Brahma is speech. 
This was self-evident, replied Yajiiavalkya, but it was saying 
no more than that one had a mother, or a father, or a teacher ; 
without explaining the scat and support of speech, such a 
Brahma was one-legged. Yajnavalkya then supplied the 
deficiency by explaining that its seat was speech, its support 
space, and it should be reverenced as intelligence, for by speech 
all things were known. Similarly, the theory that Brahma 
was breath was approved as true, but condemned as inade- 
quate, and supplemented by the explanation that breath was 
its scat, space its support, and it should be reverenced as dear, 
since the breath of life is dear. So Brahma is sight, the eye 
its scat, space its suppoit ; and it should be reverenced as 
truthfulness, since the eyes see truly. Brahma is hearing, the 
ear its scat, space its support ; and it should be reverenced as 
the endless, for the quarters of heaven from which one hears 
arc endless. Brahma is mind, its scat is mind, its support is 
space ; and it should be reverenced as the blissful, for with the 
mind one experiences bliss. Brahma is the heart, its seat is 
the heart, its support is space ; and it should be reverenced as 
the steadfast, for the heart is a steadfast support. The con- 
clusion is not clearly connected with the dialogue ; at 4. 3. 4 
there seems to be a break in the text. But it ends with the 
description of the Atman (Soul, or Spirit), which is without 
deseribablc limits. * 

^rL 

Here it is to be noticed that Brahma isVpostulated as mani- 
fest in a person's psychical activities ; that It has its seat in the 
sense-organs and in the mental organs ; that It has various 
qualities, such as the quality of intelligence, truthfulness, end- 
lessness, blissfulness, steadfastness ; and that It turns out to be 
a Self, without any limiting qualities. All these statements are 
of importance, both as indicating the development of the con- 
ception of Brahma and as contrasted with later modifications. 

The only other dialogue where an extended attempt is made 

19 C a 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

to arrive at a conception of Brahma, exhibits in philosophy 
the henothcistic religious tendency of the Indian mind, which 
elevates the god or the concept immediately concerned to the 
highest position and accepts it as supreme and complete, only 
to turn to anothei and repeat the process. In Chanel. 7. i 
Narada, in search of saving knowledge, comes to Saaat- 
kumara with the request * Teach me, Sir ! (adlilhi bhagavo). 
[It is probable that this should be 'Sir, declare Biahma!' 
(adhlki hJiagavo brakma], the same icqucst that Bhrigu 
Varuni put to his father in a similar progressive definition of 
Brahma (Tait.3- J, referred to on page J 6).] The latter, being 
bidden to declare his learning, enumerates seventeen books and 
sciences, but is informed that they all teach such knowledge 
as is only a name not however worthless, since a name is part 
of Brahma and should be revered as Brahma. Indeed, he who 
does so venerate names as Brahma has free sway so far as 
a name covers the nature of Brahma, which, however, is only to 
a slight extent. But there is more than a name, viz. speech. 
That, too, is a manifestation of Brahma, because it makes every- 
thing manifest all the sciences, all objects, all distinctions. 
But there is more than speech, viz. the mental organ, or 
mind (manas), for that embraces both speech and name. 
The self is mind. The world is mind. Brahma is mind. 
But there is something more than mind or ideation. There is 
will (samkalpa, the constructive faculty). It is through will 
that everything comes into existence. Again, though will 
defines a phase of Brahma, theic is something greater, viz. 
thought. Verily, when one thinks, then he wills and performs 
all the previously named processes. So there is giwn a 
successive advance over each previous conception of Brahma, 
and usually some reason for the dependence of the preceding 
upon the succeeding^ After thought follows meditation, under- 
standing, strength, food, water, heat, space, memory, hope, and 
breath, or life ; everything is breath. Further, by a circuitous 
route, the author leads to the immortal, unrestricted, undifFcr- 
cnced, self-supported plenum which is below, above, before, 
behind, to the right, to the left, which is the whole world itself* 
The next thought seems to be that since it is a spirit for whom 
there is a below and above, a before and behind, a right and 

20 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

a left, a spirit for whom a whole world exists, therefore all these 
arc themselves spirit, or the Spirit (Afrnan). So Spirit alone 
is below, above, before, behind, to the right, to the left. This 
whole world is Spirit. Out of Spirit arise hope, memory, 
space, heat, water, appearance and disappearance, food, strength, 
understanding, meditation, thought, will, mind, speech, name, 
sacred verses, religious work which previously were defined 
as parts of Brahma. Indeed, this whole world arises out of 
Spirit (Atmaii). 

One more reference will show the manner of progress in the 
development of the conception of Brahma which has now 
been reached, namely that It is the one great reality, present both 
In objective phenomena and in the self's activities (Chand. 
3. 1 8. i-a). 'One should reverence the mind as Brahma. 
Thus with reference to the self (atman). Now with reference 
to the divinities [who operate the different departments of 
nature]. One should reverence space as Brahma. . . . That 
Brahma has four quarters. One quarter is speech. One 
quarter is breath. One quarter is the eye. One quarter Is 
the ear. Thus with reference to the self. Now with reference 
to the divinities. One quarter is Agni (Fire). One quarter is 
Vayu (Wind). One quarter is Aditya (the Sun). One quarter 
Is the quarters of heaven. This is the twofold instruction with 
reference to the self and with reference to the divinities.' 

Two stages are analyzable in the progress thus far: (i) the 
necessity for a universal, Instead of a particular, world-ground 
led to a theory which postulated a world-ground that embraced 
all phenomena as parts of it, and so which gradually identified 
everything with the world-ground; (s,) it was felt that this 
world-ground was in some sense a Soul, co-related with the 
finite ego. These two tendencies will now be further traced. 

According to the earlier theory of Brahma, in which It 
was the primal entity which procreated the woild, the world 
was somehow apart from Brahma. Thus, ' having created it, 
into it he entered 5 (Tait. a. 6). Or, as Chand. 6. 3 speaks 
of the originally Existent, after it had procreated heat, water, 
and food : 'That divinity thought to itself: " Come ! Let me 
enter these three divinities [i,e. heat, water, and food] with 
this living Soul, and separate out name and form," ' 

21 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISIIADS 

With the development of the concept of Brahma away fiom 
its earliest form (i.e. from the influence of the early cosmogonies), 
the thought of perva.ding-all, mentioned in the previous para- 
graph, and the gcncial enlargement and universalizing of the 
concept, led to the thought of being-all. So the world was 
identified with Brahma, in a different sense from what is implied 
in ' Verily, in the beginning this world was Bi ahma ' (Brih. 1.4. 
10). The world, according to this developed conception, is not 
the emanation of the original Being that was called Brahma, not 
is it strictly the past construct of an artificer Brahma (Kaush. 
4. 19). Nor yet is it to be regarded as pervaded by Brahma 
as by something not itself, as in: 'He entered in here, even to 
the fingernail-tips, as a razor would be hidden in a razor-case, 
or fire in a fire-holder [i.e. the fire- wood] 1 (Brih. i. 4. 7). But 
here and now Verily, this whole world is Brahma 7 (Chanel 3. 14). 
The section of the Chandogya just quoted is the first clear 
statement of the pantheism which had been latent in the 
previous conception of Brahma and of the relation of the 
world to It. Later that pantheism is made explicit and remains 
so through the rest of the Upanishacls, where the thought recurs 
that Brahma actually is everything. 1 Thus : 

' The swan [i. e. the sun] in the clear, the Vasu in the atmo- 
sphere, 

The priest by the altai, the guest in the house, 
In man, in broad space, in the light (r/a} : in the sky, 
Born in water, born in cattle, born in the right, born in rock, 
is the Right, the Groat.' (Katha g. 2.) 

'Brahma, indeed, is this tmmoital. Brahma bcfoio, 
Brahma behind, to right and to left. 
Stretched forth below and above, 
Brahma, indeed, is this whole world, this widest extent/ 

(Munch 2, 2, n.) 
* For truly, everything here is Brahma ' (Mfuul. 3). 

Thus far, in the exposition of the development of the 
pantheistic conception of the world, the merging of all objective 

1 Bnhad-Aianyaka, Chandogya, Taittinyn, Aitareya, Kaushltaki, ami Kcna 
14-34 (the prose portion) are regarded as forming the group representative of the 
earlier Upamshadic philosophy, The otheis are later and dogmatic, presupposing 
a considerable development of thought and not infrequently quoting the earlier ones. 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

phenomena into a unitary world-ground has been, the process 
emphasized; for this seems to have been its first stage, 
Objective phenomena are the ones which first arrest the 
attention and demand explanation. But, as the Svetasvatara, 
at its beginning (i. 2), in recounting the various speculative 
theories, states explicitly, there is another important factor, 
namely < the existence of the soul (atmcui); which cannot be 
lumped in with material objects, but presents another and 
more difficult fact for the philosopher who would find a 
unitary ground that shall include the diverse objective and 
subjective. 

This leads over to what was stated on page 21 as the second 
stage in the development of the conception of Brahma as 
the world-ground, namely, that It is in some sense a Soul 
co-related with the finite ego. 



CHAPTER V 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPTION OF THE 
ATMAN AND ITS UNION WITH BRAHMA 

IN the dialogue in Brih. 2. i (and its longer recension, 
Kaush, 4), where a progressive attempt was made to con- 
ceive of Brahma, it was admitted that Brahma was to be 
found not only in the not-self, but also in the self; that It was 
not only the essence of cosmical phenomena, but also of the 
organic and mental functions of the human person. 

This probably was an outgrowth of the primitive anthro- 
pomorphic notion- that the world-ground is an enormous 
human person, graphically portrayed in the Hymn of the 
Cosmic Person/ RV. JQ. 90, The sun came out of his eye, 
the moon from his mind, Indra and Agni (fire) from his mouth, 
Vayu (the wind) from his breath, the air from his navel, the 
sky from his head, the earth from his feet, and so forth. 

In the Atharva-Vcda (10. 7. 32-34) the earth is the base of 
the highest Brahma, the air his belly, the sky his head, the 
sun and moon his eyes, fire his mouth, the wind his breaths. 

In the cosmology in Brih. i. a fire Is the semen of the 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

demiurge Death, the east is his head, the south-east and 
north-east his arms, the west his hinder part, the south-west 
and the north-west his thighs, the south and north his sides, the 
sky his back, the atmosphere his belly, the earth his chest. 

According to Aitareya i, there proceeded from the mouth 
of the world-person fire., from his nostrils the wind, from his 
eyes the sun, from his ears the quarters of heaven, from his skin 
plants and trees, from his heart the moon, from his navel 
death, from his male generative organ water. But here the 
important thought is added that not only are the bodily parts 
of this cosmic person to be observed in the external world, but 
they are also correlated with the functions of the individual 
person. So, in the sequel of the Aitareya account, fire became 
speech and entered in the mouth of the individual ; wind became 
breath and entered in his nose ; the sun, sight in his eyes ; the 
quarters of heaven, hearing in his ears ; plants and trees, hairs 
in his skin ; the moon, mind in the heart ; Death, semen in the 
generative organ. 

This is perhaps the first detailed mention of a correspon- 
dence between the microcosm and the macrocosm. Glimpses 
of it there have been before, as in Chanel. 5, 18. 3, where Brah- 
ma, selfwise, is fourfold: speech, breath, eye, ear; and with 
regard to nature, is implicitly corresponding, also fourfold : 
fire, wind, sun, quarters. A correspondence between four 
parts of the bodily self and of the world is as old as the 
Cremation Hymn of the Rig-Vecla (10. .16, 3), where the 
deceased is addressed : c Let thine eye go to the sun, thy 
breath to wind/ a notion of dissolution at death which recurs 
in L4a 17, c My breath to the immortal wind/ and more fully 
in Brih. 3. 3. 13 : < The voice of a dead man goes into fire, his 
breath into wind, his eye into the sun, his mind into the moon, 
his hearing into the quarters of heaven, his body into the earth, 
his soul (&tmm) into space, the hairs of his head into plants, 
the hairs of his body into trees, and his blood and semen into 
water.* 

I After the correspondence between the parts of the bodily 
self and the cosmic phenomena was firmly in mind, the next 
step with the development of abstract thought was probably 
to conceive of the world as really a Soul (Atmari), a universal 

,34 . 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

1 Soul of which the individual self or soul is a miniature. This 
was a great step in advance. A sign of the dawning of the 
philosophical self-consciousness and of a deeper insight into the 
nature and meaning of the self is given in Brih. i. 4. 7 . 'One's 
self (atmau), for therein all these become one. That same 
thing, namely, this self, is the trace of this All ; for by it one 
knows this All. Just as, verily, one might find by a footprint.' 
This thought recurs in Svet. 2. 15 : 

' When with the nature of the self, as with a lamp, 
A piactiscr of Yoga beholds heie the natme of Brahma/ 

Still crude and figurative, it is nevertheless of deep philo- 
sophical significance, yielding a concept which is of equal import- 
ance to that of Brahma. Its development may in the same way 
be traced now, remembering that this Atman theory was not in 
all probability a development subsequent to that of Brahma, 
which has already been traced, though its beginnings certainly 
were posterior to the beginnings of the Brahma theory. The 
two, it would seem, progressed simultaneously and influenced 
each other until their final union. For the sake of clearness in 
exposition, however, they are here analyzed and followed 
separately. 

In the second movement, Atman being postulated as the 
world-ground, attempts were made to conceive of him as was 
the case with Brahma. Thus there was an early theory of 
procreation, Brih. I. 4. 1-5, but much coarser than the similar 
theory with Brahma. Although by a recognized mistake he 
was stricken by fear at first and overcame it, Atman was pos- 
sessed by a feeling of loneliness in his primeval solitariness and 
wished : ' Would that I had a wife, then I would procreate ' 
(Brih. i. 4. 17). By an act of self-bifurcation which, etymo- 
logically interpreted, explains the existence and comple- 
mentary nature of husband and wife, he produced a female 
principle by union with which, the pair continually converting 
themselves into different species, all the different kinds ot 
animals were born. Then, by the usual method of attrition 
and blowing, he made fire. This crude myth, near the begin- 
ning of the earliest Upanishad, is based on the primitive idea 
that the same empirical methods which man uses for productive 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

purposes, especially the one which is the most mysterious and 
which accounts for his own production, may be held account- 
able analogously for the production of the world. It is in the 
old Brahmanic style and is somewhat misplaced in an Upani- 
shad. The idea docs not recur again. 

A more serious attempt to conceive of At man is the dialogue 
in Chand. 5.11-1 cS 3 which again resembles similar attempts with 
Brahma. Five learned householders came together and 
discussed: 'Who is our Atman ? What is Brahma?' (a col- 
location which shows that the two theories of the world-ground 
were being connected ; in this passage they arc not, however, 
identified, as they are to be later). These five decided to 
resort to another who had the reputation of understanding that 
universal Atman, but even he dared not expound him and 
answer all questions concerning him. The six then repair to 
the famed Asvapati for instruction. He, in genuine Socratic 
manner, first elicits from each of them his present conception 
of the universal Atman. One says that he vcnciatcs the sky 
as the universal Atman. Asvapati commends the conception 
and gives assurance that he is shining like the sky, but a gicat 
deal more. The sky would be only his head, The others in 
turn contribute their conceptions, all of which arc accepted as 
true, but as only partially true, and in essence false. The 
universal Atman is indeed the sun, and like it all-formed ; but 
the sun is only his eye. He is indeed the wind, and like it 
moving in various paths ; but the wind is only his breath. The 
universal Atman is indeed space, and like it expanded ; but 
space is only his body. He is indeed water, and like it abun- 
dant ; but water is only his bladder. The universal Atman is 
indeed the earth, and like it a support ; but the earth is only his 
feet. The six Brahmans, as they learned from ASvapati, in 
spite of having thus grasped partial truth, had made a most 
serious error in conceiving of Atman as something apart from 
themselves. This universal Atman, or Soul, is best referred 
to as in oneself. 

Important steps in the development of the Atman doctrine 
are here taken. In the figurative manner of speculation, from 
which Indian philosophy as well as all philosophy proceeded, 
Atman 3 like Brahma, is first conceived under the form of par* 

36 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

ticular objects of nature. The truth there contained is appre- 
ciated and, better than in the Brahma-dialogues, commended 
by being immediately universalized. All the great nature-gods, 
mentioned as hcnothcistically venerated for the philosophical 
world-ground, are indeed the Atman, but only parts of him. 
They may, by an accommodation to the learner's standpoint 
of sense-thought, be regarded as his bodily parts. But by 
transcending this lower plane of attention directed to object- 
ively observed facts, AsVapati directed them, in their search 
for ultimate icality, to an inclusive cosmic Self, which must be 
conceived of after the analogy of a human self and with which 
the human self must be identified. 

A new line of thought is here entered upon, namely intro- 
spection, which always follows after extrospection, but which 
marks the beginnings of a deeper philosophic thought. What 
it finally led on to will be described after an exposition of 
certain developments and conjunctions of the concept of Atman. 

The world-ground being Atman, an objective Soul, which 
was known by the analogy of the soul, but which externally 
included the soul, certain closer relations were drawn between 
the not-self and the self, of both of which that Atman was the 
ground. On pages a 3- 24 citations were made illustrating the 
notion of correspondences between parts of the world as a cosmic 
corporeal person and of the individual's bodily self. That 
notion occurs also in the first chapter of the Chandogya. 
1 This [breath in the mouth] and that [sun] are alike. This is 
warm. That is warm. People designate this as sound (svara), 
that as sound (svara) [an approximation to $var> light] and as 
the reflecting (fratyasvara)' (Chand. i. 3, 3). ' The form of this 
one is the same as that [Person seen in the sun] ' (Chand. 
i , 7. 5). But now with the doctrine of a universal Atman imma- 
nent both in the subjective and in the objective, it is no longer 
similarities, but parts of a unity or identities. c Both he who 
is here in a person and he who is yonder in the sun he is one ' 
(Tait a. 8 ; 3. 10. 4), 'He who is in the fire, and he who is 
here in the heart, and he who is yonder in the sun he is one ' 
(Mailri 6. 17 ; 7. 7), ' He who is yonder, yonder Person 
(putotfa)! myself am he!' (Brih. 5. 15; Ka 16). Verily, 
what the space outside of a person is that is the same as what 

37 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISITADS 

the space within a person is. Verily, what the space within 
a person is that is the same as what the space heie within the 
heart is, That is the Full, the Non-moving' (Chanel. 3. i a. 7 c;). 

Longer descriptions of Atman as the basis of the unity 
implied in the usual correlations of the not-self and the self, 
are the two following : Atman is the person in the caith and 
the person in the body; in the waters and in the semen; in 
fire and in speech ; in wind and in breath ; in the sun and in 
the eye ; in the quarters and in the car and in the echo ; in the 
moon and in the mind ; in lightning and in heat , in thunder 
and in sound ; in space and in the space of the heart -, in law 
and in virtuousncss ; in truth and in truthfulness ; in humanity 
and in a human ; in the Self and in the self. All these are 
just Atman (Brih. 2. 5). Brih. 3. 9. 10-1 7 similaily presents this 
idea of the one Person immanent in and including 1 the sc k lf and 
the not-self: the person in the earth and in fire is also the 
person in the body ; the person in the sun is also the person 
in appearances and in the eye ; the person in space is also the 
person in the car and in hearing; the poison in claikness 
and in the shadow is also the person in the heart ; the person 
in the waters is also the person in semen and in the heart. 
And finally he is Atman, the Self, the Soul 

So, as Yajilavalkya explained to Ushastas : ' Uc who 
breathes in with your breathing in is the Soul (Atman) of yours 
which is in all things. He who breathes out with your 
breathing out is the Soul of yours which is in all things. He 
who breathes about with your breathing about is the Soul of 
yours which is in all things. He who breathes up with your 
breathing up is the Soul of yours which is in all things' (Brih. 
3. 4- *) The inner essence, then, of the objective and the 
subjective is one Being, and that, too, of the nature of a Self, 
by reason of the reality of the directly known self which 
necessarily constitutes a part of that ground of all being. 

But by a different course of speculation and (as was natural 
with the earlier) one which had regard more especially to the 
objective, the conception of a single world-ground and then 
of the actual being of the world itself had been that of Brahma, 
An objective entity though this Brahma was, the unity of 
being which it was intended to signify could not disregard the 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

existence and activities of the self, which surely were as real as 
the sun, moon, waters, space, and so forth that had been the 
prominent facts to be grounded in the unitary being of the 
world of Brahma, An approachment to Brahma as under- 
lying the self also was being made, as was shown In the 
exposition of the development of the conception of Brahma. 
But, differently from the realistic procedure with Brahma, 
a more personal and self-like ground was necessary for effect- 
ing (he union of the psychologically viewed subjective and 
objective. For this purpose the old conception of a cosmic 
Person was more serviceable ; and it was developed away from 
its first materialistic and corporeal connections to that of a 
more spiritual Atman, who is immanent in self and not-self and 
who constitutes the unity expressed in their correlation, 

Yet finally these two world-grounds, Brahma and Atman, 
arc not different and separate. Their essential oneness, as 
aspects of the same great Being, was at first only hinted at, 
but was later explicitly stated. The suspicion that these two 
theories., which were becoming current and which people 
desired to understand more fully, were both of the same 
Being, was manifested by the form in which learners who came 
to recognized philosophers for instruction put their questions. 
Thus, Ushastas came to Yajnavalkya and said : f Explain to 
me him who Is the Brahma, present and not beyond our ken, 
him who Is the Soul (Atman) in all things ' (Brih. 3. 4. i). 
Likewise the five householders who came to A3vapati were 
first discussing among themselves * Who is our Atman (Soul) ? 
What is Brahma?' (Chand. 5. n. i). 

Then we find it directly stated : c Verily, that great unborn 
Soul, undccaying, undying, Immortal, fearless, is Brahma* 
(Brih. 4. 4. 35). ' He [i. e. Atman] is Brahma ' (Ait. 5. 3). ' Him 
[i.e. Brahma] alone know as the one Soul (Atman). Other 
words dismiss' (Muriel, a, 3. 5). 'The Soul (Atman), which 
pervades all things . . . , this is Brahma ' (Svet. 1. 16). Before 
the identification of Brahma and Atman was formally made, 
the two terms were hovering near each other as designations 
of the ultimate world-ground, as in Brih. %. 5- *> where to 
emphasize a point the phrases are used In succession : ' This 
Soul (Atman), this Immortal, this Brahma, this AIL' After 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

the identification was made the two became interchangeable 
terms, as in Chand. 8. 14. i : ' . . . Brahma, that is the immortal, 
that is the Soul (Atman),' and Muncl. 2.2 9 : * Brahma, that which 
knowcrs of the Soul (Atman) do know ' (through the whole of 
this section, where the Imperishable is being dc^ciibcd,the terms 
Brahma and Atman are used indifferently). So the two great 
conceptions Brahma, reached first realistically, the unitary 
cosmic ground, with outrcachings towards a cosmo-antluopic 
ground ; and Atman, the inner being of the self and the not-self, 
the great world-spirit were joined, the former taking over to 
itself the latter conception and the two being henceforth to a 
considerable degree synonymous. Here the quest for the real, 1 
for the unity of the diversified world, for the key to the 
universe, reached a goal. That which Svctnkctu did not know, 
though he had been away from home studying twelve years and 
had studied all the Vcdas and thought himself learned, even that 
c whereby what has not been heard of becomes heard of, what 
has not been thought of becomes thought of, what has not been 
understood becomes understood * (Chand. 6, i. 1-3); that for 
instruction in which Saunaka, the great householder, came to 
Angiras (Mund. 1. 1.3) ; that which Karachi knew not, though 
he knew eighteen books and sciences, and for lack of the 
knowledge of which he was sorrowing (Chand. 7, i. 1-3) ; 
that for complete instruction in which Inclra remained with 
Prajapati as a pupil for one hundred and one years that 
supreme object is just this Brahma, this Atman, who is in the 
world, who is the great Self, the ground of oneself. J Ic is the 
highest object of knowledge, whom one should desire to know. 

* By knowing Him only, a wise 
Brahman should get for himself intelligence/ (Brih. 4. 4. 21,) 

He Is the key to all knowledge, \ c Verily, with the seeing of, 
with the hearkening to, with the thinking of, and with the imder- 

1 Beautifully expressed, in a different connection, by the three verses of Brill, 
i. 3. 28 . 

'From the unreal lead me to the real. 
From darkness lead me to light. 
From death lead me to immortality/ 

The earnestness of the search for truth is one of the delightful and commendable 
features of the Upanishads. 

3 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

standing of the Soul, this world-all is known 7 (Brih. a. 4. 5) 
* Verily, he who knows that thread and the so-called Inner 
Controller knows Brahma, he knows the worlds, he knows the 
gods, he knows the Vedas, he knows created things, he knows 
the Soul, he knows everything' (Brih. 3. 7. i). < This is the 
knowledge the Brahmans know. Thereby I know what is to 
be known ' (Brih. 5. i. i). As, when a drum is being beaten 
one would not be able to grasp the external sounds, but by 
grasping the drum or the beater of the drum the sound is 
grasped ; as, when a conch-shell Is being blown, one would not 
be able to grasp the external sounds, but by grasping the 
conch-shell or the blower of the conch-shell the sound is 
grasped ; as, when a lute is being played, one would not be 
able to 01 asp the external sounds, but by grasping the lute 
or the player^ of the lute the sound is grasped' so by com- 
prehending At man or Brahma eveiything is comprehended 
(Brih. 4. 4. 7-9). 

So the unity which has been searched for from the beginning 
of Indian speculation was reached. < As all the spokes are 
held together in the hub and felly of a wheel, just so in this 
Soul all things, all gods, all worlds, ail breathing things, all 
selves are held together' (Brih. 2. 5. 15). Pantheism now is 
the ruling conception of the world, for the world is identical 
with Atman. ' Atrnan alone is the whole world 3 (Chand. 
7, 35. 2), * This Brahmanhood, this Kshatrahood, these worlds, 
these gods, these beings, everything here is what this Soul is' 
(Brih. a. 4. 6 ; 4. 5. 7). c Who is this one? J is asked in Ait. 5, i, 
and the reply is: 'He is Brahma; he is Indra; he is Prajapati; 
[he is] all the gods here ; and these five gross elements, namely 
earth, wind, space, water, light ; these things and those which 
are mingled of the fine, as it were ; origins of one sort or 
another : those born from an egg, and those born from a womb, 
and those born from sweat, and those born from a sprout ; 
horses, cows, persons, elephants ; whatever breathing thing there 
is here whether moving or flying, and what is stationary/ 
As the later metrical vctavatara expresses the thought : 

* That God faces all the quarters of heaven, 
Aforetime was he bom, and he it is within the womb. 
He has been born forth. He will be born.' (vet. 2, 16.) 

3* 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

And again, with more indefinitcness, concerning the pantheistic 
'That': 

1 That study is Agni (fnc). That is Adilya (the sun). 
That is Vayu (the ^md), and That is the moon. 
That suiely is the pure. That is Biahma. 
That is the wateis. That is Piajdpati (Lord of Creation). 

Thou ait woman. Thou ait man. 

Thou ait the youth and the maiden too. 

Thou as an old man totteiest with a staff. 

Being bom, thou becomest facing in eveiy dhcction. 

Thon art the claik-blue biid and the green [parrot) with red 

eyes. 
Thou hast the lightning as thy child. Thou art the seasons 

and the seas. 

Having no beginning, thou dost abide with all-pcivadingness, 
Whercfrom all beings aie bom/ (SveU 4. 24.) 

And most important of all, as Uddalaka nine times repeated 
to Svetaketu (Chfmd. 6. 8-16): 'That ait thou.' 



CHAPTER VI 

THE REALISTIC CONCEPTION OF THE ULTIMATE 
UNITY, AND THE DOCTRINE OF ILLUSION 

WHAT, now, is the nature of that single all-encompassing 
pantheistic Being that has been discovered? It must possess 
as many qualities as there are in the whole of the real world 
which it constitutes. This attribution of all possible qualities 
to the Being of the world is made in the famous Sfimlilya 
section of the Chandogya (3. 14). ' Verily, this whole world 
is Brahma. . . . He who consists of mind, whose body is life, 
whose form is light, whose conception is truth, whose soul 
(atman) is space, containing all works, containing all desires, 
containing all odors, containing all tastes, encompassing this 
whole world, the unspeaking, the unconcerned, . , . smaller than 
a grain of rice, or a barley-corn, or a mustard-seed, or a grain 
of millet, or the kernel of a grain of millet, . . . [yet] greater than 
the earth, greater than the atmosphere, greater than the sky, 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

greater than these worlds.' It must also be capable of all 
contraries ; 

' Unmoving, the One is swifter than the mind. 
The sense-poweis icached not It, speeding on before, 
Past olheis miming, This goes standing. 
In It Miitansvan places action. 

It moves. It moves not. 

It is fin, and It is near. 

It is within all this, 

And It is outside of all this/ (Isa 4-5.) 
'Sitting, he proceeds afai. 

Lying, he goes eveiywheie ' (Katha 2. 21.) 

The diverse identification and constitution of this pantheistic 
Being arc further expressed in the verses : 

c As ike (Agni), he \vaims. He is the sun (Suiya). 
lie is the bountiful lam (Parjanya). He is the wind (Vayu). 
He is the earth, matter, God, 

Being and Non-being, and what is immoital/ (Prasna 2. 5.) 
' What that is, know as Being and Non-being/ 

(Mund. 2. 2. i.) 

This necessity of postulating in the substrate itself of the 
world the whole store of materials and qualities which exist 
in the world, led to the summary contained in Brih. 4. 4. 5, 
where Brahma is described as ' made of knowledge, of mind, 
of breath, of seeing, of hearing, of earth, of water, of wind, of 
space, of energy and of non-energy, of desire and of non-desire, 
of anger and of non-anger, of virtuousness and of non- 
virtuousuess. It is made of everything. This is what is meant 
by the saying " made of this, made of that." ' 

But such a realistic conception of Brahma as a conglomerate 
was subversive of the very idea of unity which the concept of 
Brahma fundamentally signified. All those diverse material 
objects, psychical functions, and mental states as such could 
not be regarded as the materials composing the structure of a 
unitary world-ground. Yet there is diversity and manifoldness 
in the being of the world which cannot be regarded as existing 
apart from the world-ground. How account for them ? 

In one of the old cosmologies (Tait, 2. 6), where Brahrna 

33 D 



PHILOSOPHY OK TIIK UPANISIIADS 

wished that he were many, performed austerities, procreated 
himself, and ejected this whole world from himself, it is stated 
that he entered into it with a double naliuo. ' He became both 
the actual and the yon both the defined and the undefined, both 
the based and the non-based, both the conscious and the un- 
conscious, both the real and the false/ Hcic is perhaps the first 
emergence of the thought which is the solution to the question 
put above. It is the distinction made between the so-called 
phenomenal and noumcnal, between the sensuously peiceived 
and that which cannot be thus bi ought into consciousness, but 
can only be thought. This notion that there is much of reality 
which is not within the spheie of the senses, or within the 
woild of what is called common-sense experiences, expresses 
itself here and there in the caily part of the Upanishads, as in 
Chfmd. 3. 12. 6 - 

'All beings arc one fouith of him , 
Three fouiths, the immoital m the sky.' 

Also in Brih. I. 4. 7: c llim they sec not, for [as seen] he is 
incomplete.' And later also, more like the modern conceptions 
of immanence and transcendence, as in Brih. 3. 7. ;; : * He who, 
dwelling in the earth, yet is other than the earth, . , , whose body 
the earth is, who controls the earth from within, 3 and similarly 
of twenty other objects. 

' As the one wind has entered the world 
And becomes corresponding in foim to every form, 
So the one Inner Soul of all things 
Is corresponding in foim to evciy foim, and yet is 
outside.' (Katha 5. 10.) 

But it is by the distinction between the noumenal and the 
phenomenal that the apparent conflict between the One and 
the many is solved. In a noteworthy passage, Brih. i. 6, 3, it 
is declared that ' Life (prdna, ' breath ') [a designation of the 
Atman], verily, is the Immortal. Name and form [the usual 
phrase signifying individuality] arc the actual By them this 
Life is veiled.' Similarly in Brih. 2. i , 20 : 4 The mystic mean- 
ing (npanisad) thereof is the l< Real of the real" Breathing 
creatures, verily 9 arc the real. He is their Real' Brih. 3, 3. i 
makes the distinction explicit by affirming that 'there arc, 

34 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

assuredly, two forms of Brahma/ It is the same thought, for 
the section closes with the woids of Brih. 2. i. 30, just cited /but 
the effort to express the great truth finds itself halting and 
falling back directly upon the early sensuous conceptions 
which it endeavored to iise above. 

These two foims of Brahma are the formed and the un- 
formed, the mortal and the immortal, the stationary and the 
moving, the actual and the yon. As regards the Vedic nature- 
gods, the unformed, immortal, moving, yonder Brahma is the 
wind and the atmosphere. The essence of that is the person 
in the sun-disk. The formed, the mortal, the stationary, the 
actual Brahma is what is different from the wind and the 
atmosphere. Its essence is the sun which gives forth heat. 
As regards the self, the unformed, immortal, moving, yonder 
Brahma is the breath and the space in the heart. Its essence 
is the person in the right eye. The formed, mortal, stationary, 
and actual Brahma is what is different from the breath and the 
intercardiac space. Its essence is the eye (this being typical of 
the senses by which the phenomenal is perceived). The glorious, 
brilliant nature of the higher Brahma is then represented by 
similes of the bright and shining a saffron- colored robe, white 
wool, the purple beetle, a flame of fire, a white lotus flower, 
a sudden flash of lightning. But immediately there follows 
the warning that the noumenal Brahma cannot be represented 
to the senses, indeed cannot be defined by any positive 
characteristics. ' Ncti.ncti: Not thus! Not so!' (Brih. 3. 3. 
6; 3. 9. 36). Nevertheless it is the reality of the individual 
phenomenal actualities. Though starting with and making use 
of sense data and accepting a strange pair of differentia, namely 
the stationary and the moving, for the actual and the yon, or 
for the phenomenal and the noumenal Brahmas, this section 
nevertheless advances toward the final idealistic conception 
of reality, to which the pantheism of the Upanishads led. 

The two Brahmas are described again in Maitri 6. 15. 
* There are, assuredly, two forms of Brahma : Time and the 
Timeless* That which is prior to the sun is the Timeless 
(a-MZa) without parts (a~kala). But that which begins with 
the sun is Time, which has parts/ 

The thought begins to appear that if all is One, the manifold 

35 D3 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANTSHADS 

differences that seem so real in experience arc not constitutive 
of the inner being of that One ; they must be only an appear - 
ancc, a phenomenon. So again the two Brahmas aic described 
in Maitri 6. a a . fc Verily there aic two Brahmas to be medi- 
tated upon sound and non-sound. Now non-sound is revealed 
only by sound. ... Of it there is this sevenfold comparison : 
like rivers, a bell, a brazen vessel, a wheel, the croaking of fiogs, 
rain, as when one speaks in a sheltered place. Passing beyond 
this variously characterized [souncl-Btahma], men disappear 
in the supreme, the non-sound, the unmanifcst Brahma/ 

These two Brahmas, the one manifold with sense qualities, 
and the other a supcrphcnomcnal unity, wcie accepted as 
both ical, though in different ways. They wcic ( both the 
higher and the lower ' of Muncl. % 2. <S and Prasna 5 2 ; the 
two forms of Svet. i. 13. They formed the subject-matter 
of the ' two knowledges to be known as indeed the knowcrs 
of Brahma aie wont to say: a higher and a lower/ The 
lower knowledge is of various sciences, but * the higher Is 
that whereby that Imperishable is apprehended ' (Mund. i. i. 
4-5). Their importance in a complete knowledge of Brahma 
is affirmed by Katha 6. 13, for 

'He can indeed be comprehended by the thought "He is*' 
And by [admitting] the real nature of both [his com- 
prehensibility and his incomprehensibility].' 

But this dualizing of the world-ground, this postulating of two 
Brahmas when the fundamental and repeated axiom of the 
whole Upanishadic speculation was that t there is only one 
Brahma, without a second/ induced by way of correction the 
further development of the previous conception of phenome- 
nality, 1 Reality is One. Diversity and manifoldnc&s are only 
an appearance. 

' There is on earth no diversity. 
He gets death after death, 
Who perceives here seeming diversity. 
As a unity only is It to be looked upon- 
This indemonsttable, enduring Being/ (Brih,4. 4. 19 20.) 

1 Thus fWkara reconciled the opposition between the two Bralmmn and the 
one Bfahma, at the end of his commentary on the Veclanta-Sfltras, 4, 3, 14. 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

1 The seer sees not death, 
Nor sickness, nor any distress. 
The seer sees only the All, 
Obtains the All entirely/ (Chand. 7. 26. 2.) 

That is the real Brahma, the undifferenced unity. The 
lower Brahma of sense- manifoldness, in which everything 
appears as a sclf-subsistent entity, is merely an appearance 
due to a person's ignorance that all is essentially one ; that is, 
it is an illusion. So Maitri 6. 3 says plainly of the two 
Brahmas : ' There are, assuredly, two forms of Brahma the 
formed and the formless. Now, that which is the formed is 
unreal ; that which is the formless is real.' 

The distinction between the phenomenal and the super- 
phenomenal was, as has been described, made quite early in 
the Upanishadic thought. First, the phenomenal, though 
admittedly a part of the reality of the world, is only a fragment 
of its totality. : Him they see not, for [as seen] he is incom- 
plete. . . .Whoever worships one or another of these [individual 
manifestations] he knows not ; for he is incomplete with one 
or another of these 5 (Brih. 1.4.7). I* ' 1S rnere ignorance 
(amdya) on one's own part, then, that allows him to rest in the 
things of sense as the ultimate being of the world ; but this 
ignorance, or non-knowledge, is remediable under instruction 
concerning the underlying unity. 

But soon the conception arose that the error is attributable 
not so much to oneself, as to that Other which hides its 
unitary nature. * There is nothing by which he is not covered, 
nothing by which he is not hid' (Brih. 2. 5. 18). Poetically 
expressed, 'Life, verily, is the Immortal. Name and form 
are the real By them that Life is veiled 3 (Brih. i. 6. 3). He 
who is essentially one, 

' The Inner Soul (antaratman) of all things . . . , 
Who makes his one form manifold' (Katha 5. 12), 

is performing a piece of supernatural magic in appearing as 
many. 

'He became corresponding in form to every form. 

This is to be looked upon as a form of him. 

Indra by his magic powers (mays) goes about in many forms; 

Yoked are his ten-hundred steeds/ (Brih. 2. 5. 19.) 

37 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UFANISHA1XS 

This is the first occurrence in the Upanishadsof the word 
in the plural, be it noticed, and as a quotation from Rig-Veda 
6. 47. jtS, wheic it occurs many limes in the meaning of 'super- 
natural powers' or 'artifices' It is this thought which is 
developed into^ the theory of cosmic illusion and \\hich is 
expressed in Svct 4. 9-10, the favorite proof-text in the 
UpanishacLs of the later Maya doctrine. 

4 This \\holc woild the illusion-maker piojccts out of this 

[Brahma]. 

And m it by illusion the other is confined. 
Now, one should know that Natuie is illusion, 
And that the Mighty Loid is the illusion-makei .' 

Such was the beginning of that which became a prominent 
doctrine of the later Vcdanta, the doctrine of Maya or thr 
inevitable illusorincss of all human cognition. In its early 
development it did not base itself in any way upon what was 
a chief source of the early Greek scepticism, namely illusions of 
sense. The sole reference to them in the Upani.shuds, Katha 
5.11 

'As the sun, the eye of the whole woild, 

Is not sullied by the external faults of the eyes ' 
is not used as an argument for illusion, though Sankara in his 
Commentary in loco explains It by the stock simile of the later 
Vedanta in which the piece of rope lying by the wayside 
appears in the twilight as a snake to the belated traveler. 1 On 
the contrary, sight is to the philosophers of the UpanishacLs the 
symbol of truth, 'Sight is truthfulness, for when they say 
to a man who sees with his eyes " Have you seen ? " and he 
says te I have seen," that is the truth 9 (Brih, 4. 1.4; similarly 
also in Brih. 5. 14. 4). 

The doctrine of illusion, then, was the speculative outcome of 
the conflict between the phenomorfal and the super-phenomenal, 
between the lower and the higher Brahma, It was the logical 

1 Gottgh, in Ins Philosophy J the (rpanishads, maintains, in my judgment, an 
ei'roneousposition, viz, that the UpanibhacU tench the pure Vcdantismof finfckiura, 
who flourished at least a thousand years after their date, Cough's book in filled 
with explanations bunging in the similes of the rope and wolec, the distant poht 
seeming to be a man, the mirage on the band, the reflection of the sun on the water, 
etc., all of which are drawn from Sankara and even later Hindu philosophers, and 
not from the Upanibhads. 

38 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

conclusion of the abstract presupposition as to the nature and 
possibilities of the pure unity which these thinkers conceived 
of as the essence of reality and to which they pressed on as 
the great goal of all their speculations. The manifold world 
of sense furnished no such unity and therefore had to be aban- 
doned as illusory and unreal, in favor of that undifferenced 
unity to \vhich they were driven as the basis underlying 
the illusory and which, just because it is beyond all sense- 
qualities, distinctions, or limitations of any kind, is the real 
Brahma. 

e As a unity only is It to be looked upon 
This indemonstrable, enduring Being. 3 (Brih. 4. 4. 20.) 

The attempts to describe this pure unity of being are nume- 
rous. ' This Brahma is without an earlier and without a later, 
without an inside and without an outside' (Brih. 2, 5. 19). 
* For him cast and the other directions exist not, nor across, 

nor below, nor above [He is] unlimited ' (Maitri 6. 17). < It 

is not coarse, not fine, not short, not long, not glowing, not 
adhesive, without shadow and without darkness, without air 
and without space, without stickiness [intangible], odorless, 
tasteless, \\ithout eye, without ear, without voice, without 
mind, without energy, without breath, without mouth, [without 
personal or family name, unageing, undying, without fear, 
immortal^ stainless, not uncovered, not covered], without 
measure, without inside and without outside. It consumes 
nothing soever. No one soever consumes it J (Brih. 3. 8. 8). 

* What is soundless, touchless, foimless, imperishable, 
Likewise tasteless, constant, odoiless, 
Without beginning, without end, higher than the great.' 

(Katha 3. 15.) 

1 That which is invisible, ungraspable, without family, without 
caste without sight or hearing is It, without hand or foot, 
eternal ' (Mund. i. i. 6). He is apart from all moral, causal, or 
temporal relations. One must put Him aside as possessed of 
qualities and take Him as the subtile only (Katha 3. 13-14). 
The ultimate is void of any mark (a-hnga] whatever (Katha 6. 
8; ^vet. 6, 9); without qualities (nir-gima) (vet 6. 11). About 
this higher Brahma c there is the teaching " Not thus ! Not 

39 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISIIADS 

so I " (ncti, nrti), for there is nothing higher than this [negative 
definition]' (Brih. s. 3. 6 ; 3. 9. 26 ; 4, 2. 4). '\ Indefinable; k incon- 
ceivable, 1 mere negative statements are all that can be asserted 
of this pure being, which ex hypothesi is incapable of the 
qualification, determination, and diversity implied in descriptive 
attribution. This is exactly the conclusion which Spinoza 
reached with his in many respects similar pantheism the 
famous dictum 'Omnis dclcrminatio ncgatio cst.' 1 

How now is this kind of real Biahma to be known ? The 
practical method, stated in Katha 2. 8-Q and frequently else- 
where, that if one were taught by a competent guru, or teacher, 
he might find Brahma, is of course superseded. The progress 
of speculation had taken Brahma to that far-off, transcendent 
realm where it is a question whether it may be reached or 
known at all. Certainly 
1 Not above, not acioss, 
Not in the middle has one giasped Him. 
Thcie is no likeness of Him 
Whose name is Gicat Gloiy. 
His form is not to be beheld. 
No one soevei sees Him with the eye. 
They who know Him with heait and mind 
As abiding in the heart, become immortal/ (vet. 4. 19-20.) 
But no ! that higher Brahma is not accessible to knowledge by 
sense or by thought or by instruction : 
'There the eye goes not; 
Speech goes not, nor the mind. 
We know not, we understand not 
How one would teach it. 3 (Kena 3.) 
' Whciefiom words turn back, 
Together with the mind, not having attained.' 

(Tait, 2. 4, 9.) 

No more than its bare existence can be postulated, 
'Not by speech, not by mind, 
Not by sight can lie be apprehended. 
How can He be comprehended 

Otherwise than by one's saying "He is I"? (Katha 6. la.) 
But even here the real point is dodged. 

3 All determining (describing or qualifying) is a negating.* 
40 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

4 lie who mles the ignoiance and the knowledge is another.' 

(Svet. 5. i.) 

' [Brahma is] highei than understanding/ (Mund 2. 2. i.) 
'Other indeed is It than the known, 

And moieover above the unknown. 3 (Kena 3.) 
' Into blind daikness enter they 

That worship ignoiance ; 

Into daikness greater than that, as it were, 

That delight in knowledge. 

Other indeed, they say, than knowledge ' 

Other, they say, than non-knowledge ! 

Thus have we heard from the wise 

Who to us have explained It. J (Isa 9-10.) 

Utterly inconceivable is this supreme Brahma. The very 
attempt to conceive of it indicates that one does not know the 
essential fact about it. There follows the paradox : 

' It is conceived of by him by whom It is not conceived of, 
He by whom It is conceived of, knows It not. 
It is not understood by those who [say they] understand It. 
It is understood by those who [say they] understand It 
not.' (Kena n.) 

Such is the outcome of a long circuitous journey to reach 
that ultimate unity of reality which was dimly foreseen long 
before in the Rig-Veda and which had been the goal of all the 
succeeding speculations. What is it we pause and ask that 
has now been reached ? On the one hand an illusory world 
and on the other hand an unknowable reality. Honestly and 
earnestly had the thinkers of the Upanishads sought to find 
the true nature of this world of experience and of a beyond 
which constantly lured them on, but it had proved to be an 
ignis fatitus. Yet they did not give up in the despair of 
agnosticism or in the disappointment of failure. The glimpses 
which they had had of that final unity had frequently suggested 
that the self must be accounted for in the unity of being 
They had found an underlying basis for the subjective and 
objective in the great Atman, the world-soul, like unto the 
self-known soul and inclusive of that, but in itself external to 
it And they had found that the great Atman was identical 
with the great Brahma, the power or efficacy that actuates 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISMADS 

the world. But in the explanation of the phenomenal and 
the noumenal that Brahma had fallen apart and vanished, 
one pait into the illusory and the other into the unknowable. 



CHAPTER VII 

IDEALISM AND THE CONCEPTION OF 
PURE UNITY 

THE former glimpses of that nearest of known facts, the self, 
bhowcd the thinkers of the Upanishads that the path they had 
been following, the path of realism, had logically led thorn to 
an unsatisfying conclusion. The unity for which they had been 
searching as if it were something outside of and apart from 
the self, could never be reached. For there still remains the 
stubborn dualism of self and not-self, howevci deeply the two 
might be set into a pantheistic unity which should embrace 
them both in an external grasp. Kpistcmological idealism 
must hcitceforth be the path traveled in order to reach the goal 
of an absolute unity 

This was a wonderful discovciy, intuitions of which had 
flashed out here and there, but which was forced upon them for 
adoption" by the limit which they had i cached along the line 
of cpistcmological realism. , The final unity could not and 
would not, then, be found outside of self, but in it, In truth, 
the self is the unity that they had been looking for all along, 
'for therein all these [things] become one' (Brill, i. 4, 7), and 
only in it, i. e. in one's own consciousness, do things exist, 4 As 
far, verily, as this world-space extends, so far extends the space 
within the heart. Within it, indeed, arc contained both heaven 
and earth, both fiic and wind, both suu and moon, lightning 
and stais, both what one possesses here and what one does 
not possess ; everything here is contained within it J (Chand. 
8. i. 3). 

Realistic pantheism has been changed into epistemological 
idealism. All existence is for, and in, the self. t This whole 
world is Brahma, , . . This Soul of mine within the heart 
, . .' (Chand. 3. 14. i, 3). * He is the world-protector. He is 

43 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

the world-sovereign. He is the lord of all. He is my self 
(Kaush.3 8). I am Brahma! 1 (Brih. i. 4. 10). Thus that 
world-ground, that unity of being which was being searched 
for realistically outside of the self, and which, as it was being 
approached, seemed to recede back into the illusory and into 
the unknowable, is none other than the self, which had eluded 
cognition for the reason that, as the subject of consciousness, 
it could not become an object. He is the unseen Seer, the 
unheard Hearer, the unthought Thinker, the ununderstood 
Understander ' (Brih. 3. 7. 23). 'You could not see the seer 
of seeing. You could not hear the hearer of hearing. You 
could not think the thinker of thinking. You could not 
understand the understander of understanding' (Brih. 3. 4. 2). 
' Wherewith would one understand him with whom one under- 
stands this All? Lo, wherewith would one understand the 
understander ? ' (Brih. 2. 4. 14). 

The world, which by the simile of birds supported on a tree 
as their roost had been realistically explained (in Pras'na 4. 7) 
as supported on that which, with unforeseen insight, was called 
Atman, a Self, because I, a self, am also a part of It that 
world is none other than my self. 

' He ^vho has found and has awakened to the Soul (Self) . . . 
The world is his; indeed, he is the world itself.' 

(Brih. 4. 4. 13.) 

t One should reverence the thought "I am the world-all!" 
(Chand. 2. 21. 4). ( l alone am this whole world* (Chand. 
7. 25. T). ' When he imagines . * , ee I am this world-all/' that 
is his highest world. This, verily, is that form of his which is 
beyond desires, free from evil, without fear ' (Brih. 4. 3. 20-21). 
Rather, instead of being identified with my consciousness, 
this world of sense is the product of my constructive imagina- 
tion, as is evident in sleep, when one ( himself tears it apart, 
himself builds it up, and dreams by his own brightness, by his 
own light. . . . There are no chariots there, no spans, no roads, 
But he projects from himself chariots, spans, roads. There 
are no blisses there, no pleasures, no delights. But he pro- 
jects from himself blisses, pleasures, delights. There are no 
tanks there, no lotus-pools, no streams. But he projects from 

43 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

himself tanks, lotus-pools, streams. For he is a creator. , . * 

In the state of sleep going aloft and alow, 
A god, he makes many forms for himself. 1 

(I>rih. 4, ,j. <), 10, 13.) 

Such a theory is distinctly idealistic metaphysics ' 

Here, then, is the source of that manifold diversity which has 
seemed to contradict the pure unity of being. It all is the 
thought-pi oduct of the larger real Self, apait from whom 
neither it nor I have any existence whatever. l llc who 
knows " Let rnc smell this," u Let me uttei this, 1 ' "Let me 
hear this," " Let me think this," is the Self (Clulncl <S. 1 2. 4-5). 
The ego does not perform those activities. * Assuredly, the 
Soul (Atman) of one's soul is called the Immortal Leader. 
As perccivel , thinker, goer, cvacuator, begetter, doer, speaker, 
taster, smcllci, seer, hcaicr and he touches the All-pervudei 
has entered the body ' (Maitri 6. 7). The ical illusion is not 
strictly the trick of the other, the gieat magician, but my own 
persistence in the vain belief that I and the world exist apart 
from, or arc in any sense other than, the pure, untliffcrencccl unity 
of the Self or, according to the theory of realistic pantheism, 
the one world-all Brahma, 2 

In cither case knowledge of the truth banishes the illusion 
and restores the identity which was only temporarily sun- 
dered by ignorance. 'Whoever thus knows "I am Brahma!" 
becomes this All ; even the gods have not powci to prevent 
his becoming thus, for he becomes thcii self (Brih. i. *}. 10). 
Knowledge of the real nature of Brahma in general effects an 
assimilation of the knowcr of it. 4 Verily, Brahma is fearless. 
He who knows this becomes the fearless Brahma' (Brill, 
4. 4. 35). 'He, verily, who knows that supreme Brahma, 
becomes very Brahma ' (Muncl 3. 3, 9). ' He who recognises 
that shadowless, bodiless, bloodless, pure Imperishable, anivcs 
at the Imperishable itself. He, knowing all, becomes the All ' 
(Pra^na 4. 10). { Brahma-knowcrs become merged in Brahma * 
(Svet i. 7). 
, 4 In the Atman-lheory the great desideratum is union with 

1 This is an ancient foreshadowing of the mockin theory of the ' project.* 

2 c In tbib Brahma-wheel the soul (Jtamsa) flutters about, thinking that itself and 
the Actuator are different ' (Svet. I, 6). 

44 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

Alman, the inner, real, unitary Self who in truth am I, if 
I but knew it and could realize it. That is ' the Self which 
is free from evil, ageless, deathless, sorrowless, hungerless, 
thirstless, whose desire is the Real, whose conception is the 
Real' (Chand. 8. 7. i , Maitri 7. 7). In the Brahma-theory 
also it is complete unqualified unity that is the ideal. An 
ocean, a seer alone without duality, becomes he whose world 

is Brahma. This is a man's highest path This is his highest 

bliss' (Brih 4. 3. 32). For verily, a Plenum is the same as 
Pleasure. Theie is no Pleasure in the small. Only a Plenum 
is Pleasure/ (Chanel. 7. 33. i). This path, however, from the 
troubled consciousness with its limitations, sorrows and pains, 
to that state of unalloyed beatitude and unbounded bliss 

' A sharpened edge of a razor, hard to traverse, 
A difficult path is this poets declare!' (Katha 3. 14.) 

1 Verily, there are just two conditions of this person: the 
condition of being in this world and the condition of being 
in the other world. There is an intermediate third condition, 
namely, that of being in sleep ' (Brih. 4. 3. 9). Going to it, as 
a fish goes over to the other side of a river and back, one may 
have an actual experience of that reality of bliss in contrast 
with which the waking life is but a bad dream (Brih. 4. 3. 18). 
It is noteworthy how the dominant realistic pantheism of 
the Upanishads is frequently overriden by the idealistic 
tendency which rejects the world of the waking consciousness 
as the real world and which adopts the state of dreamless 
sleep or of vacuous meditation as grasping the absolute unity 
and reality. So Prajapati described the real Self, after futile 
attempts to satisfy Indra with the lower conceptions such as 
the person who is seen in the eye and the reflected image 
in a vessel of water, as follows : ' He who moves about happy 
in dream he is the Self J (Chand. 8. 10. i). But Indra per- 
ceived the failure on Prajapati's part to instruct him about 
a Self which is free from evil and from sorrow, for even in 
dreams one has most unpleasant experiences, such as being 
struck and cut to pieces. 1 

1 Brih. 4. 3. 20 meets the same difficulty that in a person's dreaming sleep 
people seem to be killing him, they seem to be overpowering him, an elephant 
seems to be tearing him to pieces, he seems to be falling into a hole with the 

45 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISIIADS 

Admitting the inadequacy of the state of dreaming .sleep as 
famishing a cognition of the supreme blissful Self, PiajTipati 
gives it as his final instruction that * When one is sound asleep, 
composed, serene, and knows no cheam that is the Self 1 
(Chanel. 8. u. i). But Indra found no satisfaction in such 
a Self, for in that condition a man does not leally know 
himself so that he can say 'This is I,' noi does he know 
other things. The objection is not fairly met by IVajapatfs 
reply that pleasure and pain arc due to the self's connection 
with the body ; that the highest condition is when in sleep 
the serene one, rising out from this body, no longer thinks of the 
appendage of the body, but goes around laughing, spotting, 
taking delight with women or chariots or relatives. For the 
explanation is a relapse into the state of dreaming sleep, which, 
however pleasant it may be at times, had nevertheless been 
condemned by Prajapati himself as faulty, because it is a 
conscious condition and thercfoic liable to all the vicissitudes 
of waking consciousness, 

In contrast with the unsatisfactory conclusion of this 
dialogue, Yfijnavalkya, in Brih. a. 4. 14 and 4. 5. 1/5, gave 
to Maitrcyl who, like Indra, had been perplexed by the 
similar instruction that the highest stage of the one Self is 
unconscious a more philosophical explanation of why it can 
not be conscious. 'Where there is a duality, as it were, 
there one sees another; there one smells another; there one 
tastes another ; there one speaks to another. . . . Hut where 
everything has become just one's own self, then whereby and 
whom would one sec? then whereby and whom would one smell ? 
then whereby and to whom would one speak ? then whereby 
and whom would one hear? then whereby and of whom would 
one think? then whereby and whom would one touch? then 
whereby and whom would one understand ? M 4 Knowledge 
is only of a second.' Consciousness means consciousness of an 
object ; but in that consciousness where all things become one 
(Kaush, 3. 4), in that unbounded ocean-like pure unity of the 

explanation that ' he is imagining through ignorance the very fear which he nets 
when awake 1 and which by implication is illusory, 

1 There is another almost identical occurrence of n part of this passage in Byilu 
4- .V ?> l - 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

real Self (Brih. 4. 3. 32), the duality and limitation of the 
subject-object relation is obliterated. In it, therefore, con- 
sciousness is an impossibility. 

The conception of this pure unity of being and of the blissful 
union with self was not clearly defined and consistently held, 
Haiti i 6. 7 suggests the reason. 'Now, where knowledge is 
of a 1 dual natuic [i.e. subjective-objective], there, indeed, one 
hears, sees, smells, tastes, and also touches , the soul knows 
everything. Where knowledge is not of a dual nature, being 
devoid of action, cause, or effect, unspeakable, incomparable, 
indescribable what is that ? It is impossible to say ! ' It is 
strictly inconceivable . 

( Whercfiom words turn back, 

Together with the mind, not having attained 

The bliss of Brahma.' (Tait. 2, 4.) 

It may only be affirmed as approximately conceived : 

' " This is it " thus they recognize 
The highest, indescribable happiness/ (Katha 5. 14.) 

There was consequently vacillation and indefmiteness in the 
statements regarding it* Prajapati, when pressed to justify 
it as unconsciousness, fell back upon the notion of pleasant 
dreams. The Taittiriya Upanishad, where by arithmetical 
computation that perfect bliss is declared equal to octillion 
blisses of the most favored man on earth, states in closing 
that the aspirant, having reached the ' self which consists of 
bliss/ goes up and down these worlds, eating what he will and 
assuming what forms he will, and sits singing the song 
of universal unity which begins with ' Oh, wonderful ! Oh, 
wonderful ! Oh, wonderful ! ' (Tait. 3. 10. 5). 

The limitation of the not-self certainly would be absent in 
that plenary bliss. Where one sees nothing else, hears 
nothing else, understands nothing else that is a Plenum. But 
where one sees something else that is the small.' 'Verily, 
a Plenum is the same as Pleasure. There is no Pleasure in 
the small. Only a Plenum is Pleasure' (Chand*. 7. 33-34). 
One passage, Brih. 4, 3, 23-30 (the only one of its kind 
in the Upanishads), attempts, contrary to the prevailing 
conception of the condition of union with the Self, to make 

47 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANTSIIADS 

qualified provision for sense-activity by a sort of paradox, 
which is more intelligible in the Madhyaiiidina than in the 
Kanva recension. c Vciily, while he doas not there sec, he is 
verily seeing, though he docs not sec what is [usually] to be 
seen ; for there is no cessation of the seeing of a seer, because 
of his impel ishability. It is not, howcvei, a second thing, 
other than himself and separate, that he may sec.' Similarly 
he continues to smell, taste, speak, hear, think, touch, and 
know, though not a second thing othci than himself and 
separate. 

A sensual conception of that bliss is pictured in Brih, 4. 3. 3 1 , 
according to which the condition of union with the Self is 
conscious, but void of content cither subjectively or objectively 
refcrrent, a mere state of bliss. ' As a man, when in the 
embrace of a beloved wife, knows nothing within or without, 
so this person when in the embrace of the intelligent Soul 
knows nothing within or without' In Ma ml 5 that bliss is 
found in deep sleep as such. 

The true conception of the bliss of union with the Self, then, 
would seem to be that it is strictly an unconscious condition ; 
but with the attempt to conceive of that condition, which 
indeed was asserted to be inconceivable; recourse is had to 
sensual experiences and to balmy sleep. 

Strictly it is the state of dreamless sleep which is taken as 
typifying the attainment of the real ' Therefore they say of 
him "he sleeps," for he has gone to his own' (Chand, 6. 8. i). 
This is true both in the Brahma theory and in the Atman theory. 
' So, just as those who do not know the spot might go over a 
hid treasure of gold again and again, but not find it, even so all 
creatures here go to that Brahma-world [in deep sleep] day by 
day, but do not find it ' (Chand. 8. 3. 2) a doctrine alluded to 
in Pra^na 4. 4. * Now, that serene one [the soul in sleep] who, 
rising up out of this body, reaches the highest light and 
appears with his own form He is the Soul ! That is the 
immoital, the fearless. That is Brahma. The name, verily, 
of that Brahma is the Real . . . Day by day, verily, he who 
knows this goes to the heavenly world ' (Chand. 8, 3, 4-5), 

The pleasant dreams of sleep, rather than the hampered 
waking consciousness, were, according to some of the passages 

48 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

which have been quoted, tentatively accepted as characteristic 
of the unlimited Self; but, because of the fact of unpleasant 
dreams, they were rejected in favor of the bliss of dreamless 
sleep, where even the duality of subject and object that is 
foreign to the essential nature of the unitary Self is melted 
away. 

But even that condition of profound sleep from which one 
wakes refreshed back, however, into diversity and into the 
limitation of the waking consciousness seems too near the 
unreality of the illusory egohood which is conscious of falsely 
apparent objects and subjects. In the Mandukya, therefore, 
there is put, above the waking consciousness and the dreaming 
sleep and the dieamless sleep, a fourth stage. ' Not inwardly 
cognitive, not outwardly cognitive, not bothwise cognitive, not 
a cognitive mass, not cognitive, not non-cognitive unseen, with 
which there can be no dealing, ungraspable, having no distinctive 
mark, non-thinkable, that cannot be designated, the essence 
of the assurance of which is the state of being one with the 
Self J (Mand. 7). Another later Upanishad, the Maitri, adopts 
the same fourfold condition of all existence and denominates 
the fourth and highest condition tuny a (7. n). 

Not only in sleep and in a supposititious condition beyond 
profound slumber does one reach that unity with the Self. 
He does it also in death, the consummation of unification, for 
then the diversity and illusoriness of sense-knowledge and 
separatcness arc overcome. c When this self comes to weakness 
and to confusedness of mind, as it were, then the breaths gather 
around him. He takes to himself those particles of energy and 
descends into the heart. When the person in the eye turns 
away, back [to the sun], then one becomes non-knowing of 
forms, " He is becoming one/' they say ; " he does not see." 
" He is becoming one" they say; "he does not smell" 
" He is becoming one," they say ; (c he does not taste." 
" He is becoming one/' they say ; cc he does not speak." " He 
is becoming one/' they say; "he does not hear." "He is 
becoming one," they say ; " he does not think." " He is becom- 
ing one/* they say ; " he does not touch " e< He is becoming 
one," they say; "he does not know." , . . He becomes one 
with intelligence' (Brih. 4. 4. 1-3). Similarly in Chand. 6. 

49 E 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISIIADS 

8. 6 and 6. 15 death is only the process of absorption into the 
Real, into the Self. Of a dying person it is said : ' His voice 
goes into his mind ; his mind into his breath ; his breath into 
heat ; the heat into the highest divinity. That which is the 
finest essence the whole world has that as its soul That 
is Reality. That is At man. That art thou, Svctaketu.' And, 
it might be added, only ignorance and persistence in the 
thought of a scpaiatc self keep one from actually being It. 
Death is truly the loosing of the cords of the hcait which 
bind one to an illusoiy life and to the thought of a separate 
self-existence. 

' Gone aie the fifteen parts according to then station, 
Even all the bense-organs m their conespondm< divinities! 
One's woik and the soul that consists of understanding 
All become unified in the supiemc Impciishablo.' 

(Mu ml. 3. 2. 7.) 

It is evident that this pure unity of the self, the really 
Existent, union with which is effected in bleep and in death, is 
unconscious, because it is void of all limitations or distinctions 
whatsoever, being * the Person all-pervading and without any 
mark whatever ' (Katha 6. 8). 

And therein even the possible distinction that 4 this is I ' 
{loss of which represented a condition which seemed so abhor- 
rent to Indra and which Prajapati did not succeed in justifying) 
is impossible, just because the duality and limitations of the 
subject-object relation arc impossible in that plenary unity* 
Thus, from the empirical point of view which regaids the 
waking consciousness as the real, a man docs in this way * go 
straight to destruction ' ; but to the philosopher, who 
understands the falsity of ordinary standards and the 
illusorincss of the ego to which men fondly cling, the loss of 
finite individuality in the real Self that is unlimited is the 
supreme achievement. This doctrine is set forth in parables 
from nature in the ' That-art -thou ' section of the Chfmdogya. 
* As the bees, my dear, prepare honey by collecting the essences 
of different trees and reducing the essence to a unity, as 
they are not able to discriminate u I am the essence of this tree," 
"I am the essence of that tree" even so, indeed, my dear, 
all creatures here, though they reach Being, know not "We 

50 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

have reached Being." . . . These rivers, my dear, flow, the eastern 
toward the east, the western toward the west. They go 
just from the ocean to the ocean. They become the 
ocean itself. As there they know not C I am this one," " I am 
that one " even so, indeed, my dear, all creatures here, though 
they have come forth from Being, know not " We have come 
forth from Being"' (Chand. 6. 9-10). It is the very con- 
sciousness of this' and of f l' which is the limitation that 
separates one from the unlimited. And individuality and self- 
consciousness must be lost ere one reach that infinite Real. 
"As these flowing rivers that tend toward the ocean, on 
reaching the ocean, disappear, their name and form [or in- 
dividuality] are destroyed, and it is called simply " the ocean " 
even so of this spectator these sixteen parts that tend toward 
the Person, on reaching the Person, disappear, their name and 
form are destroyed, and it is called simply "the Person"' 
(Prasna 6. 5). 

Thus the ultimate unity of reality which has been the 
search throughout the Upanishads is finally reached. On the 
cpistcmological basis of the common-sense realism which views 
all things as really existing just as they are seen to exist, and 
in continuation of the cosmologies of the Rig- Veda, the 
Upanishads started by positing various primeval entities, out 
of which by various processes the manifold world was produced. 
Then Brahma, a power such as that inherent in the ritual and 
sacrifice whereby rain and the forces of nature were controlled, 
was postulated as the one world-producer and controller. 
This conception of Brahma gradually developed into a monism. 
Simultaneously speculation regarding the nature of the unity 
in which the self and object's are joined developed the con- 
ception of Atman, a great Self, after the analogy of the 
individual self. The Atman-theory and the Brahma- theory 
became merged together in an absolute pantheism. An 
apparent conflict between the many and the One led to the 
distinction between phenomenon and noumenon. Those two 
under further speculation turned out to be respectively an 
illusory world and an unknowable reality. The theory of 
epistemological idealism which had been intuited previously 
on occasions and which had been led up to by the failure of 

51 E3 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

realism, was then developed. The manifold world was seen to 
be the construction of the imagination, and the supreme unity 
was found in one's own Self from which the ego is falsely sun- 
dered by the life of waking consciousness. That pine unity 
with the Real which is actually effected in sleep and in death 
is a blissful state of consciousness in which individuality and 
all distinctions arc overcome. 

Thus far chiefly the metaphysical doctrines of the Upuni- 
shads have been treated. There remain important ethical and 
practical corollaries to the main propositions here laid down, 
and these will be considered in the following chapters. 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE OUTCOME ON RELIGION AND ON TIIK 
DOCTRINE OF KARMA 

IN the Vedic period punctilious performance of the ritual 
was the one means of satisfying the gods and of obtaining" 
salvation. In the Brahmanic period a change took place similar 
to that in the Greek religion. That very efficacy of the sacri- 
fice for the appeasement of the gods whereby men had been 
kept in subjection, turned out to be an instrument in their hands 
for controlling the gods, who now became the dependents and 
received their sustenance from such sacrifice as men might 
give* In the Upanishads a still fmthcr change occurred. The 
development of a monistic philosophy removed altogether the 
necessity of believing in the various Vcdic or Brahmanic gods 
to supei intend and operate the different departments of nature 
or to be coerced into man's service* The beginning of this 
subordination to the one world-all and of the later displacement 
of the gods as philosophic conceptions (although in popular 
religion the gods have continued to hold sway) is evidenced in 
the latter part of the Kcna Upanishad. The first half of this 
Upanishad, by reason of its advanced position on the unknow- 
ability of Brahma, must belong to a late period in the 
Upanishadic philosophy, while the last part of it, which 
represents Brahma as a new and unknown Being, must belong 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

to the period of the first speculations about that conception. 
There Agni (Fire) and Vayu (Wind) discover that their power 
is not independent, but is subject to the will of the world-ruler 
Brahma. However, by their knowledge of Brahma they 
attained a pre-eminence over the other gods ; and < he, verily, 
who knows it thus, striking off evil becomes established in 
the most excellent, endless, heavenly world yea, he becomes 
-established ' (Kena 34). 

,That last paragraph of the Kena states the radically new 
standard of religion and of ethics. No longer is worship or 
sacrifice or good conduct the requisite of religion in this life, 
or of salvation in the next. Knowledge secures the latter and 
disapproves of the former, \ The whole religious doctrine of dif- 
ferent gods and of the necessity of sacrificing to the gods is seen 
to be a stupendous fraud by the man who has acquired metaphy- 
sical knowledge of the pantheistic unity of self and of the world 
in Brahma or Atman. ' This that people say, " Worship this 
god ! Worship that god !" one god after anotherthis is his 
creation indeed ! And he himself is all the gods ' (Brih. i. 4. 6). 
* So whoever worships another divinity [than his Self], thinking 
" He is one and I another," he knows not. He is like a sacri- 
ficial animal for the gods. Verily, indeed, as many animals 
would be of service to a man, even so each single person is of 
service to the gods. If even one animal is taken away, 
it is not pleasant. What, then, if many? Therefore it 
is not pleasing to those [gods] that men should know this 
[i. e. that the gods are only a phase of Brahma and that an in- 
dividual man may himself become Brahma by knowing himself 
to be such] ? (Brih. i. 4. 10). Sacrifice and works of merit 
towards hypostatized divinities are, in the light of metaphysical 
knowledge, seen to be futile. On the other hand, the very 
same knowledge conserves all the efforts of the knower who 
may care to worship and to do religious acts. ^ ' Verily, even if 
one performs a great and holy work, but without knowing this 
[i, e. that the whole world is Brahma or the Self, and that 
I am Brahma or the Self], that work of his merely perishes in 
the end. One should worship the Self alone as his [true] 
world. The work of him who worships the Self alone as his 
[true] world does not perish ' (Brih. i. 4, 15). 

53 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

Thus religious piety is renounced as unnecessary, and know- 
ledge of that fact, or metaphysical knowledge in general, 
replaces religiosity in worth and alone renders efficacious any 
religious or meritorious act which any one, for the sake 
of conformity to popular custom, may choose to perform. > 
' If one offers the Agnihotra sacrifice without knowing this 
[i. c. that the cosmic process itself is a continuous Agnihoti a | 
that would be just as if he were to remove the live coals and 
pour the offering on ashes. But if one offers the Agnihoti a 
sacrifice knowing it thus, his offering is made in all worlds, 
in all beings, in all selves' (Chand. 5. 34. 1-3). * This that 
people say, <f By offering with milk for a year one escapes the 
second death " one should know that this is not so, since on 
the very day that he makes the offering he who knows escapes 
the second death ' (Brih. i . 5. 2). 

This last quotation leads to a topic which holds an im- 
portant place in the practical religion of India today, namely, 
the doctrine of karma (literally 'action'), the theory that 
according to one's good or bad actions In this life one passes 
at death into the body of a higher or a lower animal. It 
is noteworthy that in the Rig- Veda there is no trace of 
metempsychosis. 1 This fact is interestingly confirmed in the 
Upanishads at Chand. 5. 3, where neither Svctnketu (who, 
according to Chand. 6. i. a, had spent twelve years in study- 
ing the Vcdas) nor his father and instructor, Gautama, had 
heard of the doctrine ; and when they are instructed m 5t T 
it is expressly stated that the doctrine had always belonged 
to the Kshatriyas, the military class, and was then for the 
first time divulged to one of the Brahman class. In the 
Rig- Veda the cschatology consisted of a belief in a personal 
immortality in the paradise of the gods. After ' a preliminary 
sign of the doctrine of metempsychosis in the Atharva-Veda/ " 
the notion first makes its definite appearance in the Satapatha 
Brahmana. In the Upanishads it had not yet become what 
it became in later times, a belief which Monier Williams 

1 The native commentator of later times thought he discovered ft reference to it 
in RV. 1. 164. 32, bahfafrajafi , interpreting the word as * subject to many births/ 
For a refutation see Monier Williams, Brahmanism mid Hinduism, p. 18, note a* 

2 Hopkins, Religions of India^ p. 175. 

54 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

has aptly characterized in the following severe statement : 
' Transmigration, or metempsychosis, is the great bugbear 
the terrible nightmare and daymare of Indian philoso- 
phers and metaphysicians. All their efforts are directed to 
the getting rid of this oppressive scare The question is not, 
What is the truth? The one engrossing problem is, How 
is the man to break this iron chain of repeated existences ? ' l 

How his doctrine of karma and reincarnation came to be 
so thoroughly accepted in India, is uncertain . whether from 
the Indigenes whom the invading Aryans found in India (as 
Gough conjectures 2 ) or whether as the most plausible philo- 
sophic explanation of the phenomena of instinctive knowledge 
(as in Brih. 4. 4. a) and of dreaming and remembrance of 
things not experienced in this life, as well as of sin (according 
to Sankara on Brih. 4. 3, 9). (In passing be it noted that 
these are exactly the considerations which led philosophers 
like Plato, and Christian theologians like Origen and Julius 
Midler to the belief in an existence prior to the present life.) 
At any rate, the belief in a person's renewed existence in 
another body after death, is present in the Upanishads, but 
not as a burden of despair. It is only the belief in the 
retributive reward of chaiacter operating with a continued 
existence in the locality of this world instead of in the locality 
of heaven or hell. ' Accordingly, those who are of pleasant 
conduct here the prospect is 3 indeed, that they will enter 
a pleasant womb, either the womb of a Brahman, or the womb 
of a Kshatriya, or the womb of a Vaifya. But those who are 
of stinking conduct herethe prospect is, indeed, that they 
will enter a stinking womb, either the womb of a dog, or the 
womb of a swine, or the womb of an outcast' (Chand. 
5. 10.7). 

'According unto his deeds the embodied* one successively 
Assumes forms in various conditions. 

Coarse and fine, many in number, 

The embodied one chooses forms according to his own 
qualities. 

1 Monier "Williams, Br&hmanisw and Hinduism , p. 41, , 

s In the first chapter of his Philosophy of the Upanisltads, where ne cites the 
prevalence of the belief among semi-savage peoples, connected with animism- ' 

55 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

[Each] subsequent cause of his union with them is aeon to he 
Because of the quality of his acts and of himsell.' 

(vet. fj. IT- 1 2.) 

The character which is thus determinative of one's position 
in the next life is formed not only by action but also by 
knowledge ' Either as a worm, or as a moth, or as a fish, or as 
a bird, or as a snake, or as a tiger, or as a poison, 01 as some 
other in this or that condition, he is born again heie accoi cl- 
ing to his deeds, according to his knowledge' (Kaush. i. 3). 

1 Some go into a womb 
For the embodiment of a corpoical being*. 
Others go into a stationaiy thing 

Accoi ding to their dc s eds, accoiding to their knowledge/ 

(Katha 5, 7,) 

As in the matter of religion, so as regards this theological 
tenet, the Upam.shads offer the philosophical knowledge which 
was the result of their own speculations and which was assessed 
at a very high value as the means of escape. * Now, whether they 
perform the cremation obsequies in the case of such a person 
[i.e. a person who knows] or not, they [i.e. the dead] pass over 
into a flame; from a (lame, into the day ; from the clay, into 
the half-month of the waxing moon; from the half-month of the 
waxing moon, into the six months during which the sun moves 
northwards ; from the months, into the year ; from the year, 
into the sun ; from the sun, into the moon ; from the moon, into 
lightning. There there is a person who is non-human. lie 
leads them on to Brahma. This is the way to the gods, the 
way to Brahma. They who proceed by it return not to the 
human condition here!' (Chand. 4. 15, 5 6), In Brih, 6.2, 
where the same transmigration theory is discussed the con- 
clusion is that ' those who know this [namely, the stages of 
transmigration] ' go to the Brahma-worlds. i Of these there 
is no return' (Brih. 6. a. 15), 

There are several other passages which emphasize the 
efficaciousness over karma and rebirth of that knowledge, 
the bringing forth of which formed the travails of the 
Upanishads and the laborious attainment of which induces! 
an exceeding high estimate of its value ; 

56 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

* What is soundless, touchless, formless, imperishable, 
Likewise tasteless, constant, odorless, 

Without beginning, without end, higher than the great, stable- 
By discerning That, one is liberated from the mouth of death,' 

(Katha 3. 15.) 

' And one's deeds (karma) cease 
When He is seen both the higher and the lower.' 

(Mund. 2. 2. 8.) 

* By knowing what is therein, Brahma-knoweis 

Become merged in Biahma, intent theieon, libeiated from the 

womb [i. e. from rebirth]/ (5vet. i. 7.) 
'By knowing God theie is a falling off of all fetters; 
With disti esses destroyed, there is cessation of birth and 

death. 3 (Svet, i. n.) 

Slightly different from the theory of sainsara, which con- 
ceives of the round of existence as bounded within the confines 
of this world, there is another variety in which persons may 
by the good deeds of religion earn a limited amount of merit, 
to be enjoyed for a time in heaven, after which the inexorable 
law of rebirth returns them to the world : 

1 Unsafe boats, howevei, are these sacrificial foims, 
The eighteen, in which is expressed the lower work [i.e. the 
Vedas and the sciences of subsidiary rules]. 

Since doers of deeds do not understand, because of passion, 
Therefore, when their worlds are exhausted, they sink down 
wretched. 

Thinking sacrifice and merit is the chiefest thing, 

Naught better do they know deluded! 

Having had enjoyment on the top of the heaven won by 

good works, 
They re-enter this world, or a lower.' (Mund, i, 2. 7, 9, 10,) 

* But they who seek the Atman by austerity, chastity, faith, 
and knowledge . . , they do not return 5 (Pras"na i. 10). 



57 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISIIADS 



CHAPTER IX 

THE OUTCOME ON PRACTICAL LIFK AND 
ON MORALS 

KNOAYLKDCJK not ( much learning, 5 but the understanding of 
metaphysical truths was the Impelling motive of the thinkers 
of the Upanishads. > Because of the theoretical importance of 
knowledge in that period of speculative activity, and also 
because of the discrediting of the popular polytheistic leligion 
by philosophical reasoning, there took place In India during 
the times of the UpanishacLs a movement similar to that which 
produced the Sophists in Greece, namely, an unsettling of the 
accepted ethics and a substitution of knowledge for religion 
and morality. Knowledge was the one object of supreme 
value, the irresistible means of obtaining one's ends. This 
Idea of the worth and cfficicy of knowledge is expressed again 
and again throughout the UpanishacLs not only in connection 
with philosophical speculation, but also in the practical affairs 
of life. 'That Udgatri priest who knows this whatever 
desire he desires, cither for himself or for the sacrifice!', that 
he obtains by singing. This, indeed, Is world-conquering* 
(Brih. i. 3. a8). ' This whole world, whatever there is, is five- 
fold. He obtains this whole world who knows this' (Brih. 
j. 4. 17). 'He [Indra] is without a rival. ... He who knows 
this has no rival' (Brih. i. 5. 12). * Whoever strives with one 
who knows this, dries up and finally olios' (Brih. i. 5, 21), 
' lie who knows this [the etymology of Atri (eater) | becomes 
the eater of everything; everything becomes his food' (Brih, 
a, 2. 4). ' He who knows that wonderful being as the first- 
born namely, that Brahma is the Real conquers these worlds* 
Would he be conquered who knows thus that great spirit as 
the first-born namely, that Brahma is the Real ? ' (Brih, 5, 4), 
s As a lump of clay would fall to pieces in striking against 
a solid stone, so falls to pieces he who wishes evil to one who 
knows this, and he, too, who injures him, Such a one J& 
a solid stone* (Chand. i, 3. 8), 

58 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

1 He who knows Brahma as the real, as knowledge, as the 

infinite . . . , 
He obtains all desires/ (Tail. 2. i.) 

c He who knows that food which is established on food, 
becomes established. He becomes an eater of food, possessing 
food. He becomes great in offspring, in cattle, in the splendor 
of sacred knowledge, great in fame' (Tait. 3. 7). 'Whatever 
conquest is Brahma's, whatever attainment that conquest he 
conquers, that attainment he attains who knows this ' (Kaush. 
1.7). ' Verily, indeed, if upon one who knows this both moun- 
tains should roll themselves forth both the southern and the 
northern desiring to lay him low, indeed they would not lay 
him low. But those who hate him and those whom he himself 
hates these all die around him' (Kaush. 2. 13). c He, verily, 
who knows that supreme Brahma ... in his family no one igno- 
rant of Brahma arises' (Mund. 3. 2. 9). (So frequent are the 
statements describing the invulnerability and omnipotence of 
him who is possessed of this magic talisman, that j^z evam veda, 
f he who knows this, 3 becomes the most frequently recurring 
phrase in all the Upanishads. 

Beside this practical value of knowledge and the speculative 
value, previously described, for attainment of the ideal unity 
with the Real, 1 knowledge also had a marked ethical value. 

1 It is noteworthy how the extreme valuation put upon both these kinds of 
knowledge produced a reaction withm the period of the Upanishads themselves. 
The license to override the prescriptive usages of religion and custom which the 
possessor of knowledge claimed for himself, is distinctly denied in Maitn 4. 3, on 
the point of the four customary stages in the life of every orthodox Hindu, through 
disregard of which the revenues of the priests were seriously diminished. 

As regards speculative knowledge of Atman, its apprehension by means of 
human knowledge is opposed by the doctrine of prasada, or ' Grace ', in Katha 
2. 20 (and, with a slight verbal change, in Svet. 3. 20) * c Through the grace of the 
Creator he beholds the greatness of Atman/ It is by means of this grace, according to 
i5vet. 1. 6, that an individual obtains release from illusion and reaches immortality : 
4 In this Brahma-wheel the soul flutters about, 
Thinking that itself and the Actuator aie different. 
When favored by Him, it attains immortality.' 

An even more explicit denial of the knowledge-doctrine is found at Katha 2. 23 
(=Mund, 3. 2. 3), where a strict Calvinistic doctrine of election is anticipated : 
' This Soul is not to be obtained by instruction, 
Nor by intellect, nor by much learning. 
He is to be obtained only by the one whom He chooses. 
To such a one that Soul reveals his own person/ 

59 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

The possessor of knowledge is freed even now from all his evil 
deeds as well as from the later mctcmpsychosical results of 
doing any deeds at all. l Verily, indeed, even if they lay 
very much [wood] on a fiic 5 it burns it all. I wen so one 
who knows this, although he commits very much evil, con- 
sumes it all and becomes clean and pure, ageless and immoital ' 
(Brih. 5. 14. tf). 'Brahma is lightning (vidyitt), they say, 
because of unloosing (viddna)* Lightning unlooses him fiom 
evil who knows this, that Brahma is lightning' (JJrih, 5. 7). 

'The plunderer of gold, the liquor-drinker, 
The invader of a teacher's bed, the Bialmun-killer-- - 
These four sink downward in the scale, 
And, fifth, he who consorts with them. 

But he who knows these five fires [i.e. the five-fire doctrine, 
pancagnwidya~\ thus, is not stained with evil, even though con- 
sorting with those people. He becomes pure, clean, possessor 
of a pure world, who knows thisyea, he who knows this 1 
(Cliand. 5. 10. 9-30). 'As a rush-reed laid on a fire would 
be burned up, even so arc burned up all the evils of him who 
offers Agnihotra sacrifice knowing it thus' (Chund. 3. 44. 3), 
' He who understands me [Indra is the speaker, representing 
Atman] by no deed whatsoever of his is his world injured, 
not by stealing, not by killing an embryo, not by the murder 
of his mother, not by the murder of his father ; if he has clone 
any evil, the dark color departs not from his face ' (Kaushu 3. j), 
This ethical theory has been compared with the Socratic 
doctrine of the identity of knowledge and virtue. There is 
a wide difference, however, between the Upanishadic theory 
and the theory of the Greek sages that the man who has know- 
ledge should thereby become virtuous in character, or that 
the result of teaching should be a virtuous life. Here the 
possession of some metaphysical knowledge actually cancels 
all past sins and even permits the knowcr unblushingly to 
continue in 'what seems to be much evil,' with perfect 
impunity, although such acts arc heinous crimes and arc disas- 
trous in their effect for others who lack that kind of knowledge 
But this unbridled licentiousness of the- earlier Upanishads 
could not long continue. It probably went to excess, for in 

60 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

the middle of the period it is sternly denounced. Good 
conduct was declared to be an equal requisite with knowledge. 
e He who has not understanding, 

Who is unmindful and ever impure, 

Reaches not the goal, 

But goes on to transmigration. 

He, however, who has undei standing, 

Who is mindful and ever pure, 

Reaches the goal 

From which he is bom no more. 5 (Katha 3. 7-8.) 
1 Not he who has not ceased from bad conduct . . . 

Can obtain Him by intelligence/ (Katha 2. 24.) 

The earlier conception that the knower was able to continue 
in evil unharmed was true only so far as it expressed the idea 
that knowledge exempts from evil. 

' One should be familiar with it. By knowing it, 
One is not stained by evil action/ (Bnh. 4. 4. 23.) 

* As water adheres not to the leaf of a lotus-flower, so evil 
action adheres not to him who knows this [that the *Self 
is Brahma] ' (Chand. 4. 14. 3). This thought recurs at 
Maitri 3. 3, and, with another simile, at Pra&ia 5. 5 : f As 
a snake is freed from its skin, even so, verily, is he [who 
knows this] freed from sin.' Still another simile is used to 
drive home this same thought : 

As to a mountain that J s enframed 
Deer and birds do not resort 
So, with the Brahma-knowers, faults 
Do never any shelter find/ (Maitn 6. iS.) 1 

The consistent pantheistic conception, however, of the re- 
lation of knowledge and moral evil is that knowledge exempts 
from both good and evil, and elevates the knower altogether 
from the region of moral distinctions to the higher one where 
they are not operative. ' Such a one, verily, the thought does 
not torment : " Why have I not done the good ? Why have 
I done the evil ? " He who knows this, saves himself from 

1 The similes contained in this and the three preceding passages are excellent 
illustrations of a method of reasoning characteristic of the Upanishads and of the 
Hindu mind in general. Analogies from nature that serve to illustrate a pro- 
position are accepted with the force of an argument. 

61 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISMADS 

these [thoughts]. For truly, from both of these he saves 
himself he who knows this ! ' (Tait. a. 9). 4 Him [who knows 
this] these two do not overcome neither the thought 44 Hence 
I did wrong," noi the thought " Hence I did light." Verily 
lie ovei comes them both. What he has clone and what he has 
not done do not affect him ' (Brih. 4. 4. 32), 

' When a seer sees the brilliant 
JMakei, Potentate, Person, the Biahma-somce, 
Then, being a knower, shaking oil" good ami evil, 
Stainless, he attains supreme identity [with I Inn]/ 

(Mund. t \. i. 3.) 

For this emancipation, an emancipation from the unreal and 
an entrance into the ical, the reason is that to the knower 
good and evil arc conceptions of partial knowledge which can 
no longer hold in the light of full knowledge. They aie only 
verbal distinctions. ; Vcniy, if there were no speech, neither 
right nor wrong would be known, neither true nor false, 
neither good nor bad, neither pleasant nor unpleasant. Speech, 
indeed, makes all this known ' (Chfind. 7. a. i). 

The world of reality, the Brahma-world to which the true 
knower is admitted, is devoid of all distinctions, pleasant and 
unpleasant, which are empirically real, but Iranscentlenlally 
unreal. Accordingly that world is free also from tho ethical 
distinction of good and evil. v Over that bridge theie cross 
neither day, nor night, noi old age, nor death, nor sorrow, nor 
well-doing, nor evil-doing. All evils turn back therefrom, for 
that Brahma-world is freed from evil ' (Chanel 8. 4* i-j), c lie 
goes to the world that is without heat, \vithout cold. Therein 
he dwells eternal years ' (Brih. 5. TO). 

'When theie is no daikncsw, then there is no day or night, 
Nor being, noi non-being, only the Kindly One alone/ 

(Svet. 4. 1 8.) 

f He, ... a knower of Brahma, unto Brahma goes on. ... lie 
comes to the river Vijara (* Ageless 3 ) This he crosses with his 
mind alone, There he shakes off his good deeds and his evil 
deeds. His dear relatives succeed to the good deeds ; those 
not dear, to the evil deeds. Then, just as one driving a chariot 
looks down upon the two chariot-wheels [which in their 

63 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

revolutions do not touch him], thus he looks down upon day 
and night, thus upon good deeds and evil deeds, and upon all 
the pairs of opposites. This one, devoid of good deeds, devoid 
of evil deeds, a knower of Brahma, unto very Brahma goes 
on' (Kaush. i. 4). 

The same ethical position _is held in the Atman-theory. 
The world-ground, the great Atman, in itself is 

'Apart from the right and apait from the unright, 
Apart from both what has been done and what has not 

been done here, 
Apart fiom what has been and what is to be/ 

(Katha 2. 14) 

'As the sun, the eye of the whole world, 
Is not sullied by the external faults of the eyes, 
So the one Inner Soul of all things 

Is not sullied by the evil m the world, being external to it/ 

(Katha 5. n.) 

' The bright, the bodiless, the scatheless, 
The sinewless, the pure, unpieiced by evil/ (Isa 8.) 

This idea that the Atman-world is ' free from evil or sin, 
free from impurity, blameless, spotless,' which is expressed 
in numerous epithets and detached phrases, also receives an 
etymological justification. ' In the beginning this world was 
Soul (Atman} alone in the form of a Person (purusa). . . . Since 
before (purva) all this world he burned up (*/ns) all evils, 
therefore he is a person (puwts-a) ' (Brih. I. 4. i). 1 

The Atman thus being void of all ethical distinctions, the 
Atman-knower who by his knowledge becomes Atman like- 
wise transcends them in his union with Him. 'As a man 
when in the embrace of a beloved wife knows nothing within 
or without, so this person when in the embrace of the intelligent 
Soul knows nothing within or without. Verily, that is his 
[true] form. . . , There a father becomes not a father ; a 
mother, not a mother ; the worlds, not the worlds ; the gods, 
not the gods ; the Vedas, not the Vedas ; a thief, not a thief. 

1 In spite of this non-attnbutability of moral qualities to the world-ground by 
theoretical reason, the affirmation of the practical reason in postulating a moral 
order at the heart of the universe is to be observed in two passages in the 
Upanishads, Chand. 6. 16 and 6 vet. 6. 6. 

63 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISIIADS 

... He is not followed by good, he is not followed by evil, for 
then he has passed beyond all sorrows of the heart ' (Brih. 
4. 3. 21-m). 1 

The ethical theoiy thus far presented, which was based on 
the epistcmological realism of the Upanishads, did not, like 
the theory of reality, suffer any change by the transition to 
idealism, but lathci was confirmed by it. The illusion of an 
external world and of an external Soul that needs to be reached 
by effort of will served only to prove illusory all activity what- 
ever, even the good and evil deeds making up such activity. 
Sleep is the nearest approach to real existence, an individual 
in sleep only ' appearing to think, appearing to move about * 
(Brih. 4, 3. 7). ' In this state of sleep, having traveled around 
and seen good and bad, he hastens again, according to the 
entrance and place of origin, back to the state of waking. 
Whatever he sees there [i c. in dreaming sleep], he is not 
followed by it, for this person is without attachments ' (Brih. 4. 
3. 1 6). He there actually reaches the Real and therefore is 
not affected by the ethical distinctions which are alien to its 
nature.- ' Now, when one is thus sound asleep, composed, 
serene, he knows no dream . . . ; so no evil touches him, for then 
he has reached the Bright Power' (Chand. 8. 6. 3), 

So the final goal of metaphysical speculation and the 
practical attainment of supreme and imperishable value was 
the Soul, the larger Soul which was the ground of the in- 
dividual soul and of all existence, ' That self is clearer than a 
son, is dearer than wealth, is clearer than all else, since this 
self is nearer' (Brih. i. 4. 8), 'He should be searched out, 
Him one should desire to understand' (Chanel. 8, 7. i) 

3 Among the many Kantian ideas which I )eussen finds in the Upanishads there 
is a striking one in this connection, namely, that the final jjoal and perfect condition 
of the human soul is autonomy. See svaraj at Chfmd. 7, 35. 3 and warajyatf. 
Tait. i. (5. 2, But the conception of autonomy tbeie held is very different from the 
idea that an autonomous person is in such full control of self that he never by passion 
disobeys the moral law. As is indicated in the following sentence, *ile has un- 
checked sway in all the worlds,' the idoa of autonomy is that of unhindered 
liberty to do what one willb, the same as the condition of perfect bliss described at 
Tait. 3, 10. 5a condition in which the successful aspirant 'goes up and down 
these worlds, eating what he desires, assuming what form he desires.' Cf. also 
Chand. 8. x. 6. 

2 An idea possibly based on the psychological fact that in sleep the moral sense 
appears greatly weakened. 

64 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

However beautiful such a doctrine was in theory, it might 
very easily be misundei stood and misapplied in practice, as 
indeed it was by Virocana, who is said to have lived as a pupil 
with Prajapati for thirty-two years. After receiving instruction 
about ' the Self which is free from evil, ageless, deathless, 
sorrowless, hungerless, thirstless, whose desire is the Real, 
whose conception is the Real/ he went forth and declared the 
following doctrine : ' Oneself is to be made happy here on earth. 
Oneself is to be waited upon. He who makes meiely himself 
happy here on earth, who waits upon himself, obtains both 
worlds, this world and the yonder/ Such utter selfishness is 
forthwith condemned by the author, who comments : ' Therefore 
even now here on earth they say of one who is not a giver, who 
is not a believer, who is not a sacrifice!-, " Oh ' devilish ! " for 
such is the doctrine of the devils/ And Prajapati also regret- 
fully declared : * Whosoever shall have such a mystic doctrine 
be they gods or be they devils shall perish ' (Chand. 8. 7-8). 

The same mistaken ethical theory might be gathered from 
Yajnavalkya's advice to Maitreyl, Brih. 2. 4 and 4, 5, if 
Atman were translated by ' self ' or ' ego.' ' Not for love of 
the wife is a wife dear, but for love of the Soul a wife is dear/ 
Similarly not for love of sons, wealth, the Brahman class 3 the 
Kshatriya class, the worlds, the gods, things, any thing, are 
they dear, but for love of the Soul they are dean 

This is not the modern psychological doctrine that we do 
not desire anything in itself, but only the pleasantness or self- 
advantage which the possession of that thing yields to us ; nor 
is Yajnavalkya advocating the utilitarian doctrine that all love 
and apparent altruism are and should be self-love and selfishness. 
The central idea is rather that all those objects are not separate 
entities, in themselves of value to us; but that they all are 
phases of the world-self and that in the common, every-day 
experience of having affection for others we find illustrated 
the great doctrine of the individual self finding his selfhood 
grounded in, and reaching out towards, that larger Self which 
embraces all individuals and all things. 

With this liberal interpretation, Yajnavalkya's advice to 
Maitreyi, so far as it contains ethical theory, represents the 
high-water mark in the Upanishads. The practical ethics are 

65 F 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

certainly not as high. The general teaching is that already 
presented, namely, that moral distinctions do not obtain for the 
man who has metaphysical knowledge. This is the influence 
effected on the Bhagavad-Gita, the popular book of religious 
meditation, in which (at a. 19) Krishna, the divine incarnation, 
quells the scruples of Arjuna over the murdering of his enemies 
by this Upanishadic assurance : 

f lf the slayer think to slay, 
If the slain think himself slain, 
Both these understand not. 
This one slays not, nor is slain/ (Katha 2. 19 ) 



CHAPTER X 

THE ARTIFICIAL METHOD OF UNITY IN 
RENUNCIATION AND IN YOGA 

As the absolute unity of the Atman was the final goal of 
speculative thought, so absolute unity with the Atman was re- 
garded as the supreme actual attainment. Though this is 
theoretically accomplishable by mere metaphysical knowledge, 
it is as a matter of fact accomplished only after death or during 
sleep. Therefore for the period while one is still alive and not 
sleeping some other method than knowledge must be pro- 
vided. 

That was found to be what in Mund. 3. 2. i was joined with 
knowledge as the means of escaping transmigration : 

' They who, being without desire, worship the Person 
And are wise, pass beyond the seed [of rebirth] here/ 

After knowledge has informed a person that he is Brahma or 
Atman, he should strictly have no more desires, for e he who 
has found and has awakened to the Soul ... the world is his J 
(Brih. 4. 4- 13)- 

' If a person knew the Soul 
With the thought " I am He ! " 
With what desire, for love of what 
Would he cling unto the body?' (Brih. 4, 4, 12.) 

'Verily, because they knew this, the ancients desired not 

66 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

offspring, saying: "What shall we do with offspring, we 
whose is this Soul, this home? " They, verily, rising above the 
desire for sons and the desire for wealth and the desire for 
worlds, lived the life of a mendicant' (Brih. 4. 4. w ; cf. 3, 5. i), 
In actual experience, however, desires do still continue and 
harass one, But by harboring desires and resorting to activity 
to satisfy them, one is only admitting and emphasizing to the 
mind a lack or limitation, and thereby preventing assimilation 
to and union with the desireless, blissful plenum of the Soul. 
The entertaining of any desires whatsoever, and the resulting 
activity, are conditions which from the point of view of know- 
ledge are sheer ignorance ; these react in dulling the under- 
standing (cf. Mund. i. a. 9), blind one to the limitation 
of existence in the world and to the series of rebirths, and 
maintain the person's false separation from the real Brahma or 
At man : 

'He who in fancy forms desires, 
Because of his desires is born [again] here and there.' 

(Mund. 3. 2. 2.) 

The psychology and praxis of this doctrine are set forth in 
a notable passage, Brih. 4. 4. 5-7. <A person is made of 
desires only. As is his desire, such is his resolve; as is his 
resolve, such the action he performs ; what action (karma) he 
performs, that he procures for himself. On this point there is 
this verse : 

Where one's mind is attached the inner self 
Goes theieto with action, being attached to it alone. 

Obtaining the end of his action, 

Whatever he does in this world, 

He comes again from that world 

To this world of action. 

So the man who desires. Now the man who does not desire. 
He who is without desire, who is freed from desire, whose 
desire is satisfied, whose desire is the Soul his breaths do not 
depart, Being very Brahma, he goes to Brahma, On this 
point there is this verse : 

When are liberated all 

The desires that lodge in one's heart, 

67 . F a 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

Then a mortal becomes immortal I 
Therein he reaches Brahma ! ' 1 

But if the metaphysical knowledge of the essential oneness 
of the individual soul (dtman) and the universal Soul (A tin an) 
did not procure the blissful union with that Soul, neither docs 
this theory of the avoidance of limiting desires ; for they inevit- 
ably rise up in the ordinary life of activity. The final solution 
of the practical problem which the Upanishads offer, namely 
Yoga, is the outcome of that conception of strict unity which 
started the speculations of the Upanishads and which urged them 
on from cosmology to monism, from monism to pantheism, 
and from an external to an internal unity. That unity under 
which it is the aim of every philosophy which has ever existed 
rationally to bring experience the early Indian thinkers found 
in Brahma, and then in the objective Soul (Atman\ and then in 
one's own soul, wherein the manifoldness of thought itself and 
the limitation of the distinctions of object and subject and all 
sorrows of the heart are merged into an undifferentiatcd unitary 
blissful plenum. c To the unity of the One goes he who 
knows this [i. e. that all is one]. The precept for effecting this 
[unity] is this : restraint of the breath, withdrawal of the senses 
[from objects], meditation, concentration, contemplation, ab- 
sorption 5 (Maitri 6. 17, 18). This is Yoga (from the root yztj, 
meaning to 'join/ 'yoke/ 'harness'), a harnessing of the 
senses and mind from the falsely manifold objects and thoughts, 
and at the same time a union with the unitary blissful Self. 

e When cease the five 

[Sense-]knowledges, together with the mind, 
And the intellect stirs not 
That, they say, is the highest course/ 

(Katha 6. 10 ; Maitri 6, 30.) 

The practical application, the ethics, and the offers of this 

1 It is interesting to note the opposition between this theory that desires are 
limitations, and the earlier theory in which one of the strongest practical induce- 
ments to knowledge was the sure means of obtaining all desires. Cf. Chand. i. i. 
7 ; 5. r. 4 ; 7. 10. 2 ; 8. 2. 10 ; Brih. I. 3. 28 ; 6. I. 4 ; Tait. 2. I ; Kafha 2. 16. 
Similarly the former method of obtaining Brahma was to know Brahma ; now it 
is to quench all desires. The change on this point is another instance of that 
transition from epistemological realism to idealism which has been previously traced. 

68 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

theory of the union with the Self are set forth in Maitri 6. 20. 
According to that 

' By tranquillity of thought 
Deeds, good and evil, one destroys! 
With soul serene, stayed on the Soul, 
Delight eternal one enjoys ! ' 

The final exhortation of the Upanishads is well expressed in 
the following words connected with the Brahma-theory : 

' Taking as a bow the great weapon of the Upanishad, 
One should put upon it an arrow sharpened by meditation. 
Stretching it with a thought directed to the essence of That, 
Penetrate that Imperishable as the mark, my friend. 

The mystic syllable Om l is the bow. The arrow is the 

soul. 

Brahma is said to be the mark. 
By the undistracted man is It to be penetrated. 
One should come to be in It, as the arrow [in the 

mark].' (Mund. 2. 2. 3-4.) 



CHAPTER XI 
CONCLUDING ESTIMATE 

SUCH is the philosophy of the Upanishads in what may very 
probably have been its order of development. Many tendencies 
made up the process ; and perhaps centuries elapsed between 
the first and last of the speculations recorded, from the Brihad- 
Aranyaka and the Chandogya to the Maitri. The thinkers 
were earnest in their search for truth, and they unhesitatingly 
abandoned conclusions which had been reached, when in 
the light of further reasonings and new considerations they 
weie proved inadequate. The changes from the first realistic 
materialism to the final speculative idealism form an interest- 
ing chapter in the history of philosophy. Their intuitions of 

1 The sacred syllable to be repeated until one passes into an unconscious stupor 
or ecstasy. 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

deep truths are subtile with the directness and subtlety of 
new seekers after truth. In a few passages the Upanishads 
are sublime in their conception of the Infinite and of God, but 
more often they are puerile and groveling in trivialities and 
superstitions. As Hegel, a keen appreciator and thorough 
student of the history of philosophy, estimated it, f If we wish 
to get the so-called pantheism in its poetic, most elevated, 
and, if one will, its coarsest form, we must look for it in the 
Eastern poets ; and the largest expositions of it are found 
among the Indians.' 

As it was suggested before, so it must be emphasized again 
that, although at first the order of exposition here followed was 
in all probability the historical order in the progress of thought 
in the early Hindu philosophy, yet there arc not the chrono- 
logical data in the Upanishads upon which an unquestioned 
order can be maintained throughout. The Brihad-Aranyaka, 
Chandogya, Taittinya, Aitareya, Kaushltaki and Kena 14-34, 
from their stiucture and literary characteristics; as well as from 
their contents., are quite certainly assigned to the earlier group 
of the Upanishads. But even in them theie is a vaiiety of 
philosophical doctrines which are not in the same stage of 
development. The heterogeneity and unordered arrangement 
and even contradictions of the material make it difficult, 
indeed impossible, to set forth in systematic exposition a single 
system of philosophy, The purpose has been, therefore, to 
discern the different tendencies that are undoubtedly present in 
the philosophy of the Upanishads and to present them in what 
seems to be the most probable order of development. For the 
purposes of exposition there have been followed out and con- 
nected with each other certain lines of thought which in the 
actual development of the philosophy could hardly have been 
as independent as they are here set forth. 

The thought of any people and of any generation is exceed- 
ingly complex, consciously or unconsciously containing certain 
elements from the past, which are being gradually discarded, and 
also certain presentiments of truth which are only later fully 
recognized. Yet in it all there Is a dominant tendency which 
may readily be discerned. So in the Upanishadic period there 
were mythical cosmologies inherited and accepted, whose in- 

jo 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

fluence continued long after they had logically been superseded 
by more philosophical theories. In the main, however, there 
was an appreciation of idealism. This, having seen in the 
psychic self the essence of the whole world, and having 
identified it with Brahma, reacted against the realistic philo- 
sophy which had produced the concept of Brahma ; and then it 
carried the Atman, or the purely psychical, element over into 
the extreme of philosophical idealism. 

Pantheism it may, in general, be called ; for, although very 
different types of philosophy have been shown to be represented 
in the Upanishads, pantheism is their most prevalent type 
and the one which has constituted their chief heritage. Still, 
even as pantheism., it is hardly the pantheism of the West, 
nor is it the monism that is based upon science. It is like the 
simple intuition of the early Greek philosopher Xenophanes, 
who (after a prior course of cosmological theorizings similar 
to those in the Upanishads) c looked up into the expanse of 
heaven and declared, "The One is God."' (Aristotle's Meta- 
physics, i. 5.) Can such faith in such form, although it has 
laid hold of the profound truths of ultimate unity and spiritu- 
ality, be expected to furnish the highly inspiring religion of 
progress and the elaborately articulated philosophy, correlated 
with science, which modern India demands ? 

Before that question can be answered, it will be necessary to 
find out exactly what the revered Upanishads do actually say. 
Sanskritists, historians, philosophers, religionists all who are 
interested in India's past and concerned about India's future 
may find here something of what each is already seeking in 
his separate line. In particular, there will be found by the 
sympathetic reader throughout these thirteen principal Upani- 
shads the records of that eager quest which India has been 
pursuing through the centuries, which is tersely expressed in 
the Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad in its first division (at i. 3. 

38) : 

' From the unreal lead me to the real. 

From darkness lead me to light. 

From death lead me to immortality/ 

The Upanishads have indubitably exercised, and in the 
revival of Sanskrit learning and of the Indian national con- 



PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS 

sciousness will continue to exercise, a considerable influence l 
on the religion and philosophy of India. To present their 
actual contents by a faithful philological translation, and to 
furnish a clue to their unsystematic expositions by a brief 
outline of the development of their philosophical concepts, 
is one of the needs of the time and has been the aim in the 
preparation of this volume. 

1 Evidenced, for example, m the recent establishment by a Hindu of Bombay of 
a valuable annual prize for the best exposition and defence of some doctrine of the 
Upamshads or of Sankara. 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

FIRST ADHYAYA 

FIRST BRAHMANA 1 
The world as a sacrificial horse 2 

1. Om! Verily, the dawn is the head of the sacrificial 
horse ; the sun, his eye ; the wind, his breath ; universal fire 
(Agni VaisVanara), his open mouth. The year is the body 
(atman) of the sacrificial horse ; the sky, his back ; the atmo- 
sphere, his belly ; the earth, the under part of his belly ; the 
quarters, his flanks ; the intermediate quarters, his ribs ; the 
seasons, his limbs ; the months and half-months, his joints ; 
days and nights, his feet ; the stars, his bones ; the clouds, his 
flesh. Sand is the food in his stomach ; rivers are his entrails. 
His liver and lungs are the mountains ; plants and trees, his 
hair. The orient is his fore part ; the Occident, his hind part. 
When he yawns, then it lightens. When he shakes himself, 
then it thunders. When he urinates, then it rains. Voice, 
indeed, is his voice. 

2. Verily, the day arose for the horse as the sacrificial vessel 
which stands before. Its place is the eastern sea. 

Verily, the night arose for him as the sacrificial vessel which 
stands behind. Its place is the western sea. Verily, these 
two arose on both sides of the horse as the two sacrificial 
vessels. 3 

1 This Brahmana occurs also as at. Br, 10. 6 4. 

2 The A&va-medha, * Horse-sacrifice,' the most elaborate and important of the 
animal sacrifices in ancient India (described at length in Sat. Br. 13. 1-5), is 
interpreted, in this and the following Brahmana, as of cosmic significance 
a miniature reproduction of the world-order. In the liturgy for the Horse-sacrifice 
(contained in VS. 22-25) there is a similar apportionment of the parts of the 
animal to the vanous parts of the world. Compare also a similar elaborate 
cosmic correlation of the ox at AV. 9. 7. 

3 The vessels used to hold the libations at the Asva-medha. Here they are 
symbolized cosmically by the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. 

73 



i.i,2-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Becoming a steed, he carried the gods; a stallion, the 
Gandharvas ; a courser, the demons ; a horse, men. 1 The 
sea, indeed, is his relative. The sea is his place. 

SECOND BRAHMANA* 

The creation of the world, leading up to the 
institution of the horse-sacrifice 

i. In the beginning nothing whatsoever was here. This 
[world] was covered over with death, with hunger for hunger 
is death. 

Then he made up his mind (manas) : ' Would that I had 
a self!' 3 

So he went on (acarat) praising (arcau). From him, while 
he was praising, water was produced. 'Verily, while I was 
praising, I had pleasure (ka) \ ' thought he, This, indeed, is 
the tfTv&tf-nature of what pertains to brightness (arkya). Verily, 
there is pleasure for him who knows thus that ar/ca-naturc of 
what pertains to brightness. 

2* The water, verily, was brightness. 

That which was the froth of the water became solidified. 
That became the earth. 

On it he [i.e. Death] tortured himself ( Vsram}. When he had 
tortured himself and practised austerity, his heat (tejas) and 
essence (rasa) turned into fire. 

3. He divided himself (atmanam) threefold : [fire (agni) 
one third], the sun (aditya) one third, wind (vayii) one third. 
He also is Life (prdna) divided threefold. 

The eastern direction is his head. Yonder one and yonder 
one 4 are the foie quarters. Likewise the western direction is 
his tail. Yonder one and yonder one 5 are the hind quarters. 
South and north are the flanks. The sky is the back. The 
atmosphere is the belly. This [earth] is the chest. He stands 
firm in the waters. He who knows this, stands firm wherever 
he goes. 

1 Different names for, and aspects of, this cosmic carnei . 

2 This Brahmana is found also as a part of Sat, Br. 10, 6. 5. 

3 Or * a body,' atman-mn* 

4 Explained by Sankara as northeast and southeast respectively. 

5 Explained by Sankara as northwest and southwest respectively. 

74 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-1.2.7 

4. He desired : < Would that a second self of me were pro- 
duced 1 ' He death, hunger by mind copulated with speech 
(vac). That which was the semen, became the year. Previous 
to that there was no year. He bore him for a time as long as 
a year. After that long time he brought him forth. When 
he was born, Death opened his mouth on him. He cried 
' bhan ! ' That, indeed, became speech. 

5. He bethought himself: 'Verily, if I shall intend against 
him, I shall make the less food for myself.' With that speech, 
with that self he brought forth this whole world, whatsoever 
exists here : the Hymns (re) [i.e. the Rig- Veda], the Formulas 
(yajus) [i.e. the Yajur-Veda], the Chants (sdman) [i.e. the 
Sama-Veda], meters, sacrifices, men, cattle. 

Whatever he brought forth, that he began to eat. Verily, 
he eats ( Vad) everything : that is the adtti-oaiure of Aditi (the 
Infinite). He who knows thus the tf&fz-nature of Aditi, 
becomes an eater of everything here; everything becomes 
food for him. 

6. He desired : * Let me sacrifice further with a greater 
sacrifice (yajna)V He toitured himself. He practised 
austerity. When he had tortured himself and practised 
austerity, glory and vigor went forth. The glory and vigor, 
verily, are the vital breaths. So when the vital breaths 
departed, his body began to swell. His mind, indeed, was in 
his body (sarira). 

7. He desired: ' Would that this [body] of mine were fit 
for sacrifice ! Would that by it I had a self (atmanmn) ! J 
Thereupon it became a horse (asva), because it swelled (avat). 
' It has become fit for sacrifice (medhya) \ ' thought he. There- 
fore the horse-sacrifice is called A6va-medha. He, verily, 
knows the A3va-medha, who knows it thus. 

He kept him [i.e. the horse] in mind without confining him. 1 
After a year he sacrificed him for himself, [Other] animals 
he delivered over to the divinities. Therefore men sacrifice 
the victim which is consecrated to Prajapati as though offered 
unto all the gods. 



1 Even as In the regular Asva-medha the consecrated horsse is allowed to range 
free for a year. 

75 



i.a 7-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Verily, that [sun] which gives forth heat is the Asva-medha. 
The year is its embodiment (atmau). 

This [eaithly] fire is the ar&a. 1 The worlds are its embodi- 
ments. These aie two, the arka sacrificial fire and the A^va- 
medha sacrifice. Yet again they are one divinity, even Death. 
He [who knows this] wards off death again, death obtains him 
not, death becomes his body (atman\ he becomes one of these 
deities. 

THIRD BRAHMANA 
The superiority of breath among the bodily functions 

1. The gods (devd) and the devils (asurd) were the twofold 
offspring of Prajapati. Of these the gods were the younger, 
the devils the older. They were struggling with each other 
for these worlds. 

The gods said * Come, let us overcome the devils at the 
sacrifice with the Udgitha.' 2 

2. They said to Speech : c Sing for us the Udgitha. 1 

'So be it/ said Speech, and sang for them. Whatever 
pleasure there is in speech, that it sang for the gods ; what- 
ever good one speaks, that for itself. 

They [i. e. the devils] knew : ' Verily, by this singer they 
will overcome us.' They rushed upon it and pierced it with 
evil. That evil was the improper thing that one speaks. That 
was the evil. 

3. Then they [i.e. the gods] said to the In-breath (prana) : 
c Sing for us the Udgitha.' 

e So' be it/ said the In-breath, and sang for them. Whatever 
pleasure there is in the in-breath, that it sang for the gods ; 
whatever good one breathes in, that for itself. 

They [i.e. the devils] knew: 'Verily, by this singer they 
will overcome us.' They rushed upon it and pierced it with 
evil That evil was the improper thing thai one breathes in. 
This, truly, was that evil. 

4. Then they [i.e. the gods] said to the Eye: c Sing for us 
the Udgitha.' 

1 That is, the fire in the Horse-sacrifice. 

2 The important Loud Chant in the ntual. 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-1.3.8 

c So be it/ said the Eye, and sang for them. Whatever 
pleasure there is in the eye, that it sang for the gods ; what- 
ever good one sees, that for itself. 

They [i.e. the devils] knew: 'Verily, by this singer they 
will overcome us/ They rushed upon it and pierced it with 
evil. That evil was the improper thing that one sees. This, 
truly, was that evil. 

5. Then they [i. e. the gods] said to the Ear : * Sing for us 
the Udgltha/ 

' So be it/ said the Ear, and sang for them. Whatever 
pleasure there is in the ear, that it sang for the gods ; whatever 
good one hears, that for itself. 

They [i.e. the devils] knew. 'Verily, by this singer they 
will overcome us/ They rushed upon it and pierced it with 
evil. That evil was the improper thing that one hears. 
This, truly, was that evil. 

6. Then they [i.e. the gods] said to the Mind : ' Sing for us 
the Udgltha/ 

c So be it/ said the Mind, and sang for them. Whatever 
pleasure there is in the mind, that it sang for the gods , what- 
ever good one imagines, that for itself. 

They [i.e. the devils] knew: 'Verily, by this singer they 
will overcome us/ They rushed upon him and pierced him 
with evil. That evil was the improper thing that one imagines. 
This, truly, was that evil. 

And thus they let out upon these divinities with evil, they 
pierced them with evil. 

7. Then they [i.e. the gods] said to this Breath in the 
mouth : ' Sing for us the Udgltha/ 

4 So be it/ said this Breath, and sang for them. 

They [i.e. the devils] knew: c Verily, by this singer they 
will overcome us/ They rushed upon him and desired to 
pierce him with evil. As a clod of earth would be scattered by 
striking on a stone, even so they were scattered in all directions 
and perished. Therefore the gods increased, the demons 
became inferior. He increases with himself, a hateful enemy 
becomes inferior for him who knows this. 

8. Then they said, * What, pray, has become of him who 
stuck to us thus ? ' c This one here (ay am) is within the mouth 

77 



i. 3. 8-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

(asyd) ! ' He is called Ayasya Angirasa, for he is the essence 
(rasa) of the limbs (ahgct). 

9. Verily, that divinity is Dur by name, for death is far 
(durani) from it. From him who knows this, death is far. 

10. Verily, that divinity having struck off the evil of these 
divinities, even death, made this go to where is the end of the 
quarters of heaven. There it set down their evils. Therefore 
one should not go to [foreign] people, one should not go to 
the end [of the earth], lest he fall in with evil, with death. 

11. Verily, that divinity by striking off the evil, the death, 
of those divinities carried them beyond death. 

12. Verily, it carried Speech over as the first. When that 
was freed from death, it became fire. This fire, when it has 
crossed beyond death, shines forth. 

13. Likewise it carried Smell across. When that was freed 
from death, it became wind. This wind, when it has crossed 
beyond death, purifies. 

14. Likewise it carried the Eye across. When that was 
freed from death, it became the sun. That sun, when it has 
crossed beyond death, glows. 

15. Likewise it carried the Ear across. When that was 
freed from death, it became the quarters of heaven. These 
quarters of heaven have crossed beyond death. 

1 6. Likewise it carried the Mind across. When that was 
freed from death, it became the moon. That moon, when it 
has crossed beyond death, shines. 

Thus, verily, that divinity carries beyond death him who 
knows this. 

17. Then it [i.e. breath] sang out food for itself, for what- 
ever food is eaten is eaten by it. Hereon one is established. 

1 8. Those gods said : c Of such extent, verily, is this universe 
as food. You have sung it into your own possession. Give 
us an after-share in this food.' 

* As such, verily, do ye enter into me.' 

* So be it.' They entered into him from all sides. There- 
fore whatever food one eats by this breath, these are satisfied 
by It. Thus, verily, his people come to him, he becomes the 
supporter of his people, their chief, foremost leader, an eater 
of food, an overlord he who knows this. And whoever 

78 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-1.3.25 

among his people desires to be the equal of him who has this 
knowledge suffices not for his dependents. But whoever 
follows after him and whoever, following after him, desiies 
to support ^his dependents, he truly suffices for his dependents. 

19. He is Ayasya Angirasa, for he is the essence (rasa) of 
the limbs (anga). Verily, breath is the essence of the limbs, 
for vcnly breath is the essence of the limbs. Therefore from 
whatever limb the breath departs, that indeed dries up, for it 
is verily the essence of the limbs. 

so. And also it is Brihaspati. The Brihati l is speech. He 
is her lord (pati), and is therefore Brihaspati. 

2.1. And it is also Brahmanaspati. Prayer (brahman)? 
verily, is speech. He is her lord (pati), and is therefore Brah- 
manaspati. 

A glorification of the Chant as breath 

2.2. And it is also the Sama-Veda. The Chant (saman\ 
verily, is speech. It is sa (she) and ama (he). That is the 
origin of the word sdman. 

Or because it is equal (sama) to a gnat, equal to a fly, equal 
to an elephant, equal to these three worlds, equal to this uni- 
verse, therefore, indeed; it is the Sama-Veda. He obtains 
intimate union with the Saman, he wins its world who knows 
thus that Saman. 

23. And it is also the Udgitha. The breath verily is up 
(uj) 9 for by breath this whole world is upheld (ut-tabdha}. 
Song (glthd), verily, is speech ; ut and githa that is Udgitha. 

34. As also Brahmadatta Caikitaneya, while partaking of 
King [Soma], said: 'Let this king cause this man's 3 head 
to fall off, if Ayasya Angirasa sang the Udgitha with any 
other means than that, for/ said he, 'only with speech and 
with breath did he sing the Udgitha/ 

25. He who knows the property of that Saman has that 
property. Its property, truly, is tone. Therefore let him who 
is about to perform the duties of an Ritvij priest desire a good 

1 Name of a meter used m the Rig- Veda. Here it signifies the Rig- Veda 
itself. 

2 Here referring particularly to the Yajur-Veda. 

3 That is, * my.' Com. 

79 



I-3-35-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

tone in his voice. Being possessed of such a voice, let him 
perform the duties of the Ritvij priest. Therefore people 
desire to see at the sacrifice one who has a good tone, as being 
one who has a possession. He has a possession who knows 
thus the property of the Saman. 

36. He who knows the gold of that Saman comes to have 
gold. The tone (svara), verily, is its gold. He comes to have 
gold who knows thus that gold of the Saman. 

27. He who knows the suppoit of that Saman is indeed 
supported. Voice, verily, is its support, for when supported 
on voice the breath sings. But some say it is supported on food. 

Prayers to accompany an intelligent performance 
of the Chant 

28. Now next, the praying of the puiificatory formulas 
(pavamana). 

The Prastotri priest (Praiser), verily, begins to praise with 
the Chant (sdman). When he begins to praise, then let [the 
sacrlficer] mutter the following : 

' From the unreal (asaf) lead me to the real (sat) I 
From darkness lead me to light! 
From death lead me to immortality ' ' 

When he says ' From the unreal lead me to the real/ the 
unreal, verily, is death, the real is immortality. * From death 
lead me to immortality. Make me immortal ' that is what 
he says. 

* From darkness lead me to light ' the darkness, verily, is 
death, the light is immortality. ' From death lead me to im- 
mortality. Make me immortal ' that is what he says. 

' From death lead me to immortality 'there is nothing there 
that seems obscure. 

Now whatever other verses there are of a hymn of praise 
(stotra), in them one may win food for himself by singing. 
And, therefore, in them he should choose a boon, whatever 
desire he may desire. That Udgatri priest who knows this 
whatever desire he desires, either for himself or for the sacri- 
ficer, that he obtains by singing. This, indeed, is world-con- 
quering. There is no prospect of his being without a world 
who knows thus this Saman. 

80 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-1.4,5 

FOURTH BRAHMANA 
The creation of the manifold world from the unitary Soul 

T. In the beginning this woild was Soul (Atman) alone in 
the form of a Person. Looking around, he saw nothing else 
than himself. He said first : < I am.' Thence arose the name 
' I.' Theiefore even today, when one is addressed, he says first 
just ' It is I ' and then speaks whatever name he has. Since 
before (purvd] all this world he burned up (Jus] all evils, 
therefore he is a person (pur-iis-a). He who knows this, verily,' 
burns up him who desires to be ahead of him. 

2. He was afraid. Therefore one who is alone is afraid. 
This one then thought to himself: ' Since there is nothing else 
than myself, of what am I afraid ? ' Thereupon, verily, his 
fear departed, for of what should he have been afraid ? Assur- 
edly it is from a second that fear arises. 

3. Verily, he had no delight. Therefore one alone has no 
delight. He desired a second. He was, indeed, as large as 
a woman and a man closely embraced. He caused that self 
to fall (</J>at) into two pieces. Theiefrom arose a husband 
(pati) and a wife (patnT). Therefore this [is true] : ' Oneself 
(sva) * is like a half-fragment/ as Yajnavalkya used to say. 
Therefore this space is filled by a wife. He copulated with 
her. Therefrom human beings were pioduced. 

4. And she then bethought herself- ' How now does he 
copulate with me after he has produced me just from himself? 
Come, let me hide myself/ She became a cow. He became 
a bull. With her he did indeed copulate. Then cattle were 
born. She became a mare, he a stallion. She became a female 
ass, he a male ass ; with her he copulated, of a truth. Thence 
were bom solid-hoofed animals. She became a she-goat, he a 
he-goat ; she a ewe, he a ram. With her he did verily copulate. 
Therefrom were born goats and sheep. Thus, indeed, he 
created all, whatever pairs there are, even down to the ants. 

5. He knew : ' I, indeed, am this creation, for I emitted it 
all from myself. 3 Thence arose creation. Verily, he who 
has this knowledge comes to be in that creation of his. 

1 Less likely is Deusben's interpretation c Therefore is this [body] by itself 

St G 



i. 4. 6-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

6. Then he rubbed thus. 1 From his mouth as the fire-hole 
(yoni) and from his hands he created fire (agni}< Both these 
[i.e. the hands and the mouth] are hairless on the inside, for 
the fire-hole (yom) is hairless on the inside. 

This that people say, Worship this god ! Worship that 
god!' one god after another this is his creation indeed! 
And he himself is all the gods. 

Now, whatever is moist, that he created from semen, and 
that is Soma. This whole world, verily, is just food and the 
eater of food. 

That was Brahma's super-creation : namely, that he created 
the gods, his superiors ; likewise, that, being mortal, he created 
the immortals. Therefore was it a super-creation. Verily, he 
who knows this comes to be in that super-creation of his. 

7. Verily, at that time the world was undifferentiated. It 
became differentiated just by name and foim, as the saying is : 

* He has such a name, such a form/ Even today this world is 
differentiated just by name and form, as the saying is : ' He 
has such a name, such a form.' 

He entered in here, even to the fingernail-tips, as a razor 
would be hidden in a razor-case, or fire in a fire-holder.' 2 Him 
they see not, for [as seen] he Is incomplete. When breathing, 
he becomes breath (prdnd) by name ; when speaking, voice ; 
when seeing, the eye ; when hearing, the ear ; when thinking, 
the mind : these are merely the names of his acts. Whoever 
worships one or another of these he knows not ; for he is 

1 The adverb is here used deictically. 

2 Such is the traditional interpretation. If that is correct, the passage presents 
the earliest occurrence of a favorite simile of the later Vedanta ; cf. for example, 
ankara on the Brahma-Sutras 3. 2. 6 ' as fire is latent in firewood or in covered 
embers.* But the meaning of m&vambJiara is uncertain. Etymologically the word 
is a compound signifying * all-bearing.' As such it is an unambiguous appellation 
of the earth at AV 12. I 6. The only other occurrence of its adjectival -use that 
is cited in BR. is AV. 2. 16. 5, where the commentator substantiates his rendering 

* fire' by quoting the piesent passage. In both of these passages Whitney rejects 
the meaning ( fire ' (A V Tr. p. 60-61), and in his criticism of Bohtlingk's translation 
of this Upamshad (AJP n. 432) suggests that ' vtivambhara may perhaps here 
mean some kind of insect, in accordance with its later use,' and * since the point of 
comparison is the invisibility of the things encased ' proposes the translation * or as 
a vitvambhara in a vtfvam&kara-uest. 1 But Professor Lanman adds to Whitney's 
note on AV. a. 16. 5 (AV, Tr. p. 60-6 j) ; 'I think, nevertheless, that fire may be 
meant.' The same simile recurs at Kaush. 4. 20. 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-1.4.10 

incomplete with one or another of these. One should worship 
with the thought that he is just one's self (atman\ for therein 
all these become one That same thing, namely, this self, is the 
trace (fadaniyd) of this All, for by it one knows this All. 
Just as, verily, one might find by a footprint (^r),thus - 1 
He finds fame and praise who knows this. 

8. That self is dearer than a son, is dearer than wealth, is 
dearer than all else, since this self is nearer. 

If of one who speaks of anything else than the self as dear, 
one should say, fc He will lose what he holds dear/ he would 
indeed be likely to do so. One should reverence the self 
alone as dear. He who reverences the self alone as dear 
what he holds dear, verily, is not perishable. 

9. Here people say : Since men think that by the knowledge 
of Brahma they become the All, what, pray, was it that Brahma 
knew whereby he became the All ? ' 

10. Verily, in the beginning this world was Brahma, 

It knew only itself (atmanam) : < I am Brahma ! ' Therefore 
it became the All. Whoever of the gods became awakened 
to this, he indeed became it ; likewise in the case of seers (rsi), 
likewise in the case of men. Seeing this, indeed, the seer 
Vamadeva began : 

I was Manu and the Sun (Surya)\* 
This is so now also. Whoever thus knows ' I am Brahma ! ' 

1 In the above translation warn (' thus *) is regarded as the complete apodosis of 
the sentence whose protasis is introduced by yatka (' just as'). This arrangement 
of clauses involves an ellipsis, which, if supplied m full, might be 'Just as, verily, 
one might find [cattle, the commentate! explains] by a footprint, thus one finds 
this All by its footprint, the self (atwany 

Another possible grouping would connect that protasis with the preceding 
sentence merely as an added simile, warn (' thus ') being regarded as a resumptive 
introduction for the following sentence. The translation of the words thus grouped 
would be : f That very thing is the trace of this Alleven this self (atman) ; for 
by it one knows this All, just as, verily, one might find by a footprint. Thus he 
finds fame and praise who knows this.' 

Neither arrangement of the clauses is entirely satisfactory. Of the two, the 
latter, however, would appear to be the less probable, for the reason that it 
prevents the concluding sentence from assuming the exact form peimitted by the 
arrangement adopted above of the customary formula announcing the reward of 
knowing the truths which have been expounded. 

* RV. 4. 26. I a. 

83 G a 



i.4. io-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

becomes this All; even the gods have not power to pievcnt 
his becoming thus, for he becomes their self (atman}. 

So whoever worships another divinity [than his Self], 
thinking ' He is one and I another/ he knows not He is like 
a sacrificial animal for the gods. Verily, indeed, as many 
animals would be of service to a man, even so each single 
person is of service to the gods. If even one animal is taken 
away, it is not pleasant. What, then, if many? Therefoie 
it is not pleasing to those [gods] that men should know this, 

ii. Verily, in the beginning this world was Biahma, one 
only. Being one, he was not developed. He created still 
further 1 a superior form, the Kshatrahood, even those who 
are Kshatras (rulers) 2 among the gods : Indra, Varuna, Soma, 
Rudra, Parjanya, Yama., Mrityu, Isana. Therefore there is 
nothing higher than Kshatra, Therefore at the Rajasuya 
ceremony 3 the Brahman sits below the Kshatriya. Upon 
Kshatrahood alone does he confer this honor. This same 
thing, namely Brahrnanhood (brahma)> is the source of 
Kshatrahood. Therefore, even if the king attains supremacy, 
he rests finally upon Brahmanhood as his own source, So 
whoever injures him [i.e. a Brahman] attacks his own source. 
He fares worse in proportion as he injures one who is better. 

is. He was not yet developed. He created the Vis (the 
commonalty) ,those kinds of gods that are mentioned in numbers : 
the Vasus, the Rudras, the Adityas, the Vi^vadevas, the Maruts. 

13. He was not yet developed. He created the Sudra caste 
(varya), Pushan 4 Verily, this [earth] is Pushan, for she nourishes 
( Vpzts) everything that is. 

14. He was not yet developed. He created still further a 
better form, Law (dharma). This is the power (ksatra) of the 
Kshatriya class (ksatra), viz. Law. Therefore there is nothing 
higher than Law. So a weak man controls a strong man by 
Law, just as if by a king. Verily, that which is Law is truth. 
Therefore they say of a man who speaks the truth, < He speaks 

1 aty-asrjata t super- created * 

2 ksatra abstractly, power or dominion ; specifically, temporal power : used to 
designate the military and princely class, as contrasted with the priestly class of 
Brahmans, See page 98, note 2. 

8 The ceremonial anointing of a king. 
4 Another Vedic divinity. 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-1.4.17 

the Law/ or of a man who speaks the Law, < He speaks the 
truth/ Verily, both these are the same thing. 

15. So that Brahma [appeared as] Kshatra, Vis, and Sudra. 
So among the gods Biahma appeared by means of Agni, 
among men as a Brahman, as a Kshatriya by means of the 
[divine] Kshatriya, as a Vaisya by means of the [divine] Vai^ya, 
as a Sudra by means of the [divine] Sudra. Therefore people 
desire a place among the gods in Agni, among men in a Brah- 
man, for by these two forms [pre-eminently] Brahma appeared. 

Now whoever depaits from this world [i. e. the world of the 
Atman] without having recognized it as his own, to him it is 
of no service, because it is unknown, as the unrecited Vedas or 
any other undone deed [do not help a man]. 

Verily, even if one performs a great and holy work, but 
without knowing this, that work of his merely perishes in the 
end. One should worship the Self alone as his [true] world 
The work of him who worships the Self alone as his world 
does not perish, for out of that very Self he creates whatsoever 
he desires. 1 

1 6. Now this Self, verily, is a world of all created things. In 
so far as a man makes offerings and sacrifices, he becomes the 
world of the gods In so far as he learns [the Vedas], he 
becomes the world of the seers (rsi). In so far as he offers 
libations to the fathers and desiies offspring, he becomes the 
world of the fathers. In so far as he gives lodging and food 
to men, he becomes the world of men. In so far as he finds 
grass and water for animals, he becomes the world of animals. 
In so far as beasts and birds, even to the ants, find a living in 
his houses, he becomes their world. Verily, as one would 
desire security for his own world, so all creatures wish security 
for him who has this knowledge. This fact, verily, is known 
when it is thought out. 

17. In the beginning this world was just the Self (Atman), 
one only. He wished ; c Would that I had a wife ; then I would 
procreate. Would that I had wealth; then I would offer 
sacrifice.' So great, indeed, is desire. Not even if one 
desired, would he get more than that. Therefore even today 
when one is lonely one wishes : ' Would that I had a wife, then 

1 Cf. Chand. 8. 2, where this thought is developed in detail 

85 



I.4.I7-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

I would procreate. Would that I had wealth, then I would 
offer sacrifice. 3 So far as he does not obtain any one of these, 
he thinks that he is, assuredly, incomplete. Now his complete- 
ness is as follows : his mind truly is his self (dtmaii) ; his voice 
is his wife ; his breath is his offspring ; his eye is his worldly 
wealth, for with his eye he finds ; his ear is his heavenly 
[wealth], for with his ear he hears it , his body (dtman\ indeed, 
is his work, for with his body he performs work. 

The sacrifice is fivefold. The sacrificial animal is fivefold. 
A person is fivefold. This whole world, whatever there is, is 
fivefold. He obtains this whole world who knows this. 



FIFTH BRAHMANA 

The threefold production of the world by Prajapati 
as food for himself 

i. When the Father produced by intellect 
And austenty seven kinds of food, 
One of his [foods] was common to all, 
Of two he let the gods partake, 
Three he made for himself, 
One he bestowed upon the animals 
On this [food] everything depends, 
Both what breathes and what does not. 
How is it that these do not peiish 
When they are being eaten all the time 
He who knows this imperishableness 
He eats food with his mouth (pratika), 
He goes to the gods, 
He lives on strength. 

Thus the verses. 

3. 'When the Father produced by intellect and austerity 
seven kinds of food' truly by intellect and austerity the 
Father did produce them. 

' One of his [foods] was common to all.' That of his which 
is common to all is the food that is eaten here. He who 
worships that, is not turned from evil, for it is mixed [i.e. 
common, not selected]. 

'Of two he let the gods partake/ They arc the tmta 
(fire-sacrifice) and thtfra/mta (offering). For this reason one 

86 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-15.3 

sacrifices and offers to the gods. People also say that these 
two are the new-moon and the full-moon sacrifices. Therefore 
one should not offer sacrifice [merely] to secure a wish 

1 One he bestowed upon the animals ' that is milk, for at 
first both men and animals live upon milk. Therefore they 
either make a new-bom babe lick butter or put it to the breast. 
Likewise they call a new-born calf 'one that does not eat grass ' 

* On this [food] everything depends, both what breathes and 
what does not ' for upon milk everything depends, both what 
breathes and what does not. This that people say, c By 
offering with milk for a year one escapes the second death ' 
one should know that this is not so, since on the very day that 
he makes the offering he who knows escapes the second death, 
for he offers all his food to the gods. 

1 How is it that these do not perish when they are being 
eaten all the time?' Verily, the Person is imperishableness, 
for he produces this food again and again. 

' He who knows this imperishableness ' verily, a person is 
imperishableness, for by continuous meditation he produces 
this food as his work. Should he not do this, all the food 
would perish. 

( He eats food with his mouth (pratlkd)' The prattka is the 
mouth. So he eats food with his mouth. 

* He goes to the gods, he lives on strength ' this is praise. 
3. * Three he made for himself 5 Mind, speech, breath 

these he made for himself. 

People say : ' My mind was elsewhere ; I did not see. My 
rnind was elsewhere ; I did not hear. It is with the mind, 
truly, that one sees. It is with the mind that one hears. 
Desire, imagination, doubt, faith, lack of faith, steadfastness, 
lack of steadfastness, shame, meditation, fear all this is truly 
mind. 1 Therefore even if one is touched on his back, he 
discerns it with the mind. 

Whatever sound there is, it is just speech. Verily, it comes 
to an end [as human speech] ; verily, it does not [as the 
heavenly voice]. 

The in-breath, the out-breath, the diffused breath, the 
up-breath, the middle-breath all this is just breath. 

1 This and the two preceding sentences are quoted at Maitri 6. 30. 

87 



i-5 3-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Verily, the self (dtman) consists of speech, mind, and breath. 

4. These same are the three worlds. This [terrestrial] world 
is Speech. The middle [atmospheric] world is Mind. That 
[celestial] world is Breath. 

5. These same are the three Vedas. The Rig-Veda is 
Speech. The Yajur-Veda is Mind. The Sama-Veda is Breath. 

6. The same are the gods, Manes, and men. The gods are 
Speech. The Manes are Mind Men are Breath. 

7. These same are father, mother, and offspring. The 
father is Mind. The mother is Speech. The offspring is 
Breath. l 

8. These same are what is known, what is to be known, and 
what is unknown. 

Whatever is known is a form of Speech, for Speech is known. 
Speech, having become this, helps him [L e. man]. 

9. Whatever is to be known is a form of Mind, for mind is 
to be known. Mind, having become this, helps him. 

10. Whatever is unknown is a form of Breath, for Breath is 
unknown. Breath, having become this, helps him. 

n. Of this Speech the earth is the body. Its light-form is 
this [terrestrial] fire. As far as Speech extends, so far extends 
the earth, so far this fire. v 

12. Likewise of that Mind the sky is the body. Its light- 
form is yon sun. As far as Mind extends, so far extends the 
sky, so far yon sun. 

These two [the fire and the sun] entered sexual union. 
Therefrom was born Breath. He is Indra. He is without a 
rival. Verily, a second person is a rival He who knows this 
has no rival. 

13. Likewise of that Breath, water is the body. Its light- 
form is yon moon. As far as Breath extends, so far extends 
water, so far yon moon. 

These are all alike, all infinite. Verily he who worships 
them as finite wins a finite world. Likewise he who worships 
them as infinite wins an infinite world. 

One's self identified with the sixteenfold Prajapati 

14. That Prajapati 5s the year. He is composed of 
sixteen parts. His nights, truly, are fifteen parts. His 

88 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-1.5.17 

sixteenth part is steadfast. He is increased and diminished by 
his nights alone. Having, on the new-moon night, entered 
with that sixteenth part into everything here that has breath, 
he is born thence on the following morning [as the new moon]. 
Therefore on that night one should not cut off the breath of 
any breathing thing, not even of a lizard, in honoi of that 
divinity. 

15. Verily, the person here who knows this, is himself that 
Prajapati with the sixteen parts who is the year. The 
fifteen parts are his wealth. The sixteenth part is his self 
(atman). In wealth alone [not in self] is one increased and 
diminished. 

That which is the self (atman) is a hub ; wealth, a felly. 1 
Therefore even if one is overcome by the loss of everything, 
provided he himself lives, people say merely . ' He has come 
off with the loss of a felly ! ' 

The three worlds and how to win them 

j 6. Now, there are of a truth three worlds the world of 
men, the world of the fathers, and the world of the gods.. 
This world of men is to be obtained by a son only, by no 
other means ; the world of the fathers, by sacrifice ; the world 
of the gods, by knowledge. The world of the gods is verily 
the best of worlds. Therefore they praise knowledge. 

A father's transmission to his son 

17. Now next, the Transmission. 2 

When a man thinks he is about to depart, he says to his 
son : ' Thou art holy knowledge. Thou art sacrifice. Thou 
art the world.' The son replies : ' I am holy knowledge. 
I am sacrifice. I am the world/ Verily, whatever has been 
learned [from the Vedas], the sum of all this is expressed by 
the word c knowledge ' (brahma}. Verily, whatever sacrifices 
have been made, the sum of them all is expressed by the word 
* sacrifice. 3 Whatever worlds there are, they are all compre- 
hended under the word ' world. 5 So great, verily, is this all. 

1 In the analogy of a wheel. 

2 Another description of a dying father's benediction and bestowal upon his son 
occurs at Kaush. 2. 15. 



1.5- 1 7-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

1 Being thus the all, let him assist me from this world/ thus 
[the father considers]. Therefore they call 'world-procuring' 
a son who has been instructed. 1 Therefore they instruct him. 

When one who has this knowledge departs from this world, 
he enters into his son with these vital breaths [i.e. faculties: 
Speech, Mind, and Breath]. Whatever wrong has been done 
by him, his son frees him from it all.. Therefore he is called 
a son (putra)? By his son a father stands firm in this world. 
Then into him [who has made over to his son his mortal 
breaths] enter those divine immortal breaths. 

1 8. From the earth and from the fire the divine Speech 
enters him. Verily, that is the divine Speech whereby what- 
ever one says comes to be. 

19. Out of the sky and out of the sun the divine Mind enters 
him. Verily, that is the divine Mind whereby one becomes 
blissful and sorrows not. 

20. Out of the water and out of the moon the divine Breath 
enters him. Verily, that is the divine Breath which, whether 
moving or not moving, is not perturbed, nor injured. 

He who knows this becomes the Self of all beings. As is 
that divinity [i.e. Prajapati], so is he. As all beings favor that 
divinity, so to him who knows this all beings show favor. 
Whatever sufferings creatures endure, these remain with 
them. Only good goes to him. Evil, verily, does not go to 
the gods. 

Breath, the unfailing power in a person : like the 
unwearying world-breath, wind 

31. Now next, a Consideration of the Activities. 
Prajapati created the active functions (karma). They,. when 
they had been created, strove with one another. * I am going 

1 The sense of this and the following paragiaph seems to involve a play upon 
the double meaning of a word, a procedure characteristic of the Upamshads. The 
word lokya may here be translated 'world-wise 7 or * world-procuring/ When 
properly instructed, a son is ' world-wise ' in his own attainment of the world 
through knowledge. He is also * world-procuring ' for his father, in that he is able, 
through the discharge of appointed filial duties, to help the departed spirit of his 
father to attain a better world than would otherwise be possible. 

2 Of. Manava Dharma Sastra 9. 138 ' Because a son delivers (trayate} hib father 
from the hell called Put, therefore he is called putra (son) [i.e. deliverer from 
hell],' 

90 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-1.5.33 

to speak/ the voice began. ' I am going to see/ said the eye. 
6 I am going to hear,' said the ear. So spake the other func- 
tions, each according to his function. Death, appearing as 
weariness, laid hold and took possession of them , and, taking 
possession of them, Death checked them. Therefore the voice 
becomes weary, the eye becomes weary, the ear becomes weary. 
But Death did not take possession of him who was the middle 
breath. They sought to know him. They said : ( Verily, he 
is the best of us, since whether moving or not moving, he is 
not perturbed, nor perishes. Come, let us all become a form 
of him.' Of him, indeed, they became a form. Therefore 
they are named ' vital breaths ' after him. In whatever family 
there is a man who has this knowledge, they call that family 
after him. Whoever strives with one who knows this, dries 
up and finally dies. So much with reference to the self. 

33. Now with reference to the divinities. 

c Verily, I am going to blaze/ began the Fire. c I am going 
to give forth heat/ said the Sun. e I am going to shine/ said 
the Moon. So said the other divinities, each according to his 
divine nature. As Breath holds the central position among 
the vital breaths [or functions], so Wind among these divinities ; 
for the other divinities have their decline, but not Wind The 
Wind is that divinity which never goes to rest. 

23. There is this verse on the subject : 

From whom the sun. rises 
And in whom it sets 

in truth, from Breath it lises, and in Breath it sets 

Him the gods made law (dharmd)\ 
He only today and tomorrow will be. 

Verily, what those [functions] undertook of old, even that 
they accomplish today. Therefore one should practise but 
one activity. He should breathe in and breathe out, wishing, 
1 May not the evil one, Death, get rne.' And the observance 
which he practises he should desire to fulfil to the end. 
Thereby he wins complete union with that divinity [i.e. Breath] 
and residence in the same world. 



I.6.1-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

SIXTH BRAHMANA 

The entire actual world a threefold appearance of the 
unitary immortal Soul 

I. Verily, this world is a triad name, form, and work. 

Of these, as regards names, that which is called Speech is 
their hymn of praise (ttktha), for from it arise (ut-tha) all 
names. It is their Saman (chant), for it is the same (sama) 
as all names. It is their prayer (brahman)^ for it supports 
( */bhar) all names. 

3. Now of forms. That which is called the Eye is their hymn 
of praise (uktha), for from it arise (nt-thd) all forms. It is 
their Saman (chant), for it is the same (sama) as all forms. 
It is their prayer (brahman), for it supports (Vb/iar) all 
forms. 

3. Now of works, That which is called the Body (atman) 
is their hymn of praise (ttktha), for from it arise (ut-tha) all 
actions. It is their Saman (chant), for it is the same (sama) 
as all works. It is their prayer (brahman), for it supports 
( Vbhar) all works. 

Although it is that triad, this Soul (Atman) is one. 
Although it is one, it is that triad. That is the Im- 
mortal veiled by the real (satya). Life (prana^ ' breath ') 
[a designation of the Atman], verily, is the Immortal. Name 
and form are the real. By them this Life is veiled. 



SECOND ADHYAYA 

FIRST BRAHMANA 1 

Gurgya and Ajatasatru's progressive definition of Brahma 

as the world-source, entered in sleep 
i. Driptabalaki was a learned Gargya. He said to Aja- 
taatru, [king] of Benares : ' I will tell you about Brahma/ 
Ajata^atru said: 'We will give a thousand [cows] for such 
a speech. Verily, people will run hither, crying, " A Janaka ! 
a Janaka ! " ' 2 

1 Compare the similar conversation in Kaush. 4. 

2 A very learned and liberal king. 

92 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-2.1.8 

2. Gargya said : ' The Person who is yonder in the sun him, 
indeed, I worship as Brahma ! ' 

Ajatasatru said : ' Talk not to me about him ' I worship 
him as the pre-eminent, the head and king of all beings. He 
who worships him as such becomes pre-eminent, the head 
and king of all beings/ 

3. Gargya said : ' The Person who is yonder in the moon 
him, indeed, I worship as Brahma I ' 

Ajatasatru said . ' Talk not to me about him ! I worship 
him as the great, white-robed king Soma. He who worships 
him as such, for him soma is pressed out and continually 
pressed out day by day. His food does not fail.' 

4. Gargya said: 'The Person who is yonder in lightning 
him, indeed, I worship as Brahma ! ' 

Ajatasatru said: 'Talk not to me about him! I worship 
him, verily, as the Brilliant. He who worships him as such 
becomes brilliant indeed. His offspring becomes brilliant/ 

5. Gargya said: 'The Person who is here in space him, 
indeed, I worship as Brahma ! ' 

Ajatasatru said : ' Talk not to me about him ! I worship 
him, verily, as the Full, the non-active. He who worships him 
as such is filled with offspring and cattle. His offspring goes 
not forth from this earth/ 

6. Gargya said. 'The Person who is here in wind him, 
indeed, I worship as Brahma ! ' 

Ajatasatru said : ' Talk not to me about him ! Verily, I 
worship him as Indra, the terrible (vaikuntha), and the uncon- 
quered army. He who worships him as such becomes indeed 
triumphant, unconquerable, and a conqueror of adversaries/ 

7. Gargya said: 'The Person who is here in fire him, 
indeed, I worship as Brahma ' ' 

Ajatasatru said : ' Talk not to me about him ! I worship 
him, verily, as the Vanquisher. He who worships him as such 
becomes a vanquisher 'indeed. His offspring become van- 
quishers/ 

8. Gargya said: 'The Person who is here in water him, 
indeed, I worship as Brahma ! ' 

Ajatasatru said : * Talk not to me about him ! I worship 
him, verily, as the Counterpart [of phenomenal objects]. His 

93 



a, i. 8-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

counterpart comes to him [In his children], not that which is 
not his counterpart His counterpart is born from him.' 

9. Gargya said: 'The Person who is here in a mirror 
him, indeed, I worship as Brahma ! ' 

Ajatasatru said : 'Talk not to me about him! I worship 
him, verily, as the Shining One. He who worships him as 
such becomes shining indeed. His offspring shine. He out- 
shines all those with ^whom he goes. 3 

10. Gargya said : c The sound here which follows after one 
as he goes him, indeed, I worship as Brahma ' ' 

Ajatas'atru said: 'Talk not to me about him! I worship 
him, verily, as Life (asu). To him who worships him as such 
there comes a full length of life (dyu) in this world. Breath 
(prdna) leaves him not before the time.' 

11. Gargya said: 'The Person who is here in the quarters 
of heaven him, indeed, I worship as Brahma ! ' 

Ajatas'atru said: 'Talk not to me about him' I worship 
him, verily, as the Inseparable Companion. He who worships 
him as such has a companion. His company is not separated 
from him.' 

ia. Gargya said . ' The Person here who consists of shadow 
him, indeed, I worship as Brahma ! ' 

Ajatasatru said: 'Talk not to me about him! I worship 
him, verily, as Death. To him who worships him as such 
there comes a full length of life in this world. Death docs not 
come to him before the time.' 

13. Gargya said: 'The Person here who is in the body 
(dtman) him, indeed, I worship as Brahma ! ' 

Ajatasatru said : ' Talk not to me about him ! I worship 
him, verily, as the Embodied One (atmanvin). He who wor- 
ships him as such becomes embodied indeed, His offspring 
becomes embodied,' 

Gargya became silent 

14. Ajatas'atru said : ' Is that all ? ' 
Gargya said : ' That is all.' 

Ajatas'atru said : ' With that much [only] it is not known.' 
Gargya said : ' Let me come to you as a pupil/ 

15. Ajatasatru said: ' Verily, it is contrary to the course of 
things that a Brahman should come to a Kshatriya, thinking 

94 



BR1HAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.1.30 

" He will tell me Brahma/' However, I shall cause you to 
know him clearly/ 

He took him by the hand and rose. The two went up to 
a man who was asleep. They addressed him with these words : 
1 Thou great, white-robed king Soma ! ' He did not rise. He 
[i.e. Ajatasatru] woke him by rubbing him with his hand. 
That one arose. 

16. Ajatasatru said : ' When this man fell asleep thus, where 
then was the person who consists of intelligence (mjndna) ? 
Whence did he thus come back ? ' 

And this also Gargya did not know. 

17. Ajatasatru said : ' When this man has fallen asleep thus, 
then the peison who consists of intelligence 3 having by his 
intelligence taken to himself the intelligence of these senses 
(prana\ rests in that place which is the space within the heart. 
When that person restrains the senses, that person is said to 
be asleep. Then the breath is restrained, The voice is 
restrained. The eye is restrained. The ear is restrained. 
The mind is restrained. 

1 8. When he goes to sleep, these worlds are his. Then he 
becomes a great king, as it were. Then he becomes a great 
Brahman, as it were. He enters the high and the low, as 
it were. As a great king, taking with him his people, moves 
around in his own country as he pleases, even so here this one, 
taking with him his senses, moves around in his own body 
(tarlra) as he pleases. 

19. Now when one falls sound asleep (susuptci), when one 
knows nothing whatsoever, having crept out through the 
seventy-two thousand veins, called hitd, which lead from the 
heart to the pericardium, one rests in the pericardium. Verily, 
as a youth or a great king or a great Brahman might rest 
when he has reached the summit of bliss, so this one now rests. 

20. As a spider might come out with his thread, as small 
sparks come forth from the fire, even so from this Soul come 
forth all vital energies (prdnd), all worlds, all gods, all beings. 
The mystic meaning (upanisad) thereof is * the Real of the real ' 
(satyasya satya)?- Breathing creatures, verily, are the real. 
He is their Real/ 

1 Part of this paragraph recurs at Maitri 6. 32. 

95 



2.2.I-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

SECOND BRAHMANA 
The embodiment of Breath in a person 

i Verily, he who knows the new-born infant with his 
housing, his covering, his post, and his rope, keeps off seven 
hostile relatives. 

Verily, this infant is Breath (prdnd) in the middle. Its 
housing is this [body]. Its covering is this [head]. Its post 
is breath (prdna). Its rope is food. 

2. Seven imperishable beings stand near to serve him. 
Thus there are these red streaks in the eye. By them Rudra 
is united with him. Then there is the water in the eye By 
it Parjanya is united with him There is the pupil of tlic eye. 
By it the sun is united with him. By the black of the eye, 
Agni ; by the white of the eye, Indra ; by the lower eyelash, 
Earth is united with him ; by the upper eyelash, Heaven, He 
who knows this his food does not fail. 

3. In connection herewith there is this verse : 

There is a cup with its mouth below and its bottom up. 

In it is placed every foim of glory. 

On its rim sit seven seers. 

Voice as an eighth is united with prayer (brahman}} 

' There is a cup having its mouth below and its bottom up J 
this is the head, for that is a cup having its mouth below and 
its bottom up. In it is placed every form of glory ' breaths, 
verily, are the c every form of glory ' placed in it ; thus he 
says breaths (prdna). ' On its rim sit seven seers' verily, 
the breaths are the seers. Thus he says breaths. ' Voice 
as an eighth is united with prayer 7 for voice as an eighth 
is united with prayer, 

4. These two [sense-organs] here [i. e. the ears] are Gotama 
and Bharadvaja. This is Gotama and this is Bharadvaja. 
These two here [i. e. the eyes] are VisVamitra and Jamadagni. 
This is VisVamitra. This is Jamadagni. These two here[L e. 
the nostrils] are Vasishtha and Kas"yapa. This is Vasishtha. 
This is Kas"yapa. The voice is Atri, for by the voice food is 
eaten (*/ad). Verily, eating (at~ti) is the same as the name 

1 A very similar stanza is found at AV. 10. 8. 9. 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.3.6 

Atri. He who knows this becomes the eater of everything ; 
everything becomes his food. 

THIRD BRAHMANA 
The two forms of Brahma 

1. There are, assuredly, two forms of Brahma: the formed 
(murta) and the formless, 1 the mortal and the immortal, the 
stationary and the moving, the actual (sat) and the yon (tya). 

2. This is the formed [Brahma] whatever is different from 
the wind and the atmosphere. This is mortal; this is sta- 
tionary ; this is actual. The essence of this formed, mortal, 
stationary, actual [Brahma] is yonder [sun] which gives forth 
heat, for that is the essence of the actual. 

3. Now the formless [Brahma] isthewmdandtheatrnosphere 
This is immortal, this is moving, this is the yon. The essence 
of this unformed, immortal, moving, yonder [Brahma] is the 
Person in that sun-disk, for he is the essence of the yon, 
Thus with reference to the divinities. 

4. Now, with reference to the self. 

Just that is the formed [Brahma] which is different from 
breath (frdna) and from the space which is within the sell 
(atman). This is mortal, this is stationary, this is actual. The 
essence of this formed, mortal, stationary, actual [Brahma] is 
the eye, for it is the essence of the actual. 

5. Now the formless [Brahma] is the breath and the space 
which is within the self. This is immortal, this is moving, 
this is the yon. The essence of this unformed, immortal, 
moving, yonder [Brahma] is this Person who is in the right eye, 
for he is the essence of the yonder. 

6. The form of this Person is like a saffron-colored robe, 
like white wool, like the [purple] Indragopa beetle, like a flame 
of fire, like the [white] lotus-flower, like a sudden flash of 
lightning. Verily, like a sudden lightning-flash is the glory 
of him who knows this. 

Hence, now, there is the teaching ' Not thus ! not so ! ' (mti> 
neti), for there is nothing higher than this, that he is thus. Now 
the designation for him is c the Real of the real/ Verily, 
breathing creatures are the real. He is their Real. 
1 Thus far the sentence recurs at Maitn 6. 3, 

97 H 



2.4- 1-] BIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

FOURTH BRAHMANA 

The conversation of Yajnavalkya and Maitreyi 
concerning the pantheistic Soul 

i. c Maitreyi! 3 said Yajnavalkya, Mo, verily, I am about 
to go forth from this state. 1 Behold ! let me make a final 
settlement for you and that Katyayani.' 

3. Then said Maitreyi . ' If now, Sir, this whole earth 
filled with wealth were mine, would I be immortal 
thereby ? ' 

c No, 5 said Yajnavalkya. c As the life of the rich, even so 
would your life be. Of immortality, however, there is no hope 
through wealth.' 

3. Then said Maitreyi : ' What should I do with that through 
which I may not be immortal ? What you know, Sir that, 
indeed, tell me ! ' 

4. Then said Yajnavalkya : ' Ah (bata) \ Lo (arc\ dear 
(priya) as you are to us, dear is what you say ! Come, sit down. 
I will explain to you. But while I am expounding, do you 
seek to ponder thereon. 1 

5. Then said he : * Lo, verily, not for love of the husband is 
a husband dear, but for love of the Soul (Atman) a husband 
is dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the wife is a wife dear, but for 
love of the Soul a wife is dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the sons are sons dear, but for love 
of the Soul sons are dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the wealth is wealth dear, but for 
love of the Soul wealth is dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of Brahmanhood 2 (brahma) is 
Brahmanhood dear, but for love of the Soul Brahmanhood is 
dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of Kshatrahood' 2 (ksatrd) is Kshatra- 
hood dear, but for love of the Soul Kshatrahood is dear. 

1 Instead of the general meaning ' place,* sthdna in this context probably has 
this more technical meaning, designating ( stage in the life of a Brahman ' (atrama) ; 
i.e. from being a 'householder' (grhastka) he is going on to be an 'anchorite' 
(vanajbrastha) in the order of the four stages.' 

a From the more simple, general conception of brahma as ' devotion * and 
* sanctity ' there became developed a more specific, technical application, ' the 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.4.5 

Lo, verily, not for love of the worlds are the worlds dear, 
but for love of the Soul the worlds are dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the gods are the gods dear, but 
for love of the Soul the gods are dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the beings (bhuta) are beings dear, 
but for love of the Soul beings are dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of all is all dear, but for love of the 
Soul all is dear. 

priesthood 1 or 'the Brahman class.' Likewise from the more simple, general 
conception of ksatra as ' rule' was developed^ more specific, technical application, 
6 the ruling power ' or c the Kshatnya class ' 

The trend of this process is discernible in the Rig- Veda at i. 157. 2, the earliest 
instance where the two words are associated. Various stages may be noted in other 
passages where the two words are connected. In the Atharva-Veda at 12 5 8 
they would seem to be used (unless, indeed, figuratively) in the primary, non- 
technical sense, for they are mentioned along with othei qualities of a Kshatnya. 
But the technical significance is evident in AV. 2. 15. 4 and 15. 10. 2-11 ; while 
m AV. 9. 7. 9 the social classes as such are unmistakably emphasized. Similarly 
in the Vajasaneyi-Samhita : in 19. 5 the primary meaning is dominant; in 5. 27 , 
6. 3 ; 7 21; 14. 24; 18, 38 the more technical meaning is evident, while 
brahma and ksatra are mentioned along with other caste terms at 10 10-12 
(with m$, 'the people'); 18. 48; 20. 17, 25; 26. 2, 30, 5 (with vaifya 
and sudra}. Similarly in the Aitareya Brahmana where the two words are 
associated at 3. n and 7 21, with the primary meaning dominant, there seems 
to be a touch of the technical significance; at 7. 22, 24 the social classes are 
designated, although it comes out clearly that they are such because charactenzed 
by the abstract qualities brahma and ksatra respectively; they are mentioned 
as distinct classes at 2. 33 (along with the w) and at 7. 19 (along with 
vattya and Siidrd). Similarly in the Satapatha Brahmana wheie the two words 
are associated: the primary conceptions are apparent in n 4 3 11-13 where 
brahma and ksatra are qualities or characteristics co-ordinated with other objects 
desired m prayer; but these qualities are felt as characteristic of certain social 
classes, as also of certain gods (Brihaspati and Mitra respectively) correlated there- 
with (in 10. 4. i. 5 Indra and Agm, in 5. 1 1. 1 1 Brihaspati and Indra, in 4. 1 . 4. 1-4 
Mitra and Varuna respectively) ; brahma and ksatra are also simply technical 
designations of the social classes in i. 2. i. 7 , 3. 5. 2. n , 4 2. 2 13 ; 9. 4. i. 7-11 ; 
12. 7. 3 12; 13. 1,5.2. Still further advanced class differentiation is evidenced 
by the use of brahma and ksatra along with vi as designations of the * priesthood,* 
* nobility,' and * people' respectively at 2. i. 3, 5-8; 2. i. 4. j? 10. 4, i. 9; 
n. 2. 7. 14-16. 

This conspectus of usage furnishes corroboration to the inherent probability that 
here (in the Upanishad which forms th conclusion of the Satapatha Brahmana), 
especially in 6, the words brahma tnd ksatra are class-designation^, pregnant, 
however, with the connotation of the respective qualities. Accoidingly, the 
(hybrid) word ' Brahmanhood ' can perhaps best express both ' the Brahman class ' 
and the quality of * devotion ' or ' sanctity ' characterizing the priesthood. Similarly 
the woid ' Kshatrahood ' is used to designate both 'the Kshatnya class' and the 
quality of * warrior-rule ' characterizing the nobility. 

99 H 2 



2,4-5-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Lo, verily, It is the Soul (Atman) that should be seen, that 
should be hearkened to, that should be thought on, that 
should be pondered on, O Maitreyi. Lo, verily, with the 
seeing of, with the hearkening to, with the thinking of, 
and with the understanding of the Soul, this world-all is 
known. 

6. Brahmanhood has deserted 1 him who knows Brahman- 
hood in aught else than the Soul. 

Kshatrahood has deserted 1 him who knows Kshatrahood 
in aught else than the Soul. 

The worlds have deserted him who knows the worlds in 
aught else than the Soul. 

The gods have deserted him who knows the gods in aught 
else than the Soul. 

Beings have deserted him who knows beings in aught else 
than the Soul. 

Eveiy thing has deserted him who knows everything in aught 
else than the Soul. 

This Brahmanhood, this Kshatrahood, these worlds, these 
gods, these beings, everything here is what this Soul is. 

7. It is as, when a drum is being beaten, one would not be 
able to grasp the external sounds, but by grasping the drum 
or the beater of the drum the sound is grasped, 

8. It is as, when a conch-shell is being blown, one would 
not be able to grasp the external sounds, but by grasping the 
conch-shell or the blower of the conch-shell the sound is 
grasped. 

9. It is as, when a lute is being played, one would not be 
able to grasp the external sounds, but by grasping the lute or 
the player of the lute the sound is grasped, 

10. It is as, from a fire laid with damp fuel, clouds of smoke 
separately issue forth, so, lo, verily, from this great Being 
(bkutd) has been breathed foith that which is Rig- Veda, Yajur- 
Veda, Sama-Veda, [Hymns] of the Atharvans and Angirascs, 2 
Legend (itihasa), Ancient Lore (pitrand)> Sciences (vidya), 
Mystic Doctrines (^m^rf), Verses (sloka), Aphorisms (sutra), 

1 If this aonst is gnomic, the meaning would be simply * deserts * or * would 
desert ' ; so also in all the following similar sentences. Cf. Bnh. 4. 5. 7. 

2 A designation of the Atharva-Veda. 

100 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-2.4.14 

Explanations (amivydkkydua)> and Commentaries (vyakhyana). 
From it, indeed, are all these breathed foith. 1 

ii. It is as of all waters the uniting-point is the sea, so of 
all touches the uniting-point is the skin, so of all tastes the 
uniting-point is the tongue, so of all smells the uniting-point is 
the nostrils, so of all forms the uniting-point is the eye, so of 
all sounds the uniting-point is the ear, so of all intentions 
(samkalpa) the uniting-point is the mind (manas\ so of all 
knowledges the uniting-point is the heart, so of all acts (karma) 
the uniting-point is the hands, so of all pleasures (ananda) the 
uniting-point is the generative organ, so of all evacuations the 
uniting-point Is the anus, so of all journeys the uniting-point is 
the feet, so of all the Vedas the uniting-point is speech. 

12,. It is as a lump of salt cast in water would dissolve 
right- into the water ; there would not be [any] 2 of it to seize 
forth, as it were (iva), but wherever one may take, it is salty 
indeed so, lo, verily, this great Being (bhuta\ infinite, limitless, 
is just a mass of knowledge (vijnana-ghana). 

Arising out of these elements (bkuta), into them also 
one vanishes away. After death there is no consciousness 
(na pretya samjna *sti). Thus, lo, say I.' Thus spake 
Yajnavalkya. 

13. Then spake Maitrey! : 'Herein, indeed, you have be- 
wildered me. Sir in saying (iti) : " After death there is no 
consciousness " 1 ' 

Then spake Yajnavalkya : c Lo, verily, I speak not bewilder- 
ment (moha). Sufficient, lo, verily, is this for understanding. 

14. For where there is a duality (dvaita), as it were (iva\ 
there one sees another ; there one smells another ; there 
one hears another ; there one speaks to another ; there 
one thinks of another; there one understands another. 
Where, verily, everything has become just one's own self, then 
whereby and whom would one smell? then whereby and 
whom would one see? then whereby and whom would one 
hear? then whereby and to whom would one speak? then 
whereby and on whom would one think? then whereby and 

3 This section recurs, with slight variations, at Maitn 6. 32. 
2 Or the ellipsis might be construed: 'It would not be [possible] to seize it 
forth 

101 



3.4- 14-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

whom would one understand? Whereby would one under- 
stand him by whom one understands this All ? Lo, whereby 
would one understand the understander ? ' 



FIFTH BRAHMANA 

The co-relativity of all things cosmic and personal, and the 
absoluteness of the immanent Soul 

1. This earth is honey for all creatures, and all creatures are 
honey for this eaith. This shining, immortal Person who is in 
this earth, and, with reference to oneself, this shining 3 immortal 
Person who is in the body he, indeed, is just this Soul (Atman), 
this Immortal, this Brahma, this All. 

2. These waters are honey for all things, and all things arc 
honey for these waters. This shining, immortal Person who is 
in these waters, and, with reference to oneself, this shining; 
immortal Person who is made of semen he is just this Soul, 
this Immortal, this Brahma, this All. 

3. This fire is honey for all things, and all things are honey 
for this fire. This shining, immortal Person who is in this fire, 
and, with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal Person who 
is made of speech he is just this Soul, this Immortal, this 
Brahma, this All. 

4. This wind is honey for all things, and all things are 
honey for this wind. This shining, immortal Person who is in 
this wind, and, with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal 
Person who is breath he is just this Soul, this Immortal, this 
Brahma, this All. 

5. This sun is honey for all things, and all things are honey 
for this sun. This shining, immortal Person who is in this sun, 
and, with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal Person who 
is in the eye he is just this Soul, this Immortal, this Brahma, 
this All. 

6. These quarters of heaven are honey for all things, and 
all things are honey for these quarters of heaven. This 
shining, immortal Person who is in these quarters of heaven, 
and, with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal Person 
who is in the ear and in the echo he is just this Soul, this 
Immortal, this Brahma, this All. 

102 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-a 5.14 

7. This moon is honey for all things, and all things are 
honey for this moon. This shining, immortal Person who is in 
this moon, and, with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal 
Person consisting of mind he is just this Soul, this Immortal, 
this Brahma, this All. 

8. This lightning is honey for all things, and all things are 
honey for this lightning. This shining, immortal Person who 
is in this lightning, and, with reference to oneself, this shining, 
immortal Person who exists as heat he is just this Soul, this 
Immortal, this Biahma, this All. 

9. This thunder is honey for all things, and all things are 
honey for this thunder. This shining, immortal Person who is 
in thunder, and, with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal 
Person who is in sound and in tone he is just this Soul, this 
Immortal, this Brahma, this All. 

10. This space is honey for all things, and all things are 
honey for this space. This shining, immortal Person who is in 
this space, and, with refeience to oneself, this shining, immortal 
Person who is in the space in the heart he is just this Soul, 
this Immortal, this Brahma, this AIL 

11. This L&w(Marma) is honey for all things, and all things 
are honey for this Law. This shining, immortal Person who is 
in this Law, and, with reference to oneself, this shining, immortal 
Person who exists as virtuousness he is just this Soul, this 
Immortal, this Brahma, this All. 

13. This Truth is honey for all things, and all things are 
honey for this Truth. This shining, immortal Person who is 
in this Truth, and, with reference to oneself, this shining, im- 
mortal Person who exists as truthfulnesshe is just this Soul, 
this Immortal, this Brahma, this All. 

13, This mankind (manusa) is honey for all things, and all 
things are honey for this mankind. This shining, immortal 
Person who is in this mankind, and, with reference to one- 
self, this shining, immortal Person who exists as a human 
being he is just this Soul, this Immortal, this Brahma, 
this All 

14. This Soul (Atman) is honey for all things, and all things 
are honey for this Soul This shining, immortal Person who 
is in this Soul, and, with reference to oneself, this shining. 

103 



3.5. J4-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

immortal Person who exists as Soul he is just this Soul, this 
Immortal, this Brahma, this All. 

15. Verily, this Soul is the overlord of all things, the king of 
all things. As all the spokes are held together in the hub and 
felly of a wheel, just so in this Soul all things, all gods, all 
worlds, all bieathing things, all selves are held together. 

Tlie honey-doctrine taught in the Vedas 

16. This, verily, is the honey which Dadhyanc Atharvana 
declared unto the two Asvins. Seeing this, the seer spake : 

' That mighty deed of yours, ye two heroes, [which ye did] 

for gain, 

I make known, as thunder [makes known the corning] rain, 
Even the honey which Dadhyafic Atharvana to you 
Did declare by the head of a hoise.' x 

17. This, verily, is the honey which Dadhyanc Atharvana 
declared unto the two Asvins. Seeing this, the seer spake : 

f Upon Dadhyanc Atharvana ye Asvins 
Did substitute a horse's head, 
He, keeping true, declared to you the honey 
Of Tvashtri, which is your secret, O ye mighty ones/ 2 

1 8. This, verily, is the honey which Dadhyanc Atharvana 
declared unto the two AsVins. Seeing this, the seer spake : 

' Citadels with two feet he did make. 
Citadels with four feet he did make. 
Into the citadels he, having become a bird 
Into the citadels {puras) the Person (purusa) entered/ 
This, verily, is the person (pnrusa) dwelling in all cities (pnri- 
soya). There is nothing by which he is not covered, nothing 
by which he is not hid. 

19* This, verily, is the honey which Dadhyanc Atharvana 
declared unto the two AsVins. Seeing this, the seer spake : 

1 RV i. 1 1 6. 12. The two Asvins desired instruction from Dadhyaac. But 
the latter was loath to impart it, for Indra had threatened Dadhyaiic thai if he 
ever told this honey-doctrine to any one else, he (India) would cut his head off. 
To avoid this untoward result, the A&yms took off Dadhyafic's head and substituted 
a horse's head. Then, after Uadhyafic had declared the honey- doctrine m com- 
pliance with their request and Indra had carried out his threat, the A&vms restored 
to Dadhyanc his own head. This episode shows the extreme difficulty with which 
even gods secured the knowledge originally possessed by Indra. 

2 RV. I. 117. 22. 

104 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-2.6.3 

* He became coi responding in form to every form. 
This is to be looked upon as a form of him. 
Indra by his magic powers (may a) goes about in many forms; 
Yoked are his ten-hundred steeds/ I 

He [i.e. the Soul, Atmari\, verily, is the steeds. He, verily, is 
tens and thousands, many and endless. This Brahma is without 
an earlier and without a later, without an inside and without 
an outside. This Soul is Brahma, the all-perceiving. Such is 
the instruction. 

SIXTH BRAHMANA 
The teachers of this doctrine 

i. Now the Line of Tradition (vamsd). 

Pautimashya [leceived this teaching] from Gaupavana, 

Gaupavana from Pautimashya, 

Pautimashya from Gaupavana, 

Gaupavana from Kausika, 

Kausika from Kaundinya, 

Kaundinya from Sandilya, 

Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama, 

Gautama [3] from Agnivesya, 

Agnives'ya from Sandilya and Anabhimlata, 

Anabhimlata fiom Anabhimlata, 

Anabhimlata from Anabhimlata, 

Anabhimlata from Gautama, 

Gautama from Saitava and Pracmayogya, 

Saitava and Pracmayogya from Parasarya, 

Para^arya from Bharadvaja, 

Bharadvaja from Bharadvaja and Gautama, 

Gautama from Bharadvaja, 

Bharadvaja from Parasarya, 

Para^arya from Vaijavapayana, 

Vaijavapayana from Kau&kayani, 

Kaus*ikayani [3] from Ghritakaus'ika, 

Ghritakaus'ika from Para^aryayana, 

Para^aryayana from Parasarya, 

Parasarya from Jatukarnya, 

1 RV. 6. 47. 18. 
105 



2.6. 3 -] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yaska, 

Asurayana from Traivani, 

Traivani from Aupajandhani, 

Aupajandhani from Asuri, 

Asuri from Bharadvaja, 

Bharadvaja from Atreya, 

Atreya from Manti, 

Manti from Gautama 

Gautama from Gautama, 

Gautama from Vatsya, 

Vatsya fiom Sandilya, 

Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya, 

Kaisorya Kapya from Kumaraharita, 

Kumaraharita from Galava, 

Galava from Vidarbhikaundinya, 

Vidarbhikaundinya from Vatsanapad Babhrava, 

Vatsanapad Babhrava from Panthah Saubhara, 

Panthah Saubhara from Ayasya Angirasa, 

Ayasya Angirasa from Abhuti Tvashtra, 

Abhuti Tvashtra from Visvarupa Tvashtra, 

Visvarupa Tvashtra from the two Asvins, 

the two Asvins from Dadhyanc Atharvana, 

Dadhyanc Atharvana from Atharvan Daiva, 

Atharvan Daiva from Mrityti Pradhvarhsana, 

Mrityu Pradhvarhsana from Pradhvarhsana, 

Pradhvarhsana from Eka Rishi, 

Eka Rishi from Vipracitti, 

Vipracitti from Vyashti, 

Vyashti from Sanaru, 

Sanaru from Sanatana, 

Sanatana from Sanaga, 

Sanaga from Parameshtin, 

Parameshtin from Brahma. 

Brahma is the Self-existent (svayatn-bhu). Adoration to 
Brahma ! 



106 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [- 3 .i. s 

THIRD ADHYAYA 

FIRST BRAHMANA 
Concerning sacrificial worship and its rewards 

1. Janaka, [king] of Videha, sacrificed with a sacrifice at 
which many presents were distributed. Brahmans of the 
Kurupaiicalas were gathered together there, In this Janaka 
of Videha there arose a desire to know which of these Brahmans 
was the most learned in scripture. He enclosed a thousand 
cows. To the horns of each ten padas [of gold] were bound. 

2. He said to them : < Venerable Brahmans, let him of you 
who is the best Brahman drive away these cows/ 

Those Brahmans durst not. 

Then Yajnavalkya said to his pupil : ' Samasravas, my dear, 
drive them away.' 

He drove them away. 

The Brahmans were angry. ' How can he declare himself 
to be the best Brahman among us? ' 

Now there was Asvala, the Hotri-priest of Janaka, [king] 
of Videha. He asked him : < Yajfiavalkya, are you now the 
best Brahman among us ? * 

He replied, < We give honor to the best Brahman. But we 
are really desirous of having those cows/ 

Thereupon Asvala, the Hotri-priest, began to question him. 

3. ' Yajnavalkya/ said he, ' since everything here is overtaken 
by death, since everything is overcome by death, whereby is - 
a sacrificer liberated beyond the reach of death ? ' 

'By the Hotri-priest, by fire, by speech. Verily, speech is 
the Hotri of sacrifice. That which is this speech is this fire, 
is the Hotri. This is release (mukti), this is complete release/ 

4- ' Yajnavalkya, 3 said he, c since everything here is overtaken 
by day and night, since everything is overcome by day and 
night, whereby is a sacrificer liberated beyond day and night? 

' By the Adhvaryu-priest, by the eye, by the sun. Verily, 
the eye is the Adhvaryu of sacrifice. That which is this eye 
is yonder sun, is the Adhvaryu. This is release, this is complete 
release/ 

5. * Yajnavalkya/ said he, since everything here is over- 

107 



3-i. 5-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

taken by the waxing and waning moon, by what means does a 
sacrificer obtain release from the waxing and waning moon ? ' 
' By the Udgatri-priest, by the wind, by breath. Verily 
breath is the Udgatri of the sacrifice. That which is this 
breath is wind, is the Udgatri. This is release, this is com- 
plete release. 5 

6. ( Yajfiavalkya,' said he, ' since this atmosphere does not 
afford a [foot]hold, as it were, by what means of ascent does a 
sacrificer ascend to the heavenly world ? ' 

1 By the Brahman-priest, by the mind, by the moon. Verily, 
the mind. is the Brahman of the sacrifice. That which is this 
mind is yonder moon, is the Brahman. This is release, this is 
complete release,' Thus [concerning] liberation. 

Now the acquirements. 

7. * Yajnavalkya/ said he, ' how many Rig verses will the 
Hotri make use of today in this sacrifice? ' 

' Three/ 

e Which are those three ? ' 

'The introductory verse, the accompanying verse, and the 
benediction as the third.' 

' What does one win by these ? ' 

* Whatever there is here that has breath.' 

8. ' Yajfiavalkya, ' said he, 'how many oblations will the 
Adhvaryu pour out today in this sacrifice ? J 

' Three,' 

Which are those three ? ' 

' Those which when offered flame up, those which when 
offered flow over, those which when offered sink down.' 

' What does one win by these ? ' 

( By those which when offered flame up, one wins the world 
of the gods, for the world of the gods gleams, as it were. By 
those which when offered flow over (ati-nedante), one wins the 
world of the fathers, for the world of the fathers is over (ati), 
as it were. By those which when offered sink down (adhiserate)^ 
one wins the world of men, for the world of men is below (adhas)^ 
as it were, 5 

9. 'Yajfiavalkya/ said he, 'with how many divinities does 
the Brahman protect the sacrifice on the right today ? ; 

' With one,' 

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BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.3.5 

' Which is that one ? ' 

'The mind. Verily, endless is the mind. Endless are the 
All-gods. An endless world he wins thereby.' 

10. 'Yajnavalkya/ said he, c how many hymns of praise 
will the Udgatri chant today in this sacrifice ? ' 

'Three.' 

* Which are those three ? ' 

' The introductory hymn, the accompanying hymn, and the 
benediction hymn as the third.' 

< Which are those three with reference to the self? ' 

'The introductory hymn is the in-breath (prana). The 
accompanying hymn is the out-breath (apand). The bene- 
diction hymn is the diffused breath (yyana).' 

' What does one win by these ? ' 

' One wins the earth-world by the introductory hymn, the 
atmosphere-world by the accompanying hymn, the sky-world 
by the benediction hymn.' 

Thereupon the Hotri-priest Asvala held his peace, 

SECOND BRAHMANA 
The fettered soul, and its fate at death 

1, Then Jaratkarava Artabhaga questioned him. c Yajfia- 
valkya/ said he, ' how many apprehenders aie there? How 
many over-apprehenders ? ' 

c Eight apprehenders. Eight over-apprehenders.' 

* Those eight apprehenders and eight over-apprehenders 
which are they ? ' 

2. * Breath (prdna), verily, is an apprehender. It is seized 
by the out-breath (apana) as an over-apprehend er, for by the 
out-breath one smells an odoi . 

& Speech, verily, is an apprehender. It is seized by name 
as an ovcr-apprehender, for by speech one speaks names. 

4. The tongue, verily, is an apprehender. It is seized by 
taste as an over-apprehender, for by the tongue one knows 
tastes. 

5. The eye, verily, is an apprehender. It is seized by 
appearance as an over-apprehender, for by the eye one sees 
appearances. 

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3 .2.6-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

6. The ear, verily, is an apprehender. It is seized by sound 
as an over-apprehender, for by the ear one hears sounds. 

7. The mind, verily, is an apprehender. It is seized by desire 
as an over-apprehender, for by the mind one desires desires. 

8. The hands, verily, are an apprehender. It is seized by 
action as an over-apprehender, for by the hands one performs 
action. 

9. The skin, verily, is an apprehender. It is seized by touch 
as an over-apprehender, for by the skin one is made to know 
touches.' 

10. ' Yajnavalkya/ said he, * since everything here is food for 
death, who, pray, is that divinity for whom death is food ? ' 

Death, verily, is a fire. It is the food of water (apas}. 
He overcomes (apa-jayati) a second death [who knows this].' 3 

11. 'Yajnavalkya/ said he, 'when a man dies, do the 
breaths go out of him, or no ? J 

* No/ said Yajnavalkya. ' They are gathered together right 
there. He swells up. He is inflated. The dead man lies 
inflated.' 

12. * Yajnavalkya/ said he, * when a man dies, what does not 
leave him ? ' 

* The name. Endless, verily, is the name. Endless are the 
All-gods. An endless world he wins thereby.' 

13. Yajnavalkya/ said he, 'when the voice of a dead man 
goes into fire, his breath into wind, his eye into the sun, his 
mind into the moon, his hearing into the quarters of 
heaven, his body into the earth, his soul (atman) into space, 
the hairs of his head into plants, the hairs of his body into 
trees, and his blood and semen are placed in water, what 
then becomes of this person (purusa) ? ' 

'Artabhaga, my dear, take my hand. We two only will 
know of this. This is not for us two [to speak of] in public/ 

The two went away and deliberated. What they said was 
karma (action). What they praised was karma. Verily, one 
becomes good by good action, bad by bad action. 

Thereupon Jaratkarava Artabhaga held his peace. 

1 Supplying ya evam veda, as in 3. 3. 2 and 1.2. 7. 



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BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.4.1 

THIRD BRAHMANA 
"Where the offerers of the horse-sacrifice go 

i. Then Bhujyu Lahyayani questioned him. Yajfiavalkya/ 
said he, ( we were traveling around as wanderers among the 
Madras. As such we came to the house of Pataficala Kapya. 
He had a daughter who was possessed by a Gandharva. We 
asked him : " Who are you ? " He said : " I am Sudhanvan, 
a descendant of Angiras." When we were asking him about 
the ends of the earth, we said to him : " What has become of 
the Parikshitas ? What has become of the Parikshitas ? " 
I now ask you, Yajnavalkya. What has become of the Pari- 
kshitas ? ' 

a. He said : ' That one doubtless said, c{ They have, in truth, 
gone whither the offerers of the horse-sacrifice go." ' 

' Where, pray, do the offerers of the horse-sacrifice go? ' 

c This inhabited world, of a truth, is as broad as thirty-two 
days [i.e. days' journeys] of the sun-god's chariot. The earth, 
which is twice as wide, surrounds it on all sides. The ocean, 
which is twice as wide, surrounds the earth on all sides. Then 
there is an interspace as broad as the edge of a razor or the 
wing of a mosquito. Indra, taking the form of a bird, delivered 
them [i.e. the Parikshitas] to Wind. Wind, placing them in 
himself, led them where the offerers of the horse-sacrifice 
were. Somewhat thus he [i.e. Sudhanvan] praised Wind. 
Therefore Wind alone is individuality (vyasti). Wind is 
totality (samastf). He who knows this overcomes a second 
death.' 

Thereupon Bhujyu Lahyayani held his peace. 

FOURTH BRAHMANA 
The theoretical unknowability of the immanent Brahma 

i. Then Ushasta Cakrayana questioned him. ' Yajnavalkya/ 
said he, ' explain to me him who is the Brahma present and 
not beyond our ken, him who is the Soul in all things.' 
' He is your soul (dtman), which is in all things.' 
c Which one, O Yajnavalkya, is in all things ? ' 
* He who breathes in with your breathing in (frana) is the 

in 



3-4- i-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Soul of yours, which is in all things. He who breathes out with 
your breathing out (apand] is the Soul of yours, which is in all 
things. He who breathes about with your breathing about 
(vyana] is the Soul of yours, which is in all things. He who 
breathes up with your breathing up (uddna) is the Soul of yours, 
which is in all things. He is your soul, which is in all things.' 
a. Ushasta Cakrayana said : ' This has been explained to 
me just as one might say, <c This is a cow. This is a horse." 
Explain to me him who is just the Brahma present and not 
beyond our ken, him who is the Soul in all things. 1 
c He is your soul, which is in all things/ 
Which one, O Yajnavalkya, is in all things ? ' 
c You could not see the seer of seeing. You could not hear 
the hearer of hearing. You could not think the thinker of 
thinking. You could not understand the undcrstander of 
understanding. He is your soul, which is in all things. 
Aught else than Him [or, than this] is wretched.' 
Thereupon Ushasta Cakrayana held his peace. 

FIFTH BRAHMANA 
The practical way of Imowing Brahma by asceticism 

i. Now Kahola Kaushltakeya questioned him. * Yajna- 
valkya/ said he, ' explain to me him who is just the Brahma 
present and not beyond our ken, him who is the Soul in 
all things. 1 

' He is your soul, which is in all things/ 
1 Which one, O Yajnavalkya, is in all things ? ' 
' He who passes beyond hunger and thirst, beyond sorrow 
and delusion, beyond old age and death Brahmans who know 
such a Soul overcome desire for sons, desire for wealth, desire 
for worlds, and live the life of mendicants. For desire for sons 
is desire for wealth, and desire for wealth is desire for worlds, 
for both these are merely desires. Therefore let a Brahman 
become disgusted with learning and desire to live as a child. 
When he has become disgusted both with the state of childhood 
and with learning, then he becomes an ascetic (muni). When 
he has become disgusted both with the non-ascetic state and 
with the ascetic state, then he becomes a Brahman/ 

us 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.6 

' By what means would he become a Brahman ? ' 
1 By that means by which he does become such a one. 
Aught else than this Soul (Atman) is wretched/ 
Thereupon Kahola Kaushitakeya held his peace. 



SIXTH BRAHMANA 
The regressus to Brahma, the ultimate world-ground 

Then GargI Vacaknavi questioned him. ' Yajnavalkya,' said 
she, c since all this world is woven, warp and woof, on water, 
on what, pray, is the water woven, warp and woof? ' 

' On wind, O GargI/ 

c On what then, pray, is the wind woven, warp and woof? ' 

c On the atmosphere-worlds, O GargI/ 

'On what then, pray, are the atmospheie- worlds woven, 
warp and woof? ' 

1 On the worlds of the Gandharvas, O GargI/ 

' On what then, pray, are the worlds of the Gandhaivas 
woven, warp and woof? ' 

: On the worlds of the sun, O GargI ' 

* On what then, pray, are the worlds of the sun woven, warp 
and woof ? ' 

* On the worlds of the moon, O GargI/ 

e On what then ; pray, are the worlds of the moon woven, 
warp and woof? * 

6 On the worlds of the stars, O GargI/ 

1 On what then, pray, are the worlds of the stars woven, 
warp and woof? ' 

' On the worlds of the gods, O GargI.' 

1 On what then, pray, are the worlds of the gods woven, 
warp and woof?' 

' On the worlds of Indra, O GargI/ 

' On what then, pray, are the worlds of Indra woven, warp 
and woof?' 

f On the worlds of Prajapati, O GargI/ 

( On what then, pray, are the worlds of Prajapati woven, 
warp and woof?' 

' On the worlds of Brahma, O GargI/ 

113 I 



3 .6-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

1 On what then, pray, are the worlds of Brahma woven, 
warp and woof?' 

Yajfiavalkya said : c Gargl, do not question too much, lest 
your head fall off. In truth you are questioning too much 
about a divinity about which further questions cannot be asked. 
Gaigl, do not over-question. 5 

Thereupon Gargl Vacaknavi held her peace. 



SEVENTH ERAHMANA 

Wind, the string holding tk world together ; the immortal 
pantheistic Soul, the Inner Controller 

1. Then Uddalaka Arum questioned him. 'Yajfiavalkya,' 
said he, ' we were dwelling among the Madras in the house of 
Patancala Kapya, studying the sacrifice. He had a wife 
possessed by a spirit (gandharvd). We asked him : " Who arc 
you ? " He said : " I am Kabandha Atharvana." He said to 
Patancala Kapya and to us students of the sacrifice : fC Do you 
know, O Kapya, that thread by which this world and the 
other world and all things are tied together ? " Patancala Kapya 
said: "I do not know it, Sir/ 5 He said to Patancala Kapya 
and to us students of the sacrifice : * Pray do you know, O 
Kapya, that Inner Controller who from within controls this 
world and the other world and all things ? " Patancala Kapya 
said : " I do not know him, Sir." He said to Patancala Kapya 
and to us students of the sacrifice : a Verily, Kapya, he who 
knows that thread and the so-called Inner Controller knows 
Brahma, he knows the worlds, he knows the gods, he knows 
the Vedas, he knows created things, he knows the Soul, he 
knows everything/' Thus he [i.e. the spirit] explained it to 
them. And I know it. If you, O Yajfiavalkya, drive away 
the Brahma-cows without knowing that thread and the Inner 
Controller, your head will fall off/ 

' Verily, I know that thread and the Inner Controller, 
Gautama.' 

; Any one might say "I know, I know." Do you tell what 
you know/ 

2. He [i. e. Yajnavalkya] said : * Wind, verily, O Gautama, 

114 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.7.10 

5s that thread. By wind, verily, O Gautama, as by a thread, 
this world and the other world and all things are tied together. 
Therefore, verily, O Gautama, they say of a deceased person, 
" His limbs become unstrung," foi by wind, O Gautama, as by 
a thread, they are strung together/ 

' Quite so, O Yajnavalkya. Declare the Inner Controller/ 
3. l He who, dwelling in the earth, yet is other than the 
earth, whom the earth does not know, whose body the earth 
is, who controls the earth from withinHe is your Soul, the 
Inner Controller, the Immortal. 

4- He who, dwelling in the waters, yet is other than the 
waters, whom the waters do not know, whose body the waters 
are, who controls the waters from within He is your Soul, the 
Inner Controller, the Immortal. 

5- He who, dwelling in the fire, yet is other than the fire, 
whom the fire does not know, whose body the fire is, who 
controls the fire from within He is your Soul, the Inner 
Controller, the Immortal. 

6. He who, dwelling in the atmosphere, yet is other than 
the atmosphere, whom the atmosphere does not know, whose 
body the atmosphere is, who controls the atmosphere from 
within He is your Soul, the Inner Controller, the Immortal. 

7. He who, dwelling in the wind, yet is other than the 
wind, whom the wind does not know, whose body the wind is, 
who controls the wind from within He is your Soul, the Inner 
Controller, the Immortal. 

8. He who, dwelling in the sky, yet is other than the sky, 
whom the sky does not know, whose body the sky is, who 
controls the sky from within He is your Soul, the Inner 
Controller, the Immortal. 

9. He who, dwelling in the sun, yet is other than the sun, 
whom the sun does not know, whose body the sun is, who 
controls the sun from within He is your Soul, the Inner 
Controller, the Immortal. 

10. He who, dwelling in the quarters of heaven, yet is 
other than the quarters of heaven, whom the quarters of heaven 
do not know, whose body the quarters of heaven are, who 
controls the quarters of heaven from within He is your Soul 
the Inner Controller, the Immortal, 

115 I i 



37.H-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

11. He who, dwelling in the moon and stars, yet is other 
than the moon and stars, whom the moon and stars do not 
know, whose body the moon and stars are, who controls the 
moon and stars from within He is your Soul, the Inner Con- 
troller, the Immoital. 

12. He who, dwelling in space, yet is other than space, 
whom space does not know, whose body space is, who controls 
space from within He is your Soul, the Inner Controller, the 
Immortal. 

13. He who, dwelling in the darkness, yet is other than the 
darkness, whom the darkness does not know, whose body the 
darkness is, who controls the darkness from within He is your 
Soul, the Inner Controller, the Immortal. 

14 He who, dwelling in the light, yet is other than the light, 
whom the light does not know, whose body the light is, who 
controls the light from within He is your Soul, the Inner 
Controller, the Immortal. 

Thus far with reference to the divinities. Now with refer- 
ence to material existence (adhi-bhuta). 

15. He who, dwelling in all things, yet is other than all 
things, whom all things do not know, whose body all things 
are, who controls all things from within He is your Soul, the 
Inner Controller, the Immortal. 

Thus far with reference to material existence. Now with 
reference to the self. 

16. He who, dwelling in breath, yet is other than breath, 
whom the breath does not know, whose body the breath is, 
who controls the breath from within He is your Soul, the 
Inner Controller, the Immortal. ^ 

17. He who, dwelling in speech, yet is other than speech, 
whom the speech does not know, whose body the speech is, who 
controls the speech from within He is your Soul, the Inner 
Controller, the Immortal. 

1 8. He who, dwelling in the eye, yet is other than the eye, 
whom the eye does not know, whose body the eye is, who 
controls the eye from within He is your Soul, the Inner Con- 
troller, the Immortal. 

19. He who, dwelling in the ear, yet is other than the ear, 
whom the ear does not know, whose body the ear is, who 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.8.3 

controls the ear from within He is your Soul, the Inner Con- 
troller, the Immortal. 

30. He who, dwelling in the mind, yet is other than the 
mind, whom the mind does not know, whose body the mind is, 
who controls the mind from within He is your Soul, the 
Inner Controller, the Immortal. 

3 1. He who, dwelling in the skin, yet is other than the skin, 
whom the skin does not know, whose body the skin is, who 
controls the skin from within He is your Soul, the Inner 
Controller, the Immortal. 

22. He who, dwelling in the understanding, yet is other 
than the understanding, whom the understanding does not know, 
whose body the understanding is, who controls the under- 
standing from within He is your Soul, the Inner Controller, 
the Immortal. 

23. He who, dwelling in the semen, yet is other than the 
semen, whom the semen does not know, whose body the semen 
is, who controls the semen from within He is your Soul, the 
Inner Controller, the Immortal. 

He is the unseen Seer, the unheard Hearer, the unthought 
Thinker, the ununderstood Understander. Other than He there 
is no seer. Other than He there is no hearer. Other than He 
there is no thinker. Other than He there is no understander. 
He is your Soul, the Inner Controller, the Immortal. 3 

Thereupon Uddalaka Aruni held his peace, 

EIGHTH BRAHMANA 

The ultimate warp of the world tlie unqualified Imperishable 
w 

i. Then [Gargl] Vacaknavl said : 'Venerable Brahmans, lo, 
I will ask him [i.e. Yajnavalkya] two questions. If he will 
answer me these, not one of you will surpass him in discussions 
about Brahma. 3 

' Ask, Gargl/ 

a. She said : ' As a noble youth of the Kasls or of the 
Videhas might rise up against you, having strung his unstrung 
bow and taken two foe-piercing anows in his hand, even so, 
O Yajnavalkya, have I risen up against you with two questions. 
Answer me these/ 

117 



3.8,2-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Yajnavalkya said : 6 Ask, Gargi.' 

3. She said : ' That, O Yajnavalkya, which is above the sky, 
that which is beneath the eaith, that which is between these two, 
sky and earth, that which people call the past and the present 
and the future across what is that woven, warp and woof ? ' 

4. He said : ( That, O Gargi, which is above the sky, that 
which is beneath the earth, that which is between these two, sky 
and earth, that which people call the past and the present and 
the future across space is that woven, warp and woof/ 

5. She said : * Adoration to you, Yajnavalkya, in that you 
have solved this question for me. Prepare yourself for the 
other,' 

6 Ask, Gargi.' 

6. She said : ' That, O Yajnavalkya, which is above the sky, 
that which is beneath the earth, that which is between these two, 
sky and earth, that which people call the past and the present 
and the future across what is that woven, warp and woof? 3 

7. He said : ' That, Gargi, which is above the sky, that 
which is beneath the earth, that which is between these two, sky 
and earth, that which people call the past and the present and 
the future across space alone is that woven, warp and woof.' 

4 Across what then, pray, is space woven, warp and woof? ' 

8. He said : * That, O Gargi, Brahmans call the Imperish- 
able (aksard). It is not coarse, not fine, not short, not long, 
not glowing [like fire], not adhesive [like water], without 
shadow and without darkness, without air and without space, 
without stickiness, (intangible), 1 odorless, tasteless, without 
eye, without ear, without voice, without wind, without energy,, 
without breath, without mouth, (without personal or family 
name, unaging, undying, without fear, immortal, stainless, not 
uncovered, not covered), 1 without measure, without inside and 
without outside 

It consumes nothing soever. 
No one soever consumes it. 

9. Verily, O Gargi, at the command of that Imperishable 
the sun and the moon stand apart. Verily, O Gargi, at the 
command of that Imperishable the earth and the sky stand 

1 A Madhyamdma addition. 

118 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.9.1 

apart. Verily, O Gargi, at the command of that Imperishable 
the moments, the hours, the days, the nights, the fortnights, 
the months, the seasons, and the years stand apart. Verily, 
O Gargi, at the command of that Imperishable some livers 
flow from the snowy mountains to the east, others to the west, 
in whatever diiection each flows, Verily, O Gargi, at the 
command of that Imperishable men praise those who give, the 
gods are desirous of a sacrificer, and the fathers [are desirous] 
of the Manes-sacrifice. 

10. Verily, O Gargi, if one pei forms sacrifices and worship 
and undergoes austerity in this world for many thousands of 
years, but without knowing that Imperishable, limited indeed 
is that [work] of his. Verily, Gargi, he who departs from 
this world without knowing that Imperishable is pitiable 
But, O Gargi, he who departs from this world knowing that 
Imperishable is a Brahman. 

11. Verily, O Gargi, that Imperishable is the unseen Seer, 
the unheard Hearer, the unthought Thinker, the ununderstood 
Understander. Other than It there is naught that sees. 
Other than It there is naught that hears. Other than It 
there is naught that thinks. Other than It there is naught 
that understands. Across this Imperishable, O Gargi, is 
space woven, warp and woof.' 

13. She said: 'Venerable Brahmans, you may think it a 
great thing if you escape from this man with [merely] making 
a bow. Not one of you will surpass him in discussions about 
Brahma/ 

Thereupon [Gargi] Vacaknavl held her peace. 



NINTH BRAHMANA 

Regressus of the numerous gods to the unitary Brahma 

I. Then Vidagdha Sakalya questioned him. ' How many 
gods are there, Yajfiavalkya ? ' 

He answered in accord with the following Nivid (invoca- 
tionary formula) : ' As many as are mentioned in the Nimd 
of the Hymn to All the Gods, namely, three hundred and 
three, and three thousand and three [=3,306].' 

119 



3-9-H BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

( Yes/ said he, ' but just how many gods are there, Yajna- 
valkya ? ' 

'Thuty-three/ 

4 Yes/ said he, ' but just how many gods are there, Yajna- 
valkya ? ' 

4 Six. 5 

1 Yes,' said he, 'but just how many gods are theie, Yajna- 
valkya ? ' 

4 Three/ 

' Yes,' said he, ' but just how many gods are there, Yajna- 
valkya ? ' 

4 Two.' 

* Yes,' said he, 'but just how many gods are there, Yajna- 
valkya ? ' 

4 One and a half.' 

* Yes/ said he, ' but just how many gods are there, Yajna- 
valkya ? 3 

4 One/ 

* Yes/ said he, * which are those three hundred and three, 
and those three thousand and three? ' 

a. He [i.e. Yajnavalkya] said : ' Those are only their powers 
(ma/nman). There are just thirty- three gods/ 

' Which are those thirty-three ? ' 

' Eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Adityas. Those are 
thirty-one. Indra and Prajapati make thirty-three/ 

3. * Which are the Vasus ? ' 

1 Fire, earth, wind, atmosphere, sun, sky, moon, and stars. 
These are Vasus, for upon them this excellent (vasu) world is 
set, (for they give a dwelling (vasayante) to the world), 1 There- 
fore they are called Vasus/ 

4. ' Which are the Rudras ? ' 

' These ten breaths in a person, and the self as the eleventh. 
When they go out from this mortal body, they make us lament. 
So, because they make us lament (Vrztd), therefore they are 
Rudras/ 

5- ' Which are the Adityas ? ' 

' Verily, the twelve months of the year. These are Adityas, 
for they go carrying along this whole world. Since they go 
1 A Madhyamdma addition. Cf. Chand. 3. 16. I. 
120 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.9.11 

(yanti) carrying along (d-da) this whole world, therefore they 
are called Adityas/ 

6. 4 Which is Indra? Which is Prajapati? ' 

1 The thunder, verily, is Indra. The sacrifice is Prajapati/ 

f Which is the thunder ? ' 

' The thunderbolt/ 

4 Which is the sacrifice ? ' 

' The sacrificial animals.' 

7. * Which are the six [gods] ? ' 

' Fire, earth, wind, atmosphere, sun, and sky. These are the 
six, for the whole world is these six.' 

8. ' Which are the three gods ? ' 

'They, verily, are the three worlds, for in them all these 
gods exist.' 

s Which are the two gods ? J 

4 Food and breath/ 

4 Which is the one and a half ? ' 

4 This one here who purifies [i. e. the wind]/ 

9. Then they say : ' Since he who purifies is just like one,, 
how then is he one and a half? ' 

' Because in him this whole world did prosper (adhyardhnoi)* 
Therefore he is one and a half (adhyardhd)? 
' Which is the one god ? ' 
4 Breath,' said he. 4 They call him Brahma, the Yon (tyd)? 

Eight different Persons and their corresponding divinities 

10. [Sakalya said :] 4 Verily, he who knows that Person whose 
abode is the earth, whose world is fire, whose light is mind, 
who is the last source of every soul he, verily, would be a 
knower, O Yajnavalkya/ 

[Yajnavalkya said :] 4 Verily, I know that Person, the last 
source of every soul, of whom you speak. This very person 
who is in the body is He. Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god? 1 

' The Immortal/ said he. 

IT. [Sakalya said :] 4 Verily, he who knows that Person whose 
abode is desire, whose world is the heart, whose light ismind, 
who is the last source of every soul he, verily, would be a 
knower, O Yajnavalkya/ 

[Yajnavalkya said :] < Verily, I know that Person, the last 



3.9. ii-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

source of every soul, of whom you speak. This very person who 
is made of desire is He Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god ? ' 
4 Women,' said he. 

12. [Sakalya said :] * Verily, he who knows that Person whose 
abode is forms (rupd), whose world is the eye, whose light is 
mind, who is the last source of every soul he, verily, would 
be a knower, O Yajnavalkya.' 

4 Verily, I know that Person, the last source of every soul, of 
whom you speak. That very person who is in the sun is He. 
Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god ? ' 

'Truth/ said he. 

13. [Sakalya said :] 'Verily, he who knows that Person whose 
abode is space (akasa), whose world is the ear, whose light is 
mind, who is the last source of every soul he, verily, would 
be a knower, O Yajfiavalkya.' 

1 Verily, I know that Person, the last source of every soul, of 
whom you speak. This very person who is in hearing and who 
is in echo is He. Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god ? ' 

4 The quarters of heaven/ said he. 

14. [Sakalya said :] 'Verily, he who knows that Personwhose 
abode is darkness (tamas\ whose world is the heart, whose 
light is mind, who is the last source of every soul he, verily, 
would be a knower, O Yajfiavalkya.' 

' Verily, I know that Person, the last source of every soul, of 
whom you speak. This very person who is made of shadow is 
He. Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god ? ; 

'Death, 3 said he. 

15. [Sakalya said :] 'Verily, he who knows that Personwhose 
abode is forms (rilpa), whose world is the eye, whose light is 
mind, who is the last source of every soul he, verily, would be 
a knower, Yajfiavalkya/ 

* Verily, I know that Person, the last source of every soul, of 
whom you speak. This very person who is in the mirror is 
He, Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god ? ' 

'Life (*WH)/ said he. 

1 6. [Sakalya said :] 'Verily, he who knows that Personwhose 
abode is water, whose world is the heart, whose light is -mind, 
who is the last source of every soul he, verily, would be a 
knower, O Yajnavalkya.' 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.9.21 

* Verily, I know that Person, the last source of every soul, of 
whom you speak. This very person who is in the waters is 
He. Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god ? 3 

* Varuna/ said he. 

1 7. [Sakalya said :] f Verily,he who knows that Person whose 
abode is semen, whose world is the heart, whose light is mind, 
who is the last source of every soul he, verily, would be a 
knower, O Yajnavalkya/ 

' Verily, I know that Person, the last source of every soul, of 
whom you speak. This very person who is made of a son is 
He. Tell me, Sakalya, who is his god ? J 

'Prajapati/ said he. 

1 8. 'Sakalya/ said Yajnavalkya, 'have those Brahmans 
made you their coal-destroyer ? ' l 

Mve directions in space, their regent gods, and their bases 

19. ' Yajnavalkya/. said Sakalya, t by knowing what Brahma 
is it that you have talked down the Brahmans of the Kurupafi- 
calas ? ' 

' I know the quarters of heaven together with their gods and 
their bases.' 

4 Since you know the quarters of heaven together with 
their gods and their bases, [20] what divinity have you in this 
eastern quarter ? ' 

< The sun/ 

* That sun on what is it based ? ' 
' On the eye/ 

c And on what is the eye based ? ' 

1 On appearance, for with the eye one sees appearances/ 

* And on what are appearances based ? ' 

{ On the heart/ he said, ' for with the heart one knows appear- 
ances, for on the heart alone appearances are based/ 

' Quite so, Yajnavalkya/ 

21. [Sakalya said :] * What divinity have you in this southern 
(daksina) quarter ? ' 

1 Yama/ 

' That Yama on what is he based ? ' 

' On sacrifice.' 

1 Literally, ' remover of burning coals' ; 'a cat's-paw/ as Muller suggests. 

133 



3-9- **-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

t And on what is sacrifice based ? ' 
f On gifts to the priests (daksind}' 
6 And on \vhat are the gifts to the priests based ? ' 

* On faith, for when one has faith, then one gives gifts to the 
priests. Verily, on faith the gifts to the priests are based/ 

* On what is faith based ? ' 

' On the heart,' he said, ' for with the heart one knows faith. 
Verily, on the heart alone faith is based/ 

* Quite so, Yajnavalkya.' 

11. [Sakalya said :] ' What divinity have you in this western 
quarter ? ' 
' Varuna/ 

* That Varuna on what is he based ? ' 

* On water/ 

* And on what is water based ? J 
' On semen.* 

6 And on what is semen based ? ' 

5 On the heart Therefore they say of a son who is just like 
his father, " He has slipped out from his heart, as it were. 
He is built out of his heart." For on the heart alone semen 
is based/ 

'Quite so, Yajnavalkya/ 

33. [Sakalya said :] c What divinity have you in this northern 
quarter ? ' 
'Sorna/ 

6 That Soma on what is he based? ? 
6 On the Diksha [initiatory] rite/ 

' And on what is the Diksha rite based ? ' 

' On truth. Therefore they say to one who is initiated, c< Speak 
the truth ! " For on truth alone the Diksha rite is based/ 

f And on what is truth based ? ' 

f On the heart/ he said, ' for with the heart one knows truth. 
Verily, on the heart alone truth is based/ 

4 Quite so, Yajnavalkya/ 

24. [Sakalya said :] f What divinity have you in this fixed 
quarter [L e. the zenith] ? ' 

' The god Agni/ 

' That Agni on what is he based ? ' 

' On speech/ 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-3.9.27 

' And on what is speech based ? ' 

* On the heart.' 

6 And on what is the heart based ? ' 

25. < You idiot,' said Yajfiavalkya, * that you will think that 
it could be anywhere else than in ourselves ! for if it were any- 
where else than in ourselves, the dogs might eat it or the 
birds might tear it to pieces.' 

The Soul, the Person taught in the Upanishads 

26, ' On what are you and your soul (dtman) based ? ' 
e On the in-breath (fraud)? 

6 And on what is the in-bieath based ? ' 

4 On the out-breath (apana)' 

' And on what is the out-breath based ? ' 

' On the diffused breath (vyana)! 

4 And on what is the diffused breath based?' ? 

' On the up-breath (ndana)? 

f And on what is the up-breath based * ' 

c On the middle [or equalizing] breath (samana)? 

( That Soul (Atman) is not this, it is not that (neti, neti). 
It is unseizable, for it is not seized. It is indestructible, for it is 
not destroyed. It is unattached, for it does not attach itself. 
It is unbound. It does not tremble. It is not injured. 

These * are the eight abodes, the eight worlds, the eight gods, 
the eight persons. He who plucks apait and puts together 
these persons and passes beyond them that is the Person 
taught in the Upanishads about whom I ask you. 

If him to me ye \\ill not tell, 
Your head indeed will then fall off.' 

But him akalya did not know, 
And so indeed his head fell off. 

Indeed, robbers carried off his bones, thinking they were some- 
thing else. 

Man, a tree growing from Brahma 

37. Then he [i.e. Yajfiavalkya] said: 'Venerable Brahmans, 
let him of you that desires question me. Or do ye all question 

1 That is, those mentioned in sections 10-17. 
12 



3.9.27-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

me. Or I will question him of you that desires [to be 
questioned] ; or I will question all of you/ 

Those Brahmans, however, durst not. 

28. Then he [i.e. Yajnavalkya] questioned them with these 
verses : 

As a tree of the forest, 
Just so, surely, is man. 
His hairs are leaves. 
His skin the outer bark. 

From his skin blood, 

Sap from the bark flows forth. 

From him when pierced there comes forth 

A stream, as from the tree when struck. 

His pieces of flesh are under-layers of wood. 
The fibre is muscle-like, strong. 
The bones are the wood within. 
The marrow is made resembling pith. 

A tree, when it is felled, grows up 
From the root, more new again; 
A mortal, when cut down by death 
From what root does he grow up? 1 

Say not 'from semen/ 

For that is produced from the living, 

As the tree, forsooth, springing from seed, 

Clearly arises without having died. 

If with its roots they should pull up 
The tree, it would not come into being again. 
A mortal, when cut down by death 
From what root does he grow up? 

When born, indeed, he is not born [again]. 
Who would again beget him? 

Brahma is knowledge, is bliss, 

The final goal of the giver of offerings, 

Of him, too, who stands still and knows It. 

J For a similar comparison in Hebrew literature see Job 14, 7-10. 



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BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [- 4 .i. a 



FOURTH ADHYAYA 
FIRST BRAHMANA 

King Janaka instructed by Yajnavalkya : six partial 
definitions of Brahma 

1. Janaka, [king] of Videha, was seated. Yajnavalkya came 
up. To him he said: 'Yajnavalkya, for what purpose have 
you come ? Because you desire cattle or subtle disputations ?' 

' Indeed, for both, your Majesty/ he said. 

2. ' Let us hear what anybody may have told you,' [con- 
tinued Yajnavalkya]. 

'Jitvan Sailini told me: " Brahma, verily, is speech (vac)"' 
[said Janaka]. 

'As a man might say that he had a mother, that he had 
a father, that he had a teacher, 1 so did that Sailina say, 
" Brahma, verily, is speech." For he might have thought (iti), 
'* What can one have who can not speak? " But did he tell 
you Its seat and support?' 

' He did not tell me.' 

' Forsooth, your Majesty, that is a one-legged [Brahma].' 

1 Verily, Yajnavalkya, do you here tell us.' 

' Its seat is just speech ; Its support, space (akasa). One 
should worship It as intelligence (prajna)' 

' What is Its quality of intelligence, Yajnavalkya? ' 

'Just speech, your Majesty,' said he. c Verily, by speech, 
your Majesty, a friend is recognized. By speech alone, your 
Majesty, the Rig- Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the 
[Hymns] of the Atharvans and Angirases, 2 Legends (itika$a\ 
Ancient Lore (pur and], Sciences (vidya), Mystic Doctrines 
(upanisad)) Verses (sloka), Aphorisms (sutra\ Explanations 
(anuvyakhyand)) Commentaries (uyakkyana), what is offered 
in sacrifice and as oblation, food and drink, this world and 
the other, and all beings are known. The highest Brahma, 
your Majesty, is in truth speech. Speech does not desert him 

1 That is, what is self-evident, what any one might know. This rendering, it should 
be noted, takes the active bruyat as if it were middle voice a late epic usage. 

2 A designation of the Atharva-Veda. 



4.1. H BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

who, knowing this, worships it as such. All things run unto 
him. He, having become a god, goes even to the gods/ 

{ I will give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an 
elephant/ said Janaka, [king] of Videha. 

Yajfiavalkya replied: 'My father thought that without having 
instructed one should not accept' 

3. f Let us hear what anybody may have told you/ [con- 
tinued Yajfiavalkya]. 

' Udanka Saulbayana told me: "Brahma, verily, is the 
breath of life (prana)" 3 

' As a man might say that he had a mother, that he had 
a father, that he had a teacher, so did that Saulbayana say, 
f< Brahma is the breath of life." For he might have thought, 
" What can one have who is without the breath of life ? " But 
did he tell you Its seat and support ? ' 

I He did not tell me. 5 

c Forsooth, your Majesty, that is a one-legged [Brahma].' 

c Verily, Yajfiavalkya, do you here tell us. 3 

4 Its seat is just the breath of life ; Its support, space. One 
should worship It as the dear (przya).' 

4 What is Its dearness, Yajnavalkya ? ' 

The breath of life itself, your Majesty/ said he. c Verily, 
out of love for the breath of life, your Majesty, one has sacrifice 
offered for him for whom one should not offer sacrifice, one 
accepts from him from whom one should not accept. Out 
of love of just the breath of life, your Majesty, there arises 
fear of being killed wherever one goes. The highest Brahma, 
your Majesty, is in truth the breath of life. The breath of life 
leaves not him who, knowing this, worships it as such. All 
things run unto him. He, having become a god, goes even 
to the gods/ 

I 1 will give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an 
elephant/ said Janaka, [king] of Videha. 

Yajnavalkya replied : c My father thought that without having 
instructed one should not accept/ 

4. ' Let us hear what anybody may have told you/ [con- 
tinued Yajnavalkya]. 

' Barku Varshna told me: " Brahma, verily, is sight."' 
'As a man might say that he had a mother, that he had 

138 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-4.1.5 

a father, that he had a teacher, so did that Varshna say, 
Brahma is sight (caksti)" For he might have thought, 
" What can one have who can not see ? " But did he tell you 
Its seat and support ? ' 

< He did not tell me.' 

' Forsooth, your Majesty, that is a one-legged [Brahma].' 

' Verily, Yajnavalkya, do you here tell us/ 

Its seat is just sight; Its support, space. One should 
worship It as the true (satya)' 

' What is Its truthfulness, Yajnavalkya?' 

1 Sight alone, your Majesty/ said he. ' Verily, your Majesty, 
when they say to a man who sees with his eyes, " Have you 
seen ? " and he says, " I have seen," that is the truth. Verily, 
your Majesty, the highest Brahma is sight. Sight leaves not 
him who, knowing this, worships it as such. All things run 
unto him. He, becoming a god, goes to the gods. 3 

* I will give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an 
elephant, 3 said Janaka, [king] of Videha. 

Yajnavalkya replied: ' My father thought that without 
having instructed one should not accept.' 

5. ' Let us hear what anybody may have told you,' [con- 
tinued Yajnavalkya]. 

c Gardabhivipita Bharadvaja told me: "Brahma, verily, is 
hearing.'" 

c As a man might say that he had a mother, that he had 
a father, that he had a teacher, so did that Bharadvaja say, 
" Brahma is hearing." For he might have thought, " What 
can one have who can not hear?" But did he tell you Its 
seat and support ? J 

< He did not tell me.' 

Forsooth, your Majesty, that is a one-legged [Brahma].' 
e Verily, Yajnavalkya, do you here tell us.' 
c Its seat is just hearing ; Its support, space. One should 
worship It as the endless (ananta).' 

4 What is Its endlessness, Yajnavalkya?' 

* Just the quarters of heaven, your Majesty/ said he. ' There- 
fore, verily, your Majesty, to whatever quarter one goes, he 
does not come to the end of it, for the quarters of heaven are 
endless. Verily, your Majesty, the quarteis of heaven are 

129 K 



4.J-5-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

hearing. Verily, your Majesty, the highest Brahma is hearing. 
Hearing does not desert him who, knowing this, worships it 
as such. All things run unto him. He, becoming a god, goes 
to the gods. 3 

c I will give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an 
elephant, 5 said Janaka, [king] of Videha. 

Yajnavalkya replied : ' My father thought that without 
having instructed one should not accept.' 

6. ' Let us hear what anybody may have told you/ [con- 
tinued Yajnavalkya]. 

* Satyakama Jabala told me : "Brahma, verily, is mind." ' 

As a man might say that he had a mother, that he had 
a father, that he had a teacher, so did that Jabala say, 
"Brahma is mind." For he might have thought, "What 
can one have who is without a mind ? " But did he tell you 
Its^seat and support?' 

' He did not tell me. 7 

1 Forsooth, your Majesty, that is a one-legged [Brahma].' 

' Verily, Yajnavalkya, do you here tell us.' 

Its seat is just the mind ; Its support, space. One should 
worship It as the blissful (ananda).' 

c What is Its blissfulness, Yajnavalkya ? ' 

'Just the mind, your Majesty/ said he. c Verily, your 
Majesty, by the mind one betakes himself to a woman. A son 
like himself is born of her. He is bliss. Verily, your Majesty, 
the highest Brahma is mind. Mind does not desert him who, 
knowing this, worships it as such. All things run unto him. 
He, becoming a god, goes to the gods/ 

' I will give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an 
elephant/ said Janaka, [king] of Videha. 

Yajnavalkya replied: 'My father thought that without 
having instructed one should not accept.' 

7. ' Let us hear what anybody may have told you/ [con- 
tinued Yajnavalkya]. 

'Vidagdha Sakalya told me: "Brahma, verily, is the 
heart.'" 

' As a man might say that he had a mother, that he had 
a father, that he had a teacher, so did that Sakalya say, 
" Brahma is the heart." For he might have thought, " What 

130 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-4.3.2 

can one have who is without a heart?" But did he not tell 
you Its seat and support ? ' 

4 He did not tell me/ 

* Forsooth, your Majesty, that is a one-legged [Brahma]/ 

' Verily, Yajnavalkya, do you here tell us/ 

' Its seat is just the heart ; Its support, space. One should 
worship It as the steadfast (stkiti).' 

'What is Its steadfastness, Yajnavalkya? 7 

'Just the heart, your Majesty/ said he. < Verily, your 
Majesty, the heart is the seat of all things. Verily, your 
Majesty, the heart is the support (pratistka) of all things, for 
on the heart alone, your Majesty, all things are established 
(prattsthitd). Veiily, your Majesty, the highest Brahma is 
the heart The heart does not leave him, who, knowing this, 
worships it as such. All things run unto him. He, becoming 
a god, goes to the gods/ 

' I will give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an 
elephant/ said Janaka, [king] of Videha. 

Yajnavalkya replied: 'My father thought that without 
having instructed one should not accept/ 



SECOND BRAHMANA 
Concerning the soul, its bodily and uniTersal relations 

1. Janaka, [king] of Videha, descending from his cushion 
and approaching, said : c Adoration to you, Yajnavalkya. Do 
you instruct me.' 

He [i.e. Yajnavalkya] said: 'Verily, as a king about to go 
on a great journey would prepare a chariot or a ship, even so 
you have a soul (atman) prepared with these mystic doctrines 
(tipanisad}. So, being at the head of a troop, and wealthy, 
learned in the Vedas, and instructed in mystic doctrines, whither, 
when released hence, will you go ? ' 

' That I know not, noble Sir whither I shall go/ 

* Then truly I will tell you that whither you will go/ 

* Tell me, noble Sir/ 

2, Indha (i. e. the Kindler) by name is this person here in the 
right eye. Him, verily, who is that Indha people call " Indra" 

131 K % 



4.S.3-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

cryptically, for the gods are fond of the cryptic, as it were, and 
dislike the evident. 1 

3. Now that which has the form of a person in the left eye 
Is his wife, Viraj. Their meeting-place [literally, their common 
praise, or concord] is the space in the heart. Their food is the 
red lump in the heart. Their covering is the net-like work 
In the heart. The path that they go is that vein which goes 
upward from the heart. Like a hair divided a thousandfold, 
so are the veins called kita, which are established within the 
heart. Through these flows that which flows on [i. e. the food]. 
Therefore that [soul which is composed of Indha and Viraj] is, 
as it were, an eater of finer food than is this bodily self. 2 

4. The eastern breaths are his eastern quarter. The southern 
breaths are his southern quarter. The western breaths are his 
western quarter. The northern breaths are his northern 
quarter. The upper breaths are his upper quarter [i.e. the 
zenith]. The lower breaths are his lower quarter [i.e. the 
nadir]. All the breaths are all his quarters. 

But the Soul (Atman) is not this, it is not that (neti, neti). 
It is unseizable, for it cannot be seized. It is indestructible, 
for it cannot be destroyed. It is unattached, for it does not 
attach itself. It is unbound. It does not tremble. It is not 
injured. 

Verily, Janaka, you have reached fearlessness/ Thus spake 
Yajnavalkya. 

Janaka, [king] of Videha, said : ' May fearlessness come unto 
you, noble Sir, you who make us to know fearlessness. Adora- 
tion to you! Here are the Videhas, here am I [as your 
servants].' 

THIRD BRAHMANA 
The light of man is the soul 

I. Yajnavalkya came to Janaka, [king] of Videha. He 
thought to himself: ' I will not talk/ 3 

1 This same etymological explanation occurs at ^at. Br. 6. r. I. 2. 

2 The connection seems to be broken here and the following paragraph appears 
to refer to the supreme Soul. 

3 Dvivedaganga and Bohthngk adopt the ingenious reading sam enena, ' I will 
talk with him * (instead of the text as translated, sa mem net). But the historical 

132 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-4.3.6 

But [once] l when Janaka, [king] of Videha, and Yajnavalkya 
were discussing together at an Agnihotra, Yajnavalkya granted 
the former a boon. He chose asking whatever question he 
wished. He granted it to him. So [now] the king, [speaking] 
first, asked him : 

2. ' Yajnavalkya, what light does a person here have ? ' 

' He has the light of the sun, O king/ he said, c for with the 
sun, indeed, as his light one sits, moves around, does his work, 
and returns. 1 

( Quite so, Yajnavalkya. 

3. But when the sun has set, Yajnavalkya, what light does 
a person here have ? ' 

'The moon, indeed, is his light/ said he, c for with the moon, 
indeed, as his light one sits, moves around, does his work, and 
returns/ 

' Quite so, Yajnavalkya. 

4. But when the sun has set, and the moon has set, what 
light does a person here have ? ' 

' Fire, indeed, is his light/ said he, c for with fire, indeed, as 
his light one sits, moves around, does his work, and returns/ 
' Quite so, Yajnavalkya. 

5. But when the sun has set, Yajnavalkya, and the moon 
has set, and the fire has gone out, what light does a person 
here have ? ' 

Speech, indeed, is his light/ said he, f for with speech, indeed, 
as his light one sits, moves around, does his work, and returns. 
Therefore, verily, O king, where one does not discern even his 
own hands, when a voice is raised, then one goes straight 
towards it.' 

' Quite so, Yajnavalkya. 

6. But when the sun has set, Yajnavalkya, and the moon 
has set, and the fire has gone out, and speech is hushed, what 
light does a person here have ? ' 

( The soul (atman), indeed, is his light/ said he, for with the 
soul, indeed, as his light one sits, moves around, does his work, 
and returns/ 

situation referred to in $at. Br. (see the following foot-note) explains Janaka's 
forwardness in asking questions. 

1 In the episode culminating at Sat. Br. n. 6. 2. TO. 



4.3.7-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

The various conditions of the soul 

7. * Which (katama) is the soul ? ' 

6 The person here who among the senses is made of know- 
ledge, who is the light in the heart. He, remaining the same, 
goes along both worlds, appearing to think, appearing to move 
about, for upon becoming asleep he tianscends this world and 
the forms of death. 

8. Verily, this person, by being born and obtaining a body, 
is joined with evils. When he departs, on dying, he leaves 
evils behind. 

9. Verily, there are just two conditions of this person : the 
condition of being in this world and the condition of being in 
the other world. There is an intermediate third condition, 
namely, that of being in sleep. By standing in this inter- 
mediate condition one sees both those conditions, namely being 
in this world and being in the other world. Now whatever 
the approach is to the condition of being in the other world, 
by making that approach one sees the evils [of this world] and 
the joys [of yonder world]. 



The state of dreaming 

When one goes to sleep, he takes along the material (matra) 
of this all-containing world, himself tears it apart, himself 
builds it up, and dreams by his own brightness, by his own 
light. Then this person becomes self-illuminated. 

10. There are no chariots there, no spans, no roads. But 
he projects from himself chariots, spans, roads. There are no 
blisses there, no pleasures, no delights. But he projects from 
himself blisses, pleasures, delights. There are no tanks there, 
no lotus-pools, no streams. But he projects from himself 
tanks, lotus-pools, streams. For he is a creator. 

11. On this point there are the following verses : 

Striking down in sleep what is bodily, 
Sleepless he looks down upon the sleeping [senses]. 
Having taken to himself light, there returns to his place 
The golden person, the one spirit (hamsd). 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-4.3.17 

12. Guarding his low nest with the breath, 
The Immortal goes forth out of the nest 
He goes where'er he pleases the immortal, 
The golden person, the one spiiit (hamsa). 

13. In the state of sleep going aloft and alow, 
A god, he makes many forms for himself 
Now, as it were, enjoying pleasure with women, 

Now, as it were, laughing, and even beholding fearful sights. 

14. People see his pleasure-ground; 
Him no one sees at all. 

" Therefore one should not wake him suddenly," they say. 
Hard is the curing for a man to whom He does not return. 

Now some people say : " That is just his waking state, for 
whatever things he sees when awake, those too he sees when 
asleep." [This is not so, for] there [i.e. in sleep] the person Is 
self-illuminated/ 

[Janaka said :] < I will give you, noble Sir, a thousand [cows]. 
Declare what is higher than this, for my release [from trans- 
migration].' 

15. Having had enjoyment in this state of deep sleep, having 
traveled around and seen good and bad, he hastens again, 
according to the entrance and place of origin, back to sleep. 
Whatever he sees there [i. e. in the state of deep sleep], he 
is not followed by it, for this person is without attachments. 3 

[Janaka said .] ' Quite so, Yajnavalkya. I will give you, noble 
Sir, a thousand [cows]. Declare what is higher than this, for 
my release. 3 

16. e Having had enjoyment in this state of sleep, having 
traveled around and seen good and bad, he hastens again 9 
according to the entrance and place of origin, back to the state 
of waking. Whatever he sees there [i. e. in dreaming sleep], 
he is not followed by it, for this person is without attach- 
ments/ 

[Janaka said :] ' Quite so, Yajnavalkya. I will give you, 
noble Sir, a thousand [cows]. Declare what is higher than 
this, for my release/ 

17. 'Having had enjoyment in this state of waking, having 
traveled around and seen good and evil, he hastens again. 



4.3.17-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

according to the entrance and place of origin, back to dreaming 
sleep. 1 

1 8. As a great fish goes along both banks of a river, both 
the hither and the further, just so this person goes along both 
these conditions, the condition of sleeping and the condition 
of waking. 

The soul in deep, dreamless sleep 

19. As a falcon, or an eagle, having flown around here in 
space, becomes weary, folds its wings, and is borne down to its 
nest, just so this person hastens to that state where, asleep, he 
desires no desires and sees no dream. 

20. Verily, a person has those arteries called hita ; as a hair 
subdivided a thousandfold, so minute are they, full of white, 
blue, yellow, green, and red. Now when people seem to be 
killing him, when they seem to be overpowering him, when an 
elephant seems to be tearing him to pieces, 2 when he seems to 
be falling into a hole in these circumstances he is imagining 
through ignorance the very fear which he sees when awake. 
When he imagines that he is a god, as it were, that he is a king, 
as it were, or " I am this world-all," that is his highest world. 

21. This, verily, is that form of his which is beyond desires, 
free from evil, without fear. As a man, when in the embrace 
of a beloved wife, knows nothing within or without, so this 
person, when in the embrace of the intelligent Soul, knows 
nothing within or without. Verily, that is his [true] form in 
which his desire is satisfied, in which the Soul is his desire, in 
which he is without desire and without sorrow. 

22. There a father becomes not a father; a mother, not 
a mother ; the worlds, not the worlds ; the gods, not the gods ; 
the Vedas, not the Vedas ; a thief, not a thief. There the 
destroyer of an embryo becomes not the destroyer of am 
embryo 3 ; a Candala [the son of a Sudra father and a Brahman 
mother] is not a Candala ; a Paulkasa [the son of a Sudra 
father and a Kshatriya mother] is not a Paulkasa ; a mendicant 

1 This section is lacking in the Madhyamdina recension. 

2 Taking -vicchdyayanti from m + *Jcha. If from Vvub, it means ' pressing him 
hard.' Com. says * chase.' Cf. Chand. 8. 10. 2 and note. 

8 Cf. Kaush. 3 I. 

136 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-4.3.29 

is not a mendicant , an ascetic is not an ascetic. He is not 
followed by good, he is not followed by evil, for then he has 
passed beyond all sorrows of the heart. 

23. Verily, while he does not there see [with the eyes], he is 
verily seeing, though he does not see (what is [usually] to be 
seen) l ; for there is no cessation of the seeing of a seer, because of 
his imperishability [as a seer]. It is not, however, a second thing, 
other than himself and separate, that he may see. 

24. Verily, while he does not there smel! 3 he is verily smelling, 
though he does not smell (what is [usually] to be smelled) 1 ; for 
there is no cessation of the smelling of a smeller, because of his 
imperishability [as a smeller]. It is not, however, a second 
thing, other than himself and separate, that he may smell. 

25. Verily, while he does not there taste, he is verily tasting, 
though he does not taste (what is [usually] to be' tasted) x ; for 
there is no cessation of the tasting of a taster, because of his 
imperishability [as a taster]. It is not, however, a second thing, 
other than himself and separate, that he may taste. 

26. Verily, while he does not there speak, he is verily speak- 
ing, though he does not speak (what is [usually] to be spoken) 1 ; 
for there is no cessation of the speaking of a speaker, because of 
his imperishability [as a speaker]. It is not, however, a second 
thing, other than himself and separate, to uhich he may speak. 

27. Verily, while he does not there hear, he is verily hearing, 
though he does not hear (what is [usually] to be heard) 1 ; for 
there is no cessation of the hearing of a hearer, because of his 
imperishability [as a hearer]. It is not, however, a second 
thing, other than himself and separate, which he may hear. 

28. Verily, while he does not there think, he is verily think- 
ing, though he does not think (what is [usually] to be thought) - 1 ; 
for there is no cessation of the thinking of a thinker, because of 
his imperishability [as a thinker]. It is not, however, a second 
thing, other than himself and separate, of which he may think. 

29. Verily, while he does not there touch, he is verily touch- 
ing, though he does not touch (what is [usually] to be touched) T ; 
for there is no cessation of the touching of a toucher, because of 
his imperishability [as a toucher]. It is not, however, a second 
thing, other than himself and separate, which he may touch. 

1 An addition in the Madhyamdma text. 

137 



4.3-3-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

30. Verily, while he does not there know, he is verily know- 
ing, though he does not know (what is [usually] to be known) 1 ; 
for there is no cessation of the knowing of a knower, because 
of his imperishability [as a knower]. It is not, however, a 
second thing, other than himself and separate, which he may 
know. 

31: Verily where there seems to be another, there the one 
might see the other ; the one might smell the other ; the one 
might taste the other ; the one might speak to the other ; the 
one might hear the other ; the one might think of the other ; 
the one might touch the other; the one might know the 
other. 2 

32. An ocean, a seer alone without duality, becomes he whose 
world is Brahma, O King ! ' thus Yajnavalkya instructed him. 
This is a man's highest path. This is his highest achievement. 
This is his highest world. This is his highest bliss. On a 
part of just this bliss other creatures have their living. 

33. If one is fortunate among men and wealthy, lord over 
others, best provided with all human enjoyments that is the 
highest bliss of men. Now a hundredfold the bliss of men is 
one bliss of those who have won the fathers' world. Now 
a hundredfold the bliss of those who have won the fathers' 
world is one bliss in the Gandharva- world. A hundredfold 
the bliss in the Gandharva-world is one bliss of the gods who 
gain their divinity by meritorious works. A hundredfold the 
bliss of the gods by works is one bliss of the gods by birth 
and of him who is learned in the Vedas, who is without crook- 
edness, and who is free from desire. A hundredfold the bliss 
of the gods by birth is one bliss in the Prajapati- world and of 
him who is learned in the Vedas, who is without crookedness, 
and who is free from desire. A hundredfold the bliss in the 
Prajapati-world is one bliss in the Brahma-world and of him 
who is learned in the Vedas, who is without crookedness, and 
who is free from desire. This truly is the highest world. This 
is the Brahma-world, O king/ Thus spake Yajnavalkya, 

[Janaka said :] c I will give you, noble Sir, a thousand [cows]. 
Speak further than this, for my release.' 

1 An addition in the Madhyamdma text. 

2 This section is lacking in the Madhyamdma recension, 

138 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-4.4.* 

Then Yajnavalkya feared, thinking : ' This intelligent king 
has driven me out of every corner.' l 

34. [He said :] c Having had enjoyment in this state of sleep, 
having traveled around and seen good and bad, he hastens 
again, according to the entrance and place of origin, back to 
the state of waking. 2 

The soul at death 

35. As a heavily loaded cart goes creaking, just so this 
bodily self, mounted by the intelligent Self, goes groaning 
when one is breathing one's last. 

36. When he comes to weakness whether he come to 
weakness through old age or through diseasethis person 
frees himself from these limbs just as a mango, or a fig, or a 
berry releases itself from its bond ; and he hastens again, 
according to the entrance and place of origin, back to life. 

37. As noblemen, policemen, chariot-drivers, village-heads 
wait with food, drink, and lodgings for a king who is coming, 
and cry : <c Here he comes 1 Here he comes ! " so indeed do all 
things wait for him who has this knowledge and cry : " Here is 
Brahma coming! Here is Brahma coming!" 

38. As noblemen, policemen, chariot-drivers, village-heads 
gather around a king who is about to depart, just so do all the 
breaths gather around the soul at the end, when one is breathing 
one's last. 

FOURTH BRAHMANA 

1. When this self comes to weakness and to confusedness of 
mind, as it were, then the breaths gather around him. He 
takes to himself those particles of energy and descends into the 
heart. When the person in the eye turns away, back [to the 
sun], then one becomes non-knowing of forms. 

2. " He is becoming one," they say ; ce he does not see." " He 
is becoming one," they say ; " he does not smell." ' He is 
becoming one," they say ; "he does not taste." "He is becoming 
one," they say ; "he does not speak." " He is becoming one," 

1 Or, ' has driven me to extremities.' 

2 This paragraph is probably an intrusion. It is not contained in the Madh- 
yamdina text and does not fit in well with the context. Cf. 4. 3. 16. 

139 



4.4- a-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

they say ; "he does not hear." " He is becoming one," they 
say ; " he does not think. 3 ' " He is becoming one," they say ; 
" he does not touch." <% He is becoming one/' they say ; u he 
does not know." The point of his heart becomes lighted up. 
By that light the self departs, either by the eye, or by the head, 
or by other bodily parts. After him, as he goes out, the life 
(prand) goes out. After the life, as it goes out, all the breaths 
(prdnd) go out. He becomes one with intelligence. What has 
intelligence departs with him. His knowledge and his woiks 
and his former intelligence [i.e. instinct] lay hold of him. 

The soul of the unreleased after death 

3. Now as a caterpillar, when it has come to the end of a blade 
of grass, in taking the next step draws itself together towards 
it, just so this soul in taking the next step strikes down this 
body, dispels its ignorance and draws itself together [for 
making the transition]. 

4. As a goldsmith, taking a piece of gold, reduces it to 
another newer and more beautiful form, just so this soul, 
striking down this body and dispelling its ignorance, makes 
for itself another newer and more beautiful form like that 
either of the fathers, or of the Gandharvas, or of the gods, or of 
Prajapati, or of Brahma, or of other beings. 

5. Verily, this soul is Brahma, made of knowledge, of mind, 
of breath, of seeing, of hearing, of earth, of water, of wind, of 
space, of energy and of non- energy, of desire and of non- 
desire, of anger and of non-anger, of virtuousness and of non- 
virtuousness. It is made of everything. This is what is meant 
by the saying " made of this, made of that." 

According as one acts, according as one conducts himself, so 
does he become. The doer of good becomes good. The doer 
of evil becomes evil. One becomes virtuous by virtuous action, 
bad by bad action. 

But people say : " A person is made [not of acts, but] of 
desires only." [In reply to this I say :] As is his desire, such 
is his resolve ; as is his resolve, such the action he performs , 
what action (karma] he performs, that he procures for himself. 1 

1 Or, ' into that does lie become changed.' 
140 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-4.4.9 

6. On this point there is this verse : 

Where one's mind is attached the inner self 
Goes thereto with action, being attached to it alone. 

Obtaining the end of his action, 

Whatever he does in this world, 

He comes again from that world 

To this world of action. 1 

So the man who desires. 

The soul of the released 

Now the man who does not desire. He who is without 
desire, who is freed from desire, whose desire is satisfied, whose 
desire is the Soul his breaths do not depart. Being very 
Brahma, he goes to Brahma. 

7. On this point there is this verse: 

When are liberated all 
The desires that lodge in one's heart, 
Then a mortal becomes immortal! 
Therein he reaches Brahma! 2 

As the slough of a snake lies on an ant-hill, dead, cast off, 
even so lies this body. But this incorporeal, immortal Life 
(prana) is Brahma indeed, is light indeed/ 

' I will give you, noble Sir, a thousand [cows],' said Janaka, 
[king] of Videha. 

8. [Yajnavalkya continued :] ' On this point there are these 
verses : 

The ancient narrow path that stretches far away 
Has been touched by me, has been found by me. 
By it the wise, the knowers of Brahma, go up 
Hence to the heavenly woild, released. 

9. On it, they say, is white and blue 
And yellow and green and red. 
That was the path by Brahma found; 

By it goes the knower of Brahma, the doer of right (punya-kri), 
and every shining one. 

1 Or 'for action/ or ( because of his action.* 

2 This stanza is found also at Katha 6. 14. 

141 



4-4-IO-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

jo. Into blind darkness enter they 
That worship ignorance; 

Into darkness greater than that, as it were, they 
That delight in knowledge. 1 

11. Joyless are those worlds called/ 
Covered with blind darkness. 
To them after death go those 

People that have not knowledge, that are not awakened: 

12. If a person knew the Soul (Atman), 
With the thought "I am he!" 
With what desire, for love of what 
Would he cling unto the body? 

13. He who has found and has awakened to the Soul 
That has entered this conglomeiate abode 

He is the maker of everything, for he is the creator of all, 
The world is his: indeed, he is the world itself. 

14. Verily, while we are here we may know this. 

If you have known it not, great is the destruction. 
Those who know this become immortal, 
But others go only to sorrow. 

15. If one perceives Him 

As the Soul, as God (deva\ clearly, 

As the Lord of what has been and of what is to be 

One does not shrink away from Him. 4 

1 6 That before which the year 
Revolves with its days 
That the gods revere as the light of lights, 
As life immortal. 

17. On whom the five peoples 
And space are established 
Him alone I, the knowing, I, the immortal, 
Believe to be the Soul, the immortal Brahma. 
1 8. They who know the breathing of the breath, 
The seeing of the eye, the hearing of the ear, 
(The food of food), 5 the thinking of the mind 
They have recognized the ancient, primeval Brahma. 

1 This stanza is identical with Isa 9. 

2 Compare Katha I. 3 a. 

3 A variation of this stanza is found at Isa 3. 

4 Compare Katha 4. 5 c, d ; 4. 12 c, d ; Isa 6 d. 

5 An addition in the Madhyamdina text. 

143 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-4.4.22 

19. By the mind alone is It to be perceived. 
There is on earth no diversity. 

He gets death after death, 

Who peiceives here seeming diversity. 

20. As a unity only is It to be looked upon 
This indemonstrable, enduring Being, 
Spotless, beyond space, 

The unborn Soul, great, enduring. 

21. By knowing Him only, a wise 

Brahman should get for himself intelligence; 
He should not meditate upon many words, 
For that is a weariness of speech. 

33. Verily, he Is the great, unborn Soul, who is this [person] 
consisting of knowledge among the senses. In the space 
within the heart lies the ruler of all, the lord of all, the king 
of all. He does not become gi eater by good action nor inferior 
by bad action. He is the lord of all, the overlord of beings, 
the protector of beings. He is the separating dam for keeping 
these worlds apart. 

Such a one the Brahmans desire to know by repetition of 
the Vedas, by sacrifices, by offerings, by penance, by fasting. 
On knowing him, in truth, one becomes an ascetic (muni). 
Desiring him only as their home, mendicants wander forth. 

Verily, because they know this, the ancients desired not off- 
spring, saying : <c What shall we do with offspring, we whose is 
this Soul, this home ? " They, verily, rising above the desire for 
sons and the desire for wealth and the desire for worlds, lived 
the life of a mendicant. For the desire for sons is the desire 
for wealth, and the desire for wealth is the desire for worlds ; 
for both these are desires. 

That Soul (Atman) is not this, it is not that (neti, neti}. It 
is unseizable, for it cannot be seized. It is indestructible, for 
it cannot be destroyed. It is unattached, for it does not attach 
Itself. It is unbound. It does not tremble. It is not injured. 

Him [who knows this] these two do not overcome neither 
the thought <c Hence I did wrong," nor the thought " Hence 
I did right/' Verily, he overcomes them both. What he has 
done and what he has not done do not affect him. 



4-4.33-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

23. This very [doctrine] has been declared in the verse : 

This eternal greatness of a Brahman 
Is not increased by deeds (karma), nor diminished. 
One should be familiar with it. By knowing it, 
One is not stained by evil action. 

Therefore, having this knowledge, having become calm, 
subdued, quiet, patiently enduring, and collected, one sees the 
Soul just in the soul. One sees everything as the Soul. Evil 
does not overcome him ; he overcomes all evil. Evil does 
not burn him ; he burns all evil. Free from evil, free from 
impurity, free from doubt, he becomes a Brahman. 

This is the Brahma-world, O king/ said Yajnavalkya. 

[Janaka said :] ' I will give you, noble Sir, the Videhas and 
myself also to be your slave.' 

24. [Yajnavalkya continued ] ' This is that great, unborn 
Soul, who eats the food [which people eat], the giver of good. 
He finds good who knows this. 

35. Verily, that great, unborn Soul, undecaying, undying, 
immortal, fearless, is Brahma. Verily, Brahma is fearless. 
He who knows this becomes the fearless Brahma.' 

FIFTH BRAHMANA 1 

The conversation of Yajnavalkya and Maitreyi 
concerning the pantheistic Soul 

i. Now then, Yajnavalkya had two wives, Maitreyi and 
Katyayani. Of the two, Maitreyi was a discourser on sacred 
knowledge 2 (brahma-vddinz) \ Katyayani had just (eva) a 
woman's knowledge in that matter (tarhi\ 

Now then, Yajnavalkya was about to commence another 
mode of life. 3 

3. ' Maitreyi ! ' said Yajnavalkya, ' lo, verily, I am about 
to wander forth 4 from this state. Behold ! Let me make a 
final settlement for you and that Katyayani.' 

1 Another version, probably a secondary recension, of the same episode at 2. 4. 

2 Besides this general meaning, brahma may also contain pregnantly something 
of the technical philosophical meaning of ' Brahma.' 

3 For the exact meaning, consult the foot-note on 2. 4. I, page 98, note I. 

4 pra-vraji the verb from which are formed the technical terms, pravrajin, 
pravrajaka, pravrajita, for a religious mendicant/ 

144 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-4.5.6 

3. Then spake Maitreyl : < If now, Sir, this whole earth filled 
with wealth were mine, would I now thereby be immortal ? ' 

'No, no I ' said Yajnavalkya. ' As the life of the rich, even 
so would your life be. Of immortality, however, there is no 
hope through wealth. 1 

4. Then spake Maitreyi: 'What should I do with that 
through which I may not be immortal ? What you know, 
Sir that, indeed, explain to me. 7 

5. Then spake Yajnavalkya : < Though, verily, you, my lady, 
were dear to us, you have increased your clearness. Behold, 
then, lady, I will explain it to you. But, while I am expound- 
ing, do you seek to ponder thereon/ 

6. Then spake he : 'Lo, verily, not for love of the husband is a 
husband dear, but for love of the Soul (Atman) a husband is dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the wife is a wife dear, but for 
love of the Soul a wife is dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the sons are sons dear, but for 
love of the Soul sons are dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the wealth is wealth dear, but 
for love of the Soul wealth is dear. 

Lo 3 verily, not for love of the cattle are cattle dear, but for 
love of the Soul cattle are dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of Brahmanhood is Brahmanhood 
dear, but for love of the Soul Brahmanhood Is dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of Kshatrahood is Kshatrahood 
dear, but for love of the Soul Kshatrahood is dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the worlds are the worlds dear, 
but for love of the Soul the worlds are dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the gods are the gods dear, but 
for love of the Soul the gods are dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the Vedas are the Vedas dear, 
but for love of the Soul the Vedas are dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of the beings (bkuta) are beings 
dear, but for love of the Soul beings are dear. 

Lo, verily, not for love of all is all dear, but for love of the 
Soul all is dear. 

Lo, verily, it is the Soul (Atman) that should be seen, that 
should be hearkened to, that should be thought on, that should 
be pondered on, O Maitreyl. 

145 L 



4.5.6-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Lo, verily, in the Soul's being seen 3 hearkened to, thought 
on, understood, this world-all is known, 

7. Brahmanhood deseits him who knows Brahrnanhood in 
aught else than the Soul. Kshatrahood deserts him who 
knows Kshatrahood in aught else than the Soul. The worlds 
desert him who knows the worlds in aught else than the Soul. 
The gods desert him who knows the gods in aught else than 
the Soul. The Vedas desert him who knows the Vedas in 
aught else than the Soul. Beings desert him who knows beings 
in aught else than the Soul. Everything deserts him who knows 
everything in aught else than the Soul. This Brahmanhood, 
this Kshatrahood, these worlds, these gods, these Vedas, all 
these beings, everything here is what this Soul is. 

8. It is as, when a drum is being beaten, one would not be 
able to grasp the external sounds, but by grasping the drum or 
the beater of the drum the sound is grasped. 

9. It is as, when a conch-shell is being blown, one would 
not be able to grasp the external sounds, but by grasping the 
conch-shell or the blower of the conch-shell the sound is grasped. 

10. It is as, when a lute is being played, one would not be 
able to grasp the externariounds, but by grasping the lute or 
the player of the lute the sound is grasped. 

11. It is as, from a fire laid with damp fuel, clouds of 
smoke separately issue forth, so, lo, verily, from this great 
Being (bkuta) has been breathed forth that which is Rig- Veda, 
Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, [Hymns] of the Atharvans and Angi- 
rases, 1 Legend (itihasa\ Ancient Lore (purana\ Sciences 
(mdya), Mystic Doctrines (upanisad), Verses (Moka\ Aphorisms 
(sutra), Explanations (anuuyakhydna), Commentaries (uya- 
kkyana), sacrifice, oblation, food, drink, this world and the other, 
and all beings. From it, indeed, have all these been breathed 
forth. 

12. It is as the uniting-place of all waters is the sea, like- 
wise the uniting-place of all touches is the skin ; likewise the 
uniting-place of all tastes is the tongue ; likewise the uniting- 
place of all odors is the nose ; likewise the uniting-place of all 
forms is the eye ; likewise the uniting-place of all sounds is the 
ear ; likewise the uniting-place of all intentions is the mind ; 

1 A designation of the Atharva-Veda. 
146 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-4.5.15 

likewise the uniting-place of all knowledges is the heart ; like- 
wise the uniting-place of all actions is the hands ; likewise the 
uniting-place of all pleasures is the generative organ ; likewise 
the uniting-place of all evacuations is the anus ; likewise the 
uniting-place of all journeys is the feet ; likewise the uniting- 
place of all Vedas is speech. 

13. It isas is a mass of salt, without inside, without outside, 
entirely a mass of taste, even so, verily, is this Soul, without 
inside, without outside, entirely a mass of knowledge. 

Arising out of these elements, into them also one vanishes 
away. After death there is no consciousness (samjTia). Thus, 
lo, say I.' Thus spake Yajnavalkya. 

14. Then said Maitreyl: 'Herein, indeed, you have caused 
me, Sir, to arrive at the extreme of bewilderment. Verily, I 
understand It [i. e. this Atmaii\ not/ 

Then said he: 'Lo, verily, I speak not bewilderment. 
Imperishable, lo, verily, is this Soul, and of indestructible 
quality. 

15. For where there is a duality, as it were, there one sees 
another ; there one smells another ; there one tastes another ; 
there one speaks to another ; there one hears another ; theie 
one thinks of another ; there one touches another ; there one 
understands another. But where everything has become just 
one's own self, then whereby and whom would one see ? then 
whereby and whom would one smell ? then whereby and whom 
would one taste ? then whereby and to whom would one speak ? 
then whereby and whom would one hear ? then whereby and 
of whom would one think ? then whereby and whom would 
one touch ? then whereby and whom would one understand ? 
whereby would one understand him by means of whom one 
understands this All ? 

That Soul (Atman) is not this, it is not that (neti, neti). It 
is unseizable, for it can not be seized ; indestructible, for it 
can not be destroyed ; unattached, for it does not attach itself ; 
is unbound, does not tremble, is not injured. 

Lo, whereby would one understand the understander ? 

Thus you have the instruction told to you, Maitreyl. Such, 
lo, indeed, is immortality.' 

After speaking thus, Yajnavalkya departed, 

147 La 



4.6.I-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

SIXTH BRAHMANA 
The teachers of this doctrine, 
i. Now the Line of Tradition (vainsa). 
(We [received this teaching] from Pautimashya), 1 
Pautimashya from Gaupavana, 
Gaupavana from Pautimashya, 
Pautimashya from Gaupavana, 
Gaupavana from Kausika, 
Kausika from Kaundinya, 
Kaundinya from Sandilya, 
Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama, 
Gautama [2] from Agnive^ya, 
Agnivesya from Gargya, 
Gargya from Gargya, 
Grgya from Gautama, 
Gautama from Saitava, 
Saitava from Parasaryayana, 
Parasaryayana from Gargyayana, 
Gargyayana from Uddalakayana, 
Uddalakayana from Jabalayana, 
Jabalayana from Madhyamdinayana, 
Madhyamdinayana from Saukarayana, 
Saukarayana from Kashayana, 
Kashayana from Sayakayana, 
Sayakayana from Kausikayani, 
Kau^ikayani [3] from Ghritakausika, 
Ghritakausika from Parasaryayana, 
Parasaryayana from Parasarya, 
Parasarya from Jatukarnya, 
Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yaska, 
Asurayana from Traivani, 
Traivani from Aupajandhani^ 
Aupajandhani from Asuri, 
Asuri from Bharadvaja, 
Bharadvaja from Atreya, 
Atreya from Manti, 

1 So the Madhyamdina text begins the list, 
148 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-5.1 

Manti from Gautama, 
Gautama from Gautama, 
Gautama from Vatsya, 
Vatsya from Sandilya, 
Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya, 
Kai^orya Kapya from Kumaraharita, 
Kumaraharita from Galava, 
Galava from Vidarbhikaundinya, 
Vidarbhlkaundinya from Vatsanapat Babhrava, 
Vatsanapat Babhrava from Pathin Saubhara, 
Pathin Saubhara from Ayasya Angirasa, 
Ayasya Angirasa from Abhuti Tvashtra, 
Abhuti Tvashtra from Vi^varupa Tvashtra, 
Vi^varupa Tvashtra from the two A^vlns, 
the two A^vins from Dadhyanc Atharvana, 
Dadhyanc Atharvana from Atharvan Daiva, 
Atharvan Daiva from Mrityu Pradhvarhsana, 
Mrityu Pradhvarhsana from Pradhvarhsana, 
Pradhvarhsana from Eka Rishi, 
Eka Rishi from Vipracitti, 
Vipracitti from Vyashti, 
Vyashti from Sanaru, 
Sanaru from Sanatana, 
Sanatana from Sanaga, 
Sanaga from Parameshthin, 
Parameshthin from Brahma. 

Brahma is the Self-existent (svayam-bhu). Adoration to 
Brahma ! 



FIFTH ADHYAYA 

FIRST BRAHMANA 

The inexhaustible Brahma 
Oml 

The yon is fulness; fulness, this, 
From fulness, fulness doth proceed. 
Withdrawing fulness's fulness off, 
E'en fulness then itself remains. 1 

1 This stanza occurs with variations in AV. 10. 8. 29. 

149 



5.i-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Oml 

'Brahma is the ether (kha) the ether primeval, the ether 
that blows/ Thus, verily, was the son of Kauravyayani wont 
to say. 

This is the knowledge (veda) the Brahmans know. Thereby 
I know (veda) what is to be known. 

SECOND BRAHMANA 
The three cardinal virtues 

1. The threefold offspring- of Prajapati gods, men, and 
devils (asura) dwelt with their father Prajapati as students 
of sacred knowledge (brahviacarya). 

Having lived the life of a student of sacred knowledge, the 
gods said : ' Speak to us, Sir/ To them then he spoke this 
syllable, 'Da.' Did you understand ? ' ' We did understand/ 
said they. ' You said to us ? ct Restrain yourselves (damyata)? ' 
' Yes (Om) ! ' said he. You did understand/ 

2. So then the men said to him: 'Speak to us, Sir/ To 
them then he spoke this syllable, c Da! ' Did you understand ?' 
6 We did understand,' said they. 'You said to us, "Give 
(dattay ' < Yes (Om) \ ' said he. ' You did understand/ 

3. So then the devils said to him : 6 Speak to us, Sir/ To 
them then he spoke this syllable, ' Da! ' Did you understand ? ' 
' We did understand/ said they. { You said to us, " Be 
compassionate (dayadlwanfy" ' ' Yes (Om) ! } said he. ' You 
did understand/ 

This same thing does the divine voice here, thunder, repeat : 
Da! Da! Da! that is, restrain yourselves, give, be compas- 
sionate. One should practise this same triad : self-restraint, 
giving, compassion. 

THIRD BRAHMANA 
Braluna as the heart 

The heait (hrdayam) is the same as Prajapati (Lord of 
Creation). It is Brahma. It is all. 

It is trisyllabic hr-da-yam. 

hr is one syllable. Both his own people and others bring 
( V&r) offerings unto him who knows this. 

150 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-5.5.3 

da is one syllable. Both his own people and others give 
( V da) unto him who knows this. 

yam is one syllable. To the heavenly world goes (eti [pi 
yanti he who knows this. 

FOURTH BRAHMANA 
Brahma as the Heal 

This, verily, is That. This, indeed, was That, even the Real 
He who knows that wonderful being (yaksa] as the first-born 
namely, that Brahma is the Realconquers these worlds. 
Would he be conquered who knows thus that great spirit as 
the first-born namely, that Brahma is the Real ? [No !] for 
indeed, Brahma is the Real. 

FIFTH BRAHMANA 
The Heal, etymologically and cosmologically explained 

1. In the beginning this world was just Water. That Water 
emitted the RealBrahma [being] the Real; Brahma, 
Prajapati; Prajapati, the gods. Those gods reverenced the 
Real (satyam). That is trisyllabic: sa-ti-yam sa is one 
syllable, ti is one syllable, yam is one syllable. The first and 
last syllables are truth (satyam^ In the middle is falsehood 
(anrtam}* This falsehood is embraced on both sides by 
truth ; it partakes of the nature of truth itself. Falsehood 
does not injure him who knows this. 

2. Yonder sun is the same as that Real. The Person who 
is there in that orb and the Person who is here in the right 
eye these two depend the one upon the other. Through his 
rays that one depends upon this one ; through his vital breaths 
this one upon that. When one is about to decease, he sees that, 
orb quite clear [i. e. free from rays] ; those rays come to him 
no more. 

3. The head of the person who is there in that orb is Bhur 
there is one head, this is one syllable. Bkuvar is the arms 
there are two arms, these are two syllables. Svar is the feet 

1 ' Truth* is another meaning (beside ' the Real') of the word satyam. 

2 Because, as the Commentator explains, the sound ti is contained in the word 
anrtam* 



5.5.3-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

there are two feet, these are two syllables (su-ar). The 
mystic name (upanisad) thereof is * Day ' (ahan). He slays 
( */kan) evil, he leaves it behind ( /ha) who knows this. 

4. The head of the person who is here in the right eye is 
Bhur there is one head, this is one syllable. BJmvar is the 
arms there are two arms, these are two syllables. Svar is the 
feet there are two feet, these are two syllables (su-ar). The 
mystic name (upanisad) thereof is * I ' (akam). He slays 
evil, he leaves it behind ( */ka) who knows this. 



SIXTH BRAHMANA 
The Individual person, pantkeistically explained 

This person (purusd) here in the heart is made of mind, is of 
the nature of light, is like a little grain of rice, is a grain of 
barley. This very one is ruler of everything, is lord of every- 
thing, governs this whole universe, whatsoever there is. 

SEVENTH BRAHMANA 

Brahma as lightning, etymologically explained 
Brahma is lightning (vidyut\ they say, because of unloosing 
(mdana). Lightning unlooses (vidyati) him from evil who 
knows this, that Brahma is lightning for Brahma is indeed 
lightning. 

EIGHTH BRAHMANA 
The symbolism of speech as a cow 

One should reverence Speech as a milch-cow. She has four 
udders: the Svaha (Invocation), the VasJtat (Presentation), 
the Hanta (Salutation), the Svadha (Benediction). 1 The gods 
subsist upon her two udders, the S-vaha and the Vashat ; men, 
upon the Hanta ; the fathers upon the Svadka. The breath 
is her bull ; the mind, her calf. 

NINTH BRAHMANA 2 
The universal fire and the digestive fire 
This is the universal fire which is here within a person, by 
means of which the food that is eaten is cooked. It is the 

1 Four exclamations in the sacrificial ritual. 

2 Recurs entire in Maitri 2. 6, 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-5.12 

noise thereof that one hears on covering the ears thus. 1 When 
one is about to depart, one hears not this sound. 

TENTH BRAHMAN A 
The course to Brahma after death 

Verily, when a person (puntsa) departs from this world he 
goes to the wind. It opens out there for him like the hole of 
a chariot-wheel. Through it he mounts higher. 

He goes to the sun. It opens out there for him like the 
hole of a drum. Through it he mounts higher. 

He goes to the moon. It opens out for him there like the 
hole of a kettle-drum. Through it he mounts higher. 

He goes to the world that is without heat, without cold. 2 
Therein he dwells eternal years. 

ELEVENTH BRAHMANA 
The supreme austerities 

Verily, that is the supreme austerity which a sick man 
suffers. The supreme world, assuredly, he wins who knows 
this. 

Verily, that is the supreme austerity when they carry a dead 
man into the wilderness. The supreme world, assuredly, he 
wins who knows this. 

Verily, that is the supreme austerity when they lay a dead 
man on the fire. The supreme world, assuredly, he wins who 
knows this. 

TWELFTH BRAHMANA 
Brahma as food, life, and renunciation 

' Brahma is food ' thus some say. This is not so. Verily, 
food becomes putrid without life (prana). 

* Brahma is life ' thus some say. This is not so. Verily, 
life dries up without food. Rather, only by entering into a 
unity do these deities reach the highest state. ^ 

Now it was in this connection that Pratrida said to his father : 

1 The word is here used deictically. 

3 The words atokam akimam may also be translated t without sorrow, without 
snow.' 

153 



5-I3-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

'What good, pray, could I do to one who knows this? What 
evil could I do to him ? ' l 

He then said, with [a wave of] his hand: ' No, Pratrida. Who 
reaches the highest state [merely] by entering into a unity with 
these two ? ' 

And he also spoke to him thus : ' vi' verily, vi is food, for 
all beings here enter ( Vvis) into food ; and : ram 5 verily, 
ram is life, for all beings here delight (Vram) in life. Verily, 
indeed, all beings enter into him, all beings delight in him 
who knows this. 2 

THIRTEENTH BRAHMANA 
Life represented in trie officiating priest and in the ruler 

1. The Uktha*\ Verily, the Uktha is life (prana), for it is 
life that causes everything here to rise up (ut-tha). From 
him there rises up an Uktha-knowing son, he wins co-union 
and co-status with the Uktha, who knows this. 

2. The Yajus 4 : Verily, the Yajus is life (prdna], for in life 
are all beings here united (Vynj). United, indeed, are all 
beings for his supremacy, he wins co-union and co-status 
with the Yajus, who knows this. 

3. The Saman 5 . Verily, the Saman is life (prana), for in 
life are all beings here combined (samyand). Combined, 
indeed, are all beings here serving him for his supremacy, 
he wins co-union and co-status with the Saman, who knows 
this. 

4. The Kskatra . Verily, rule is life (frana), for verily, rule - 
is life. Life protects (Vtrd) one from hurting (ksanitos). He 
attains a rule that needs no protection (a-tra), he wins co-union 
and co-status with the Kshatra, 6 who knows this. 

1 That is : Is not he who has this knowledge of the nature of Brahma and 
food and life quite superior to benefit or injury from any other individual * 

2 Namely, that the ultimate unity in which food and life are involved is re- 
nunciation, since the meaning of the compound verb m-ram is *to renounce.' 

3 The Recitation portion of the sacrificial ritual. 

4 The prose portion of the sacrificial ritual. 

5 The Chant 

G The word ksatra, seems to be used in this paragraph in two meanings- 
abstractly, as 'rule/ and, specifically, as the ' ruler,' referring to the second or 
ruling class. In connection therewith, the first three items treated in this section 
may refer to the priestly class of Brahmans, who alone performed the ritual. 

154 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-5.14.4 

FOURTEENTH BRAHMANA 
The mystical significance of the sacred Gayatrl prayer 

1. bhu-mir (earth), an-ta-ri-ksa (interspace), dy-aur (sky)- 
eight syllables. Of eight syllables, verily, is one line of the 
Gayatrl. And that [series], indeed, is that" [line] of it. As 
much as there is in the three worlds, so much indeed does he 
win who knows thus that line of it 

2. r-cas (verses), 1 ya-jwh-si (sacrificial formulas), 2 sa-ma-ni 
(chants) 3 eight syllables. Of eight syllables, verily, is one 
line of the Gayatrl. And that [series], indeed, is that [line] of 
it. As much as is this threefold knowledge, so much indeed 
does he win who knows thus that line of it. 

3. fra-na (in-breath), ap-d-na (out-breath), vy-a-na (diffused 
breath) eight syllables. Of eight syllables, verily, is one line 
of the GayatrT. And that [series], indeed, is that [line] of it. 
As much breathing as there is here, so much indeed does he 
win who knows thus that line of it. 

That is its fourth, the sightly, foot, namely the one above- 
the-darksome who glows yonder. 4 This fourth is the same as 
the Turlya. It is called the ' sightly (darsatam) foot,' because 
it has come into sight (dadrse), as it were. And he is called 
* above-the-darksome ' (paro-rajas), because he glows yonder 
far above everything darksome. Thus he glows with luster 
and glory who knows thus that foot of it 

4. This Gayatrl is based upon that fourth, sightly foot, the 
one above-the-darksome. That is based upon truth (satya). 
Verily, truth is sight, for verily, truth is sight. Therefore 
if now two should come disputing, saying ' I have seen ! ' c I 
have heard ! ' we should trust the one who would say c I have 
seen/ 

Verily, that truth is based on strength (bald). Verily, 
strength is life (prand). It is based on life. Therefore they 
say, s Strength is more powerful than truth. 1 

1 Referring to the Rig- Veda by designating the principal character of its 
contents. 

2 Similarly referring to the Yajur-Veda. 
s Similarly referring to the Sama-Veda. 
* That is, the Sun. 

155 



5.I4-4-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Thus is that Gayatii based with regard to the Self (adky- 
atmam). It protects the house-servants. Verily, the house- 
servants are the vital breaths (prand). So it protects the 
vital breaths. Because it protects (V ' tra) the house-servants 
(gaya\ therefore it is called Gayatri. That Savitrl stanza 1 
which one repeats is just this. For whomever one repeats it, 
it protects his vital breaths. 

5. Some recite this Savitrl stanza as Anushtubh meter, 2 
saying: 'The speech is Anushtubh meter. We recite the 
speech accordingly/ One should not so do. One should 
recite the Savitrl stanza as Gayatri meter. 3 Verily, even if 
one who knows thus receives very much, that is not at all in 
comparison with one single line of the Gayatri. 

6. If one should receive these three worlds full, he would 
receive that first line of it [i.e. the Gayatri]. If one should 
receive as much as is this threefold knowledge, he would receive 
that second line of it. If one should receive as much as there 
is breathing here, he would receive that third line of it. But 
that fourth (turlyd), sightly foot, the one above-the-darksome, 
who glows yonder, is not obtainable by any one whatsoever. 
Whence, pray, would one receive so much ' 

7. The veneration of it : ' O Gayatri, you are one-footed, 
two-footed, three-footed, four-footed. You are without a foot, 
because you do not go afoot Adoration to your fourth, 
sightly foot, the one above-the-darksome ! Let not so-and-so 
obtain such-and-such ! ' namely, the one whom one hates. Or, 
* So-and-so let not his wish prosper ! ' Indeed, that wish is 
not prospered for him in regard to whom one venerates thus. 
Or, ' Let me obtain such-and-such ! ' 

8. On this point, verily, Janaka, [king] of Videha, spoke as 
follows to Budila Asvatarasvi: f ^io! Now if you spoke of 
yourself thus as a knower of the Gayatri, how then have you 
come to be an elephant and are carrying ? ' 

' Because, great king, I did not know its mouth/ said he. 
Its mouth is fire. Verily, indeed, even if they lay very much 

1 RV. 3. 62. 10 : On this, of Savitri the god, 

The choicest glory let us think. 
Our thoughts may he himself inspire ! 

2 Consisting of four eight-syllable lines. 

3 Consisting of three eight-syllable lines. 

156 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-6.1.1 

on a fire, it burns it all. Even so one who knows this, al- 
though he commits very much evil, consumes it all and 
becomes clean and puie, ageless and immortal 

FIFTEENTH BRAHMANA * 
A dying person's prayer 
With a golden vessel 
The Real's face is covered o'er. 
That do thou, Pushan, uncover 
For one whose law is the Real (satya-dharma) to see. 
O Nourisher (Pusan\ the sole Seer, Controller ( Yamd), 
O Sun, offspring of Prajapati, spread forth thy rays ! Gather 
thy brilliance ! What is thy fairest form that of thee I see. 
He who is yonder, yonder Person (purttsa) I myself am he ! 
[My] breath (vayit) to the immortal wind (anilam amrtam) ! 
This body then ends in ashes ! Om \ 

O Purpose (krafu], remember! The deed (krtd) remember! 
O Purpose, remember! The deed remember! 

General prayer of petition and adoration 

O Agni 7 by a goodly path to prosperity (rai) lead us, 

Thou god who knowest all the ways ! 

Keep far from us crooked-going sin (enas) ! 

Most ample expiession of adoration to thee would we render. 2 



SIXTH ADHYAYA 
FIRST BRAHMANA 

The characteristic excellence of six bodily functions, 
and the value of the knowledge thereof 3 

I. Om \ Verily, he who knows the chiefest and best, becomes 
the chiefest and best of his own [people]. 

Breath (prdna\ verily, is chiefest and best. He who knows 
this becomes the chiefest and best of his own [people] and 
even of those of whom he wishes so to become. 

1 This section recurs again as Isa 15-18. See further foot-notes there. 
3 This stanza = RV. r. 189. i (the famous Cremation Hymn). 
5 A parallel passage in simpler form is Chand. 5.1. 1-5, 

157 



6. i. a-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

3. Verily, he who knows the most excellent becomes the 
most excellent of his own [people]. 

Speech, verily, is the most excellent. He who knows this 
becomes the most excellent of his own [people] and even of 
those of whom he wishes so to become. 

3. Verily, he who knows the firm basis (prati-stha) has a 
firm basis (verb prati-stkd) on even ground, has a firm basis 
on rough ground. 

The Eye, verily, is a firm basis, for with the eye both on 
even ground and on rough ground one has a firm basis. He 
has a firm basis on even ground, he has a firm basis on rough 
ground, who knows this. 

4. Verily, he who knows attainment for him, indeed, is 
attained what wish he wishes. 

The Ear, verily, is attainment, for in the ear all these Vedas 
are attained. The wish that he wishes is attained for him 
who knows this. 

5. Verily, he who knows the abode becomes the abode of his 
own [people], an abode of folk. 

The Mind, verily, is an abode. He becomes an abode of 
his own [people], an abode of folk, who knows this. 

6. Verily, he who knows procreation (prajatf) procreates 
himself with progeny and cattle. 

Semen, verily, is procreation. He procreates himself with 
progeny and cattle, who knows this. 

The contest of the bodily functions for superiority, 
and the supremacy of breath l 

7. These vital Breaths (prand), disputing among themselves 
on self-superiority, went to Brahma. Then they said : ' Which 
of us is the most excellent ? ' 

Then he said : ' The one of you after whose going off this 
body is thought to be worse off, he is the most excellent 
of you. 5 

8. Speech went off. Having remained away a year, it 
came back and said : c How have you been able to live without 
me?' 

1 Compare the other accounts of this episode at Chaud. 5.1.6-5.3.2; Kaush. 3 3 

158 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-6.1.13 

They said: 'As the dumb, not speaking with speech, but 
breathing with breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with the 
ear, knowing with the mind, procreating with semen. Thus 
have we lived.' Speech entered in. 

9. The Eye went off. Having remained away a year, it 
came back and said : ' How have you been able to live without 
me?' 

They said : ' As the blind, not seeing with the eye, but 
breathing with breath, speaking with speech, hearing with the 
ear, knowing with the mind, procreating with semen. Thus 
have we lived.' The eye entered in. 

10. The Ear went off. Having remained away a year, it 
came back and said : l How have you been able to live without 
me? J 

They said: 'As the deaf, not hearing with the ear, but 
breathing with breath, speaking with speech, seeing with the 
eye, knowing with the mind, procreating with semen. Thus 
have we lived.' The ear entered in. 

11. The Mind went off. Having remained away a year, it 
came back and said : ' How have you been able to live without 
me?' 

They said : ' As the stupid, not knowing with the mind, but 
breathing with breath, speaking with speech, seeing with the 
eye, hearing with the ear, procreating with semen. Thus have 
we lived.' The mind entered in. 

12,. The Semen went off. Having remained away a year, 
it came back and said : ' How have you been able to live 
without me ? ' 

They said : ' As the emasculated, not procreating with 
semen, but breathing with breath, speaking with speech, 
seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, knowing with the 
mind. Thus have we lived.' The semen entered in. 

13. Then Breath was about to go off. As a large fine 
horse of the Indus-land might pull up the pegs of his foot- tethers 
together, thus indeed did it pull up those vital breaths 
together. They said : ' Sir, go not off ! Verily, we shall not 
be able to live without you ! ' 

' If such I am, make me an offering/ 

< So be it.' 

159 



6.I.I4-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

14. Speech said : ' Verily, wherein I am the most excellent, 
therein are you the most excellent/ 

' Verily, wherein I am a firm basis 3 therein are you a firm 
basis/ said the eye. 

c Verily, wherein I am attainment, therein are you attain- 
ment,' said the ear. 

* Verily, wherein I am an abode, therein are you an abode/ 
said the mind. 

( Verily, wherein I am procreation, therein are you procrea- 
tion/ said the semen. 

f If such I anij what is my food ? what is my dwelling ? ' 

1 Whatever there is here, even to dogs, worms, crawling and 
flying insects that is your food. Water is your dwelling/ 

Verily, what is not food is not eaten ; what is not food is not 
taken by him who thus knows that [i.e. water] as the food 
(anna) of breath (ana). Those who know this, who are versed 
in sacred learning (srotriya), when they are about to eat, take 
a sip ; after they have eaten, they take a sip. So, indeed, they 
think they make that breath (ana) not naked (anagna). 

SECOND BRAHMANA 
The course of the sotil in its incarnations l 

i. Verily, Svetaketu Aruneya went up to an assembly of 
Pancalas. He went up to Pravahana Jaibali while the latter 
was having himself waited upon. He, looking up, said unto 
him, f Young man ! ' 

' Sir !' he replied. 

* Have you been instructed by your father ? ' 
f Yes/ said he. 

a. ' Know you how people here, on deceasing, separate in 
different directions ? ** 

' No/ said he. 

' Know you how they come back again to this world ? ' 

c No/ said he. 

'Know you why yonder world is not filled up with the 
many who continually thus go hence ? ' 

' No/ said he. 

1 A parallel account is found in Chand. 5. 3-10. 
1 60 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-6.2.7 

< Know you in which oblation that is offered the water be- 
comes the voice of a person, rises up, and speaks ? ' 

' No,' said he. 

' Know you the access of the path leading to the gods, or of 
the one leading to the fathers? by doing what, people go to 
the path of the gods or of the fathers ? for we have heard the 
word of the seer : 

Two paths, I've heard the one that leads to fathers, 
And one that leads to gods belong to moitals. 
By these two, every moving thing here travels, 
That is between the Father and the Mother.' 1 

1 Not a single one of them do I know/ said he. 

3. Then he addressed him with an invitation to remain. 
Not respecting the invitation to remain, the boy ran off. He 
went to his father. He said to him: 'Verily, aforetime you 
have spoken of me, Sir, as having been instructed ! J 

* How now, wise one ? ' 

'Five questions a fellow of the princely class (rajanya- 
bandhu} has asked me. Not a single one of them do I know.' 
'What are they?' 
4 These ' and he repeated the topics 

4. He said : * You should know me, my dear, as such, that 
whatsoever I myself know, I have told all to you. But, come ! 
Let us go there and take up studentship.' 

e Go yourself, Sir.' 

So Gautama 2 went forth to where [the place] of Pravahana 
Jaibali was. 

He brought him a seat, and had water brought ; so he made 
him a respectful welcome. Then he said to him: A boon 
we offer to the honorable Gautama ! ' 

5. Then he said : ' The boon acceptable to me is this : 
Pray tell me the word which you spoke in the presence of the 
young man.' 

6. Then he said : * Verily, Gautama, that is among divine 
boons. Mention [one] of human boons/ 

7. Then he said : ' It is well known that I have a full share 
of gold, of cows and horses, of female slaves, of rugs, of apparel. 

1 That is, between Father Heaven and Mother Earth. 

2 That is, Gautama Arum, the father. 

l6l M 



6.3.7-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Be not ungenerous toward me, Sir, In regard to that which is 
the abundant, the infinite, the unlimited/ 

'Then, verily, Gautama, you should seek in the usual 
manner.' 

6 1 come to you, Sir, as a pupil ! ' with [this] word, verily, 
indeed, men aforetime came as pupils. So with the acknow- 
ledgment of coming as a pupil he remained. 

8. Then he said: 'As truly as this knowledge has never 
heretofore dwelt with any Brahman (brd/imana) whatsoever, 
so truly may not you and your grandfathers injure us. But 
I will tell it to you, for who is able to refuse you when you 
speak thus ! ' He continued (iti) : 

9. c Yonder world, verily, is a sacrificial fire, O Gautama. 
The sun, in truth, is its fuel ; the light-rays, the smoke ; the 
day, the flame; the quarters of heaven, the coals; the inter- 
mediate quarters, the sparks. In this fire the gods offer faith 
(smddha). From this oblation King Soma arises. 

10. A rain-cloud, verily, is a sacrificial fire, O Gautama. 
The year, in truth, is its fuel ; the thunder-clouds, the smoke ; 
the lightning, the flame , the thunder-bolts, the coals ; the 
hail-stones, the sparks. In this fire the gods offer King Soma. 
From this oblation rain arises. 

11. This world, verily, is a sacrificial fire, Gautama. The 
earth, in truth, is its fuel ; fire, the smoke ; night, the flame ; 
the moon, the coals ; the stars, the sparks. In this fire the 
gods offer rain. From this oblation food arises. 

12. Man (purusd), verily, is a sacrificial fire, O Gautama. 
The open mouth, verily, is its fuel ; breath (prdnd), the smoke , 
speech, the flame ; the eye, the coals ; the ear, the sparks. In 
this fire the gods offer food. From this oblation semen arises. 

13. Woman, verily, is a sacrificial fire, O Gautama. The 
sexual organ, in truth, is its fuel ; the hairs, the smoke ; the 
vulva, the flame ; when one inserts, the coals ; the feelings of 
pleasure, the sparks. In this oblation the gods offer semen. 
From this oblation a person (puni$a) arises. 

He lives as long as he lives. Then when he dies, [14] then 
they carry him to the fire. 1 His fire, in truth, becomes the 
fire ; fuel, the fuel ; smoke, the smoke ; ffame, the flame ; 

1 That is, the funeral pyre. 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-5.3.1 

coals, the coals ; sparks, the sparks. In this fire the gods 
offer a person (purusa). From this oblation the man arises 
having the color of light. ' 

15. Those who know this, and those too who in the forest 
truly worship (ujasate) faith (traddka), pass into the flame [of 
the cremation-fire] ; from the flame, into the day ; from the 
day, into the half month of the waxing moon ; from the half 
month of the waxing moon, into the six months during which 
the sun moves northward ; from these months, into the world 
of the gods (deva-loka) ; from the world of the gods, into the 
sun -^ from the sun, into the lightning-fire. A Peison (puntsd) 
consisting of mind (manasa) goes to those regions of lightning 
and conducts them to the Brahma-worlds. In those Brahma- 
worlds they dwell for long extents. Of these there is no return. 

1 6. But they who by sacrificial offering, charity, and austerity 
conquer the worlds, pass into the smoke [of the cremation-fire] ; 
from the smoke, into the night ; from the night, into the half 
month of the waning moon; from the half month of the 
waning moon, into the six months during which the sun moves 
southward ; from those months, into the world of the fathers ; 
from the world of the fathers, into the moon. Reaching the 
moon, they become food. There the godsas they say to 
King Sotna, " Increase ! Decrease !"_even so feed upon them 
there. When that passes away for them, then they pass forth 
into this space ; from space, into air ; from air, into rain ; from 
rain, into the earth. On reaching the earth they become food. 
Again they are offered in the fire of man. Thence they are 
born in the fire of woman. Rising up into the world, they 
cycle round again thus. 

But those who know not these two ways, become crawling 
and flying insects and whatever there is here that bites/ 

THIRD BRAHMANA 

Incantation and ceremony for tlie attainment of 
a great wish 1 

I. Whoever may wish, ( I would attain something great ! 
in the northern course of the sun, on an auspicious day of the 

1 Compare the ceremony for the ' procuring of a special prize ' at Kaush, 2 3 (2), 

163 M % 



5.3-I-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

half month of the waxing moon, having performed the Upasad 
ceremony for twelve days, having collected in a dish of the 
wood of the sacied fig-tree (udambara\ or in a cup, all sorts 
of herbs including fruits, having swept around, 1 having smeared 
around, having built up a fire, having strewn it around, 2 having 
prepared the melted butter according to rule, having com- 
pounded the mixed potion under a male star, he makes an 
oblation, saying : 

' However many gods in thee, All-knower, 3 
Adversely slay desires of a person, 
To them participation I here offer! 
Let them, pleased, please me with all desires ! 

Hail! 

Whoever lays herself adverse, 
And says, "I the deposer am!" 
To thee, O such appeasing one, 
With stream of ghee I sacrifice. 
Hail ! ' 

a. ( To the chiefest, hail ! To the best, hail ! ' he makes 
an oblation in the fire and pours off the remainder in the 
mixed potion. A Hail to breath (prana) \ 

' To the most excellent, hail ! ' he makes an oblation in the 
fire and pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. A Hail 
to speech ! 

To the firm basis, hail !' he makes an oblation in the fire 
and pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. A Hail to 
the eye ! 

'To attainment, hail!' he makes an oblation in the fire 
and pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. A Hail to 
the ear ! 

' To the abode, hail ! ' he makes an oblation in the fire and 
pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. A Hail to the 
mind! 

-where some of the same directions occur. Another parallel passage is Chand. 
5.2.4-5.9.2. 

1 A part of the elaborate ceremonies which occur also at Asvalayana Gnhya 
Sutras i. 3. T and at Paraskara Gnhya Sutras I. I. 2. 

2 With sacrificial giass a part of the usual procedure in the sacrificial ceremony. 
So AV. 7. 99. i ; gat. Br. 1.1.1.22; r. 7. 3. 28 ; Asvalayana Grihya Sutras 2. 5. 2 ; 
Gobhila Gnhya Sutras i. 7. 9 ; Katyayana 3rauta Sutras 2. 3. 6. 

3 This word, jdtavedas, is a name for fire. 

164 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-6.3.4 

6 To procreation, hail ! 'he makes an oblation in the fire 
and pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. A Hail to 
the semen ! 

Thus he makes an oblation in the fire and pours off the 
remainder in the mixed potion. 

3. 'To Agni (fire), hail ! 'he makes an oblation in the fire 
and pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

' To Soma, hail ! ' he makes an oblation in the fire and 
pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

c O Earth (bhur\ hail ! 'he makes an oblation in the fire 
and pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

c O Atmosphere (bkuvas\ hail ! ' he makes an oblation in 
the fire and pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

' O Sky (svar), hail ! ' he makes an oblation in the fire and 
pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

f O Earth, Atmosphere and Sky, hail ! 'he makes an 
oblation in the fire and pours off the remainder in the mixed 
potion. 

4 To the Brahmanhood, hail ! ' he makes an oblation in the 
fire and pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

' To the Kshatrahood, hail ! ' he makes an oblatioa in the 
fire and pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

4 To the past, hail ! ' he makes an oblation in the fire and 
pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

4 To the future, hail i ' he makes an oblation in the fire and 
pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

' To everything, hail ! ' he makes an oblation in the fire and 
pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

c To the All, hail ! ' he makes an oblation in the fire and 
pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

* To Prajapati, hail ! ' he makes an oblation in the fire and 
pours off the remainder in the mixed potion. 

4. Then he touches it, saying : c Thou art the moving. Thou 
art the glowing. Thou art the full. Thou art the steadfast. 
Thou art the sole resort. Thou art the sound hin that is 
made. Thou art the making of the sound hin} Thou ait 
the Loud Chant (udglthd). Thou art the chanting. Thou art 
that which is proclaimed. Thou art that which is proclaimed 

1 That is, in the preliminary vocalizing of the ritual. 

165 



6,3.4-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

in the antiphone. Thou art the flaming in the moist. Thou art 
the pervading. Thou art surpassing. Thou art food. Thou 
art light. Thou art destruction. Thou art the despoiler.' 

5. Then he raises it, saying : ( Thou thinkest. Think of thy 
greatness ! l He is, indeed, king and ruler and overlord. Let 
the king and ruler make me overlord/ 

6. Then he takes a sip, saying : 

'On this desired [glory] of Savitri 2 
'Tis sweetness, winds for pious man 
"Tis sweetness, too, the streams pour forth. 
Sweet-filled for us let be the herbs' 3 

To Earth (b/iur), hail ! 

[On this desired] glory of the god let us meditate. 4 

Sweet be the night and morning glows ! 

Sweet be the atmosphere of earth ' 

And sweet th' Heaven-father (dyaus pita) be to us! 5 

To Atmosphere (bhuvas), hail ! 
And may he himself inspire our thoughts' 6 
The tree be full of sweet for us ! 
And let the sun be full of sweet ! 
Sweet-filled the cows become for us 1 7 

To the Sky (svar\ hail ! ' 

He repeats all the Savitri Hymn and all the Sweet-verses/ 
and says: 'May I indeed become this world -all ! O Earth 
(bhnr) and Atmosphere (bhuvas) and Sky (svar) \ Hail !' 

Finally, having taken a sip, having washed his hands, he 
lies down behind the fire, head eastward. In the morning he 
worships the sun, and says : c Of the quarters of heaven thou 
art the one lotus-flower ! s May I of men become the one 
lotus-flower ! ' s 

1 This may be rue meaning of Smajhsi dmamhi te mahi. The words seem to 
bear some lesemblance to the phrase which involves a play on words m the 
corresponding passage in Chand. 5. 2. 6, amo ndmd 'si ama hi te sarvam zdam, 
c Thou art He (ama) by name, for this whole world is at home (ama) m thee.' 

2 The first line of the famous Savitri Hymn, RV. 3. 62. loa. 

3 These three lines are found at RV. i. 90, 6 and VS, 13. 27. 
* The second line of the Savitri Hymn, RV. 3. 62. lob. 

5 These three lines are found at RV. i, 90 7 and VS. 13. 28. 

6 The third line of the Savitri Hymn, RV. 3. 62. loc. 

7 These last three lines are found at RV i, 90. 8 and VS. 13. 29. 

8 A symbolic expression for ' pre-eminent.' 

166 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-63.13 

Then he goes back the same way that he came, and, seated 
behind the fire, mutters the Line of Tradition (vamsa)* 

7- This, indeed, did Uddalaka Arurn tell to his pupil Vaja- 
saneya Yajnavalkya, and say: Even if one should pour this 
on a dry stump, branches would be produced and leaves 
would spring forth. 3 

8. This, indeed, did Vajasaneya Yajnavalkya tell to his pupil 
Madhuka Paingya, and say: 'Even if one should pour this 
on a dry stump, branches would be produced and leaves 
would spring forth. 3 

9- This, indeed, did Madhuka Paingya tell to his pupil Cula 
Bhagavitti, and say : < Even if one should pour this on a dry 
stump, branches would be produced and leaves would spring- 
forth/ ^ * 

_ 10. This, indeed, did Cula Bhagavitti tell to his pupil Janaki 
Ayasthuna, and say: 'Even if one should pour this on a dry 
stump, branches would be produced and leaves would spring- 
forth. 3 * 5 

ii. This, indeed, did Janaki Ayasthuna tell to his pupil 
Satyakama Jabala, and say : < Even if one should pour this on 
a dry stump, branches would be produced and leaves would 
spring forth.' 

13. This, indeed, did Satyakama Jabala tell to his pupils, and 
say : ' Even if one should pour this on a dry stump, branches 
would be produced and leaves would spring forth/ 

One should not tell this to one who is not a son or to one 
who is not a pupil. 2 

13. Fourfold is the wood of the sacred fig-tree [in the cere- 
mony] : the spoon (sruva) is of the wood of the sacred fig-tree ; 
the cup is of the wood of the sacred fig-tree; the fuel is of the 
wood of the sacred fig-tree ; the two mixing-sticks are of the 
wood of the sacred fig-tree. There are ten cultivated grains 
[used] . rice and barley, sesamum and beans, millet and panic, 
and wheat, and lentils, and pulse, and vetches. These, when 
they have been ground, one sprinkles with curdled milk, honey, 
and ghee ; and one makes an oblation of melted butter. 

1 That is, the tradition through the successive teachers. 

2 A similar prohibition, against promulgating esoteric knowledge occurs at 
vet. 6. 22 and Maitri 6. 29. 

167 



6.4,1-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

FOURTH BRAHMANA 
Incantations and ceremonies for procreation 

i. Verily, of created things here earth is the essence; of 
earth, water ; of water, plants ; of plants, flowers ; of flowers, 
fruits ; of fruits, man (purusa) ; of man, semen. 

3. Prajapati( c Lord of creatures') bethought himself: 'Come, 
let me provide him a firm basis ! J So he created woman. 
When he had created her, he revered her below. Therefore 
one should revere woman below. He stretched out for him- 
self that stone which projects. With that he impregnated her. 

3. Her lap is a sacrificial altar ; her hairs, the sacrificial 
grass ; her skin, the soma-press. The two lips of the vulva 
are the fire in the middle. Verily, indeed, as great as is the 
world of him who sacrifices with the Vajapeya ('Strength- 
libation ') sacrifice,, so great is the world of him who practises 
sexual intercourse, knowing this ; he turns the good deeds of 
\\ omen to himself. But he who practises sexual intercourse with- 
out knowing this women turn his good deeds unto themselves. 

4. This, verily, indeed, it was that Uddalaka Aruni knew 
\vhen he said : 

This, verily, indeed, it was that Naka Maudgalya knew when 
he said : 

This, verily, indeed, it was that Kumaraharita knew when he 
said ; * Many mortal men, Brahmans by descent, go forth from 
this world, impotent and devoid of merit, namely those who 
practise sexual intercourse without knowing this.' 

[If] even this much 1 semen is spilled, whether of one asleep 
or of one awake, [5] then he should touch it, or [without 
touching] repeat : 

f What semen has of mine to earth been spilt now, 

Whate'er to herb has flowed, whatever to water ' 

This very semen I reclaim! 

Again to me let vigor come! 

Again, my strength; again, my glow! 

Again the altars and the fire 

Be found in their accustomed place I 9 



1 Deictically used, 

168 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-6.4.12 

Having spoken thus, he should take it with ring-finger and 
thumb, and rub it on between his breasts or his eye-brows. 

6. Now, if one should see himself in water, he should recite 
over it the formula : ' In me be vigor, power, beauty, wealth, 
merit ! ' 

This, verily, indeed, is loveliness among women : when [a 
woman] has removed the [soiled] clothes of her impurity. 
Therefore when she has removed the [soiled] clothes of her 
impurity and is beautiful, one should approach and invite her. 

7. If she should not grant him his desire, he should bribe 
her. If she still does not grant him his desire, he should hit 
her with a stick or with his hand., and overcome her, saying : 
1 With power, with glory I take away your glory ! ' Thus she 
becomes inglorious. 

8. If she should yield to him, he says : ' With power, with 
glory I give you glory ! ' Thus they two become glorious. 

9. The woman whom one may desire with the thought, 
' May she enjoy love with me ! ' after coming together with 
her, joining mouth with mouth, and stroking her lap, he 
should mutter : 

'Thou that from every limb art come, 
That from the heart art generate, 
Thou art the essence of the limbs ! 
Distract this woman here in me, 
As if by poisoned arrow pierced!' 

10. Now, the woman whom one may desire with the thought, 
* May she not conceive offspring ! ' after coming together 
with her and joining mouth with mouth, he should first inhale, 
then exhale, and say : c With power, with semen, I reclaim the 
semen from you ! ' Thus she comes to be without seed. 

11. Now, the woman whom one may desire with the thought, 
'May she conceive !' after coming together with her and 
joining mouth with mouth, he should first exhale, then inhale, 
and say : * With power, with semen, I deposit semen in you ! ' 
Thus she becomes pregnant. 

12. Now, if one's wife have a paramour, and he hate him, 
let him put fire in an unannealed vessel, spread out a row 
of reed arrows in inverse order, and therein sacrifice in inverse 

169 



64-I3-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

order those reed arrows, their heads smeared with ghee, 
saying : 

4 You have made a lib' at ion in my fire ! I take away your 
in-breath and out-breath (prdndpanaii) you, so-and-so ' 

You have made a libation in my fire ! I take away your 
sons and cattle 1 you, so-and-so! 

You have made a libation in my fire ! I take away your 
sacrifices and meritorious deeds x you, so-and-so ' 

You have made a libation in my fire ! I take away your 
hope and expectation 1 you, so-and-so ! } 

Verily, he whom a Brahman who knows this curses he 
departs from this world impotent and devoid of merit. There- 
fore one should not desire sport with the spouse of a person 
learned in sacred lore (srotriyd] who knows this, for indeed he 
who knows this becomes superior. 2 

13. Now, when the monthly sickness comes upon any one's 
wife, for three days she should not drink from a metal cup, nor 
put on fresh clothes. Neither a low-caste man nor a low-caste 
woman should touch her. At the end of the three nights she 
should bathe and should have rice threshed, 

14. In case one wishes, 'That a white son be born to me! 
that he may be able to repeat a Veda ! that he may attain the 
full length of life ! ' they two should have rice cooked with 
milk and should eat it prepared with ghee. They two are 
likely to beget [him], 

15. Now, in case one wishes, 'That a tawny son with 
reddish-brown eyes be born to me ! that he may be able to 
recite two Vedas f that he may attain the full length of life ! ' 
they two should have rice cooked with sour milk and should 
eat it prepared with ghee. They two are likely to beget [him], 

1 6. Now, in case one wishes, ' That a swarthy son with red 
eyes be born to me ! that he may be able to repeat three 
Vedas ! that he may attain the full length of life ! ' they two 
should have rice boiled with water and should eat it prepared 
with ghee. They two are likely to beget [him]. 

1 These same items recur (though not altogether verbatim) in Katha I. 8 as 
possessions of which an offender is to be deprived by an offended Brahman, 

2 This prohibition recurs verbatim in Paraskara Grihya Sulras I. n. 6 ; the last 
phrase also in Sat. Br I. 6 I. 18. 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-6.4.30 

17. Now, in 'case one wishes, 'That a learned (pandita] 
daughter be born to me ! that she may attain the full fength 
of life I ' they two should have rice boiled with sesame and 
should eat it prepared with ghee. They two are likely to 
beget [her]. 

1 8. Now, in case one wishes, 'That a son, learned, famed, a 
frequenter of council-assemblies, a speaker of discourse desired 
to be heard, be born to me ! that he be able to repeat all the 
Vedas ! that he attain the full length of life ! 'they two should 
have rice boiled with meat and should eat it prepared with 
ghee. They two are likely to beget [him], with meat, either 
veal or beef. 

19. Now, toward morning, having prepared melted butter 
in the manner of the SthaHpaka, 1 he takes of the Sthallpaka 
and makes a libation, saying : ' To Agni, hail ! To Anumati, 2 
hail ! To the god Savitri (' Enlivener/ the Sun), whose is true 
procreation z (satya-prasava), hail ! ' Having made the libation, 
he takes and eats. Having eaten, he offers to the other [i.e. 
to her]. Having washed his hands, he fills a vessel with water 
and therewith spi inkles her thrice, saying: 

'Arise from hence, Visvavasut 4 
Some other choicer maiden seek! 
This wife together with her lord ' 5 

20. Then he comes to her and says : 

' This man (ama) am I ; that woman (so), thou 1 
That woman, thou; this man am I! 
I am the Saman; thou, the Rig! 
I am the heaven; thou^ the earth! 

Come, let us two together clasp!* 
Together let us semen mix, 
A male, a son for to procure ! ' 

1 c Pot-of-cooked-food,' one of the prescribed forms of oblation, namely a mess 
of barley or rice cooked with milk. 

2 Originally and in general, the feminine personification of ' Divine Favor,' as in 
RV. 10. 59.6; 10.167.3; VS 34-3,9; AV.i.iS.2; 5.7.4; gat. Br. 5. 2. 3.2, 4. 
Specifically invoked, as here, to favor procreation at AV. 6. 131. 2 ; 7. 20 (21). 2. 
In the ritual, associated with the day of the full moon, Ait. Br. 7. n. 

8 Such is the meaning especially applicable in this context. Elsewhere, e.g. 
VS. 10. 28 ; 3at. Br. 5 3. 3 2 ; 13. 4. 2. 12, this epithet of Savitn is usually taken 
as from another */su, with the meaning { whose is true impelling.' 

* A lecherous demon. 5 A loose quotation of RV. 10. 85. 22 a, c, d. 

171 



6.4.2I-] ERIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

21. Then he spreads apart her thighs, saying: ( Spread 
yourselves apart 3 heaven and earth ! ' Coming together with 
her and joining mouth with mouth, he strokes her three times 
as the hair lies, saying : 

'Let Vishnu make the womb prepared! 
Let Tvashtri shape the various forms! 
Prajapati let him pour in! 
Let Dhatri place the germ for thee! 

O Simvali, give the germ; 
O give the germ, thou broad-tressed dame! 
Let the Twin Gods implace thy germ 
The Asvins, crowned with lotus-wreaths ! 

22. With twain attrition-sticks of gold 

The Asvin Twins twirl forth a flame; 

7 Tis such a germ we beg for thee, 

In the tenth month to be brought forth. 1 

As earth contains the germ of Fire (agnz), 
As heaven is pregnant with the Storm (tndra)> 
As of the points the Wind (vayu] is germ, 
E'en so a geim I place in thee, 

So-and-so ! ' 

23. When she is about to bring forth, he sprinkles her with 
water, saying : 

'Like as the wind doth agitate 
A lotus-pond on every side, 
So also let thy fetus stir. 
Let it come with its chorion. 

This fold of Indra's has been made 
With barricade, enclosed around. 
O Jndra, cause him to come forth- 
The after-birth along with babe! 72 

34. When [the son] is born, he [i.e. the father] builds up a 
fire, places him on his lap, mingles ghee and coagulated milk 
in a metal dish, and makes an oblation, ladling out of the 
mingled ghee and coagulated rnilk, and saying : 

1 The above three quatrains are a loose quotation of the hymn KV 10. 184. 
The first quatrain occurs also at AV. 5. 25. 5 ; the second (with slight alterations) 
at AV. 5. 25.3. 

2 Compare with this the invocation for successful parturition at RV. 5. 78, 7-8. 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-6.4.28 

'In this son may I be increased, 
And have a thousand in mine house! 
May nothing rob his retinue 
Of offspring or of animals ! 

Hail! 

The vital* powers (prana) which are in me, my mind, I offer 
in you. 

Hail! 

What in this rite I overdid, 
Or what I have here scanty made 
Let Agni, wise, the Prosperer, 
Make fit and good our sacrifice! 
Hail I' 

35. Then he draws down to the child's right ear and says 
6 Speech ! Speech ! ' three times. Then he mingles coagulated 
milk, honey, and ghee and feeds [his son] out of a gold [spoon] 
which is not placed within [the mouth], 1 saying : e I place in you 
Bhur \ I place in you Bhuvas \ I place in you Svar ! Bhur, 
BhuvaS) Svar everything 2 I place in you I * 

2,6. Then he gives him a name, saying i You are Veda. 3 3 So 
this becomes his secret name. 4 

27, Then he presents him to the mother and offers the 
breast, saying : 

'Thy breast which is unfailing and refreshing, 
Wealth-bearer, treasure-finder, rich bestower. 
With which thou nourishest all things esteemed 
Give it here, SarasvatI, to suck from/ 5 
38. Then he addresses the child's mother : 

f You are Ila, 6 of the lineage of Mitra and Varuna ! 
O heroine 1 She has borne a hero 1 7 
Continue to be such a woman abounding in heroes 
She who has made us abound in a hero!' 

1 See the similar directions at Manava Dharma astra 2. 29. 

2 Interpreted by the commentators as earth, atmosphere, and heaven, i. e. the 
world-all; or as Rig- Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Sama-Veda, i.e. all knowledge. 

8 Possibly with an added connotation, as vedo may be the nominative form also 
of vedas, i property, wealth. 5 

* In later works this sacred ceremony of naming is found considerably elaborated. 
See Asvalayana Gnhya Sutras I. 15. 3-8; Paraskara Grihya Sutras i. 17. 1-4; 
Gobhila Grihya Sutras 2. 8. 14-17 ; and Manava Dharma Sastra 2. 30-33. 

5 RV. i. 164. 49 with lines b and c transposed. 

6 Or Ida, goddess of refreshment in the Rig-Veda. 

7 Or, f To a hero she has borne a hero.' 

173 



5.4.a8-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Of such a son, verily, they say : ' Ah, you have gone beyond 
your father ! Ah, you have gone beyond your grandfather ! 5 

Ah, he reaches the highest pinnacle of splendor, glory, and 
sacred knowledge who is born as the son of a Brahman who 
knows this ! 

FIFTH BRAHMANA 

The tradition, of teachers in the Vajasaneyi school 
i. Now the Line of Tradition (vamia). 

The son of Pautimashl [received this teaching] from the son 

of KatyayanI, 

the son of KatyayanI from the son of GautamI, 

the son of GautamI from the son of Bharadvajl, 

the son of Bharadvajl from the son of Parasari, 

the son of Parasarl from the son of Aupasvasti, 

the son of Aupasvasti from the son of Parasarl, 

the son of Parasaii from the son of KatyayanI, 

the son of KatyayanI from the son of Kausiki, 

the son of Kausiki from the son of AlambI and the son of 

VaiyaghrapadI, 

the son of VaiyaghrapadI from the son of Kanvl and the 

son of Kapl, 

the son of Kapl [a] from the son of Atreyl, 
the son of Atreyl from the son of GautamI, 
the son of GautamI from the son of Bharadvajl, 
the son of Bharadvajl from the son of Parasarl, 
the son of Parasari from the son of VatsI, 
the son of VatsI from the son of Parasari, 
the son of Parasarl from the son of VarkarunI, 
the son of VarkarunI from the son of VarkarunI, 
the son of VarkarunI from the son of ArtabhagI, 
the son of ArtabhagI from the son of SaungI, 
the son of SaungI from the son of Safikriti, 
the son of Sankritl from the son of AlambayanI, 
the son of Alambayani from the son of AlambI, 
the son of AlambI from the son of Jayanti, 
the son of JayantI from the son of Mandukayanl, 
the son of Mandukayanl from the son of Mandukl, 

174 



BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD [-6.5.4 

the son of MandukI from the son of Sandill, 

the son of Sandill from the son of Rathltari, 

the son of Rathltari from the son of Bhalukl, 

the son of BhalukI from the two sons of Kraunciki, 

the two sons of Kraunciki from the son of Vaidribhati, 

the son of Vaidribhati from the son of Karsakeyi, 

the son of Karsakeyi from the son of Praclnayogl, 

the son of Praclnayogl from the son of Sanjivi, 

the son of Sanjivl from the son of Prasni, the Asurivasin, 

the son of Prasni from As u ray ana, 

Asurayana from Asuri, 

Asuri [3] from Yajfiavalkya, 

Yajnavalkya from Uddalaka, 

Uddalaka from Aruna, 

Aruna from Upavesi, 

Upavesi from Kusri, 

Kus*ri from Vajasravas, 

Vajasravas from Jihvavant Vadhyoga, 

Jihvavant Vadhyoga from Asita Varshagana, 

Asita Varshagana from Harita Kasyapa, 

Harita Kasyapa from Silpa Kasyapa, 

Silpa Kasyapa from Kasyapa Naidhruvi, 

Kasyapa Naidhruvi from Vac (Speech), 

Vac from AmbhinI, 

Ambhini from Aditya (the Sun). 

These white l sacrificial formulas (yajur) which come from 
Aditya are declared by Yajfiavalkya of the Vajasaneyi school. 

The line of tradition from Braluna 

4. Up to the son of Sanjivl it is the same. 2 

The son of Sanjivl from Mandukayani, 
Mandukayani from Mandavya, 
Mandavya from Kautsa, 
Kautsa from Mahitthi, 
Mahitthi from Vamakakshayana, 

1 That is, pure, unmingled (with Brahmana portions), orderly, Thus the White 
Yajur- Veda is distinguished from the Black Yajur-Veda. 

2 As in the previous list. 

175 



6.5.4-] BRIHAD-ARANYAKA UPANISHAD 

Vamakakshayana from Sandilya, 

Sandilya from Vatsya, 

Vatsya from Kusri, 

KusVi from Yajfiavacas Rajastambayana, 

Yajnavacas Rajastambayana from Tura Kavasheya, 

Tura Kavasheya from Prajapati, 

Prajapati from Brahma. 

Brahma Is the Self-existent (svayam-bhu). Adoration to 
Brahma ! 



176 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

FIRST PRAPATHAKA 
A Glorification of the Chanting of the Sama-Veda 1 

FIRST K HAND A 
The TTdgitha identified with the sacred syllable * Om ' 

1. Om \ One should reverence the Udgitha (Loud Chant) as 
this syllable, for one sings the loud chant (ud+ *Sgi] [begin- 
ning] with ' Om.' 2 

The further explanation thereof [is as follows]. 

2. The essence of things here is the earth. 
The essence of the earth is water. 

The essence of water is plants. 

The essence of plants is a person (purusa). 

The essence of a person is speech. 

The essence of speech is the Rig (* hymn '). 

The essence of the Rig 3 is the Saman (' chant '). 

The essence of the Saman 4 is the Udgitha ('loud singing'). 

3. This is the quintessence of the essences, the highest, the 
supreme, the eighth namely the Udgitha. 

4. ' Which one is the Rig? Which one is the Saman? 
Which one is the Udgitha ? 'Thus has there been a dis- 
cussion. 

5. The Rig is speech. The Saman is breath (frana). The 
Udgitha is this syllable * Om! 

Verily, this is a pair namely speech and breath, and also 
the Rig and the Saman. 

1 The Sama-Veda is the Veda to which this Chandogya XJpanishad is attached. 

2 The word Om, with w hich every recital of the Vedas begins, is heie set forth as 
a symbol representing the essence and acme of the enure ; loud singing' (ttdgztkd). 

3 Specifically, the Rig- Veda, the 'Veda of Hymns/ 

* Specifically, the Sama-Veda, the * Veda of Chants.* 

177 N 



I.T.6-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

6. This pair is joined together in this syllable ' Om' 
Verily, when a pair come together, verily, the two procure 

each the other's desire. 

7. A procurer of desires, verily, indeed, becomes he who, 
knowing this thus, reverences the Udgitha as this syllable. 

8. Verily, this syllable is assent ; for whenever one assents 
to anything he says simply f Om! 1 This, indeed, is fulfilment 
that is, assent is. 

A fulfiller of desires, verily, indeed, becomes he who, know- 
ing this thus, reverences the Udgitha as this syllable. 

Q. This threefold knowledge 2 proceeds with it : saying 
' Oml one 3 calls forth; saying c Om' one 4 recites; saying 
* Oml one 5 sings aloud, to the honor of that syllable, with its 
greatness, with its essence. 

10. He who knows this thus and he who knows not, both 
perform with it. Diverse, however, are knowledge and ignor- 
ance. What, indeed, one performs with knowledge, with faith 
(sraddha), with mystic doctrine (ttpauisad) that, indeed, 
becomes the more effective. 

Such is the further explanation of this syllable. 



SECOND KHANDA 
The TJdgitlia identified with breath 

1. Verily, when the gods (Devas) and the devils (Asuras), 
both descendants of Prajapati, contended with each other, the 
gods took unto themselves the Udgitha, thinking : c With this 
we shall overcome them ! J 

2. Then they reverenced the Udgitha as the breath in the 
nose. The devils afflicted that with evil. Therefore with it 

1 With its meaning of f yes ' compare c Amen.' 

2 Concerning the sacrificial procedure, which is conducted by three orders of 
pnests employing selections from the three Vedas. 

3 That is, the Adhvaryu priest of the Yajur-Veda. 

4 That is, the Hotri pnest of the Rig- Veda. 

8 That is, the Udgatn priest of the Sama-Veda. With the general reference to 
the sacrificial ritual here compare the more definite description at Tait. i 8. 

6 A similar story, but with a different purport, occurs at Brih, T. 3. There are 
numerous other episodes in the strife of the gods and the devils, e, g. Sat. Br. 3. 4. 
4. 3 and Ait. Br. I. 23. 

178 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-1.2.12 

one smells both the sweet-smelling and the ill-smelling, for it 
is afflicted with evil 

3. Then they reverenced the Udgitha as speech. The 
devils afflicted that with evil. Therefore with it one speaks 
both the true and the false, for it is afflicted with evil. 

4. Then they reverenced the Udgitha as the eye. The 
devils afflicted that with evil. Therefore with it one sees 
both the sightly and the unsightly, for it is afflicted with evil. 

5. Then they reverenced the Udgitha as the ear. The 
devils afflicted that with evil. Therefore with it one hears 
both what should be listened to and what should not be 
listened to, for it is afflicted with evil. 

6. Then they reverenced the Udgitha as the mind. The 
devils afflicted that with evil. Therefore with it one imagines 
both what should be imagined and what should not be 
imagined, for it is afflicted with evil. 

7. Then they reverenced the Udgitha as that which is the 
breath in the mouth. When the devils struck that, they fell to 
pieces, as one would fall to pieces in striking against a solid 
stone. 

8. As a lump of clay would fall to pieces in striking against 
a solid stone, so falls to pieces he w r ho wishes evil to one who 
knows this, and he, too, who injures him. Such a one is 
a solid stone. 

9. With this [breath] one discerns neither the sweet-smelling 
nor the ill-smelling, for it is free from evil. Whatever one 
eats with this, whatever one drinks with this, he protects the 
other vital breaths. And, not finding this [breath in the 
mouth], one finally deceases; one finally leaves his mouth 
open. 

10. Angiras reverenced this as the Udgitha. People think 
that it is indeed Angiras, because it is the essence (rasa) of the 
limbs (aiiga) for that reason. 

n. Brihaspati reverenced this as fhe Udgitha. People 
think that it is indeed Brihaspati, because speech is great 
(brhati) and it is the lord (patf) thereof for that reason. 

I a. Ayasya reverenced this as the Udgitha. People think 
that it is indeed Ayasya, because it goes (ayate) from the 
mouth (asya] for that reasoij. 

179 N 3 



I.2.I3-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

13, Baka Dalbhya knew it. He became Udgatri priest of 
the people of Naimisha. He used to sing to them their 
desires. 

14. An effective singer of desires, verily, indeed, becomes he 
who, knowing this thus, reverences the syllable as the Udgitha. 

Thus with reference to the self. 

THIRD K HAND A. 

Various identifications of the Udgitha and of its syllables 

1. Now with reference to the divinities. 

Him who glows yonder [i.e. the sun] one should reverence 
as an Udgitha. Verily, on rising (ittt-yan), he sings aloud 
(ud-gayati) for creatures. On rising, he dispels darkness and 
fear. He, verily, who knows this becomes a dispeller of fear 
and darkness. 

2. This [breath in the mouth] and that [sun] are alike. 
This is warm. That is warm. People designate this as sound 
(svard), that as sound (svara) x and as the reflecting (pratya- 
svara). Therefore, verily, one should reveience this and that 
as an Udgitha. 

3. But one should also reverence the diffused breath (vyana) 
as an Udgitha. When one breathes in that is the in-breath 
(prand). When one breathes out that is the out-breath 
(apana\ The junction of the in-breath and the out-breath is 
the diffused breath. Speech is the diffused breath. Therefore 
one utters speech without in-breathing, without out-breathing. 

4. The Ric is speech. Therefore one utters the Ric without 
in-bieathing, without out-breathing. The Saman is the Ric. 
Therefore one sings the Saman without in-breathing, without 
out-breathing. The Udgitha is the Saman. Therefore one 
chants the Udgitha without in-breathing, without out- 
breathing. 

5. Whatever other actions than these there are that require 
strength, like the kindling of fire by friction, the running of 
a race, the bending of a stiff bow one performs them without 
in-breathing, without out-breathing. For this reason one 
should reverence the diffused breath as an Udgitha. 

1 An approximation to svar, Might. 1 

180 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-1.4.2 

6. But one should also reverence the syllables of the Udgitha 
zid, gl^ tha, nd is breath, for through breath one arises 
(2it-tt$thati] ; gl is speech, for people designate speeches as 
words (giras] ; tha is food, for upon food this whole world is 
established (sthita). 

7. ltd is heaven ; gl is atmosphere ; tha is the earth. 
^td is the sun ; gl is wind , tka is fire. 

ud is Sama-Veda ; gl is Yajur-Veda; tha is Rig- Veda. 

Speech yields milk that is, the milk of speech itself for 
him, he becomes rich in food, an eater of food, who knows 
and reverences these syllables of the Udgitha thus : ud> gl, tha. 

8. Now then, the fulfilment of wishes. 

One should reverence the following as places of refuge. 
One should take refuge in the Saman with which he may 
be about to sing a Stotra. 1 

9. One should take refuge m the Ric in which it was con- 
tained, in the Rishi who was the poet, in the divinity unto 
whom he may be about to sing a Stotra. 

10. One should take refuge in the meter with which he may 
be about to sing a Stotra. One should take refuge in the 
hymn-form with which he may be about to sing a Stotra for 
himself. 

11. One should take refuge in the quarter of heaven toward 
which he may be about to sing a Stotra. 

1 2. Finally, one should go unto himself and sing a Stotra 
meditating carefully upon his desire. Truly the prospect is 
that the desire will be fulfilled for him, desiring which he may 
sing a Stotra yea, desiiing which he may sing a Stotra 1 



FOURTH KHANDA 

6 Om/ superior to the three Vedas, the immortal refuge 

i. Om \ One should reverence the Udgitha as this syllable, 
for one sings the loud chant [beginning] with * Om! 
The further explanation thereof [is as follows], 
3. Verily, the gods, when they were afraid of death, took 

1 A Hymn of Praise in the Hindu nruaL 

181 



J.4-H CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

refuge in the threefold knowledge [i.e. the three Vedas]. 
They covered (acchddayan) themselves with meters. Because 
they covered themselves with these, therefore the meters are 
called chandas. 

3. Death saw them there, in the Ric, in the Saman, in the 
Yajus, just as one might see a fish in water. When they 
found this out, they arose out of the Ric, out of the Saman, 
out of the Yajus, and took refuge in sound. 

4. Verily, when one finishes an Ric, he sounds out c Om ' ; 
similarly a Saman ; similarly a Yajus. This sound is that 
syllable. 1 It is immortal, fearless. By taking refuge in it the 
gods became immortal, fearless. 

5. He who pronounces the syllable, knowing it thus, takes 
refuge in that syllable, in the immortal, fearless sound. Since 
the gods became immortal by taking refuge in it, therefore he 
becomes immortal. 

FIFTH K HAND A 
The Udgitlia identified with the sun and with breath 

1. Now then, the Udgitha is Om ; Om is the Udgitha. 
And so, verily, the Udgitha is yonder sun, and it is Om> for 
it is continually sounding ' Om" 

2. I sang praise unto it alone ; therefore you are my only 
[son], 3 spake Kaushitaki unto his son. 'Reflect upon its 
[various] rays. Verily, you will have many [sons]. 1 

Thus with reference to the divinities. 

3. Now with reference to the self. 

One should reverence the Udgitha as that which is the 
breath in the mouth, for it is continually sounding e OmJ 

4. c I sang praise unto it alone ; therefore you are my only 
[son],' spake Kaushitaki unto his son. Sing praise unto the 
breaths as a multitude. Verily, you will have many [sons]/ 

5. Now then, the Udgitha is Om; Om is the Udgitha. 
With this thought, verily, from the seat of a Hotri priest one 
puts in order again the Udgitha which has been falsely 
chanted yea, puts it in order again. 

1 Perhaps a double meaning is intended here, for the woid aksara, which means 
* syllable/ also means ' imperishable ' 

183 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-1.6.8 

SIXTH KHANDA 
The cosmic and personal interrelations of the TJdgitha 

1. The Ric is this [earth] ; the Saman is fire. This Saman 
rests upon that Ric. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting 
upon the Ric. 1 sa is this [earth] ; ama is fire. That makes 
sdma. 

2. The Ric is the atmosphere; the Saman is the wind. 
This Saman rests upon that Ric. Therefore the Saman is 
sung as resting upon the Ric. sa is the atmosphere; ama 
is the wind. That makes sdma. 

3. The Ric is heaven ; the Saman is the sun. This Saman 
rests upon that Ric. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting 
upon the Ric, sa is heaven ; ama is the sun. That makes 
sdma. 

4. The Ric is the lunar mansions ; the Saman is the moon. 
This Saman rests upon that Ric. Therefore the Saman is 
sung as resting upon the Ric. sa is the lunar mansions ; ama 
is the moon. That makes sdma. 

5. Now, the Ric is the white shining of the sun ; the Saman 
is the dark, the ultra-black. This Saman rests upon that Ric. 
Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Ric. 

6. Now,sd is the white shining of the sun; ama is the dark, 
the ultra-black. That makes sdma. 

Now, that golden Person who is seen within the sun has 
a golden beard and golden hair. He is exceedingly brilliant, 
all, even to the finger-nail tips. 

7. His eyes are even as a Kapyasa lotus-flower. His name 
is High (ud). He is raised high above all evils. Verily, he 
who knows this rises high above all evils. 

8. His songs (gesnaii) are the Ric and the Saman. There- 
fore [they are called] the Udgltha. Therefore also the 
Udgatri priest [is so called]; for he is the singer (gatf) of this 
[High (nd)~\. He is lord of the worlds which are beyond 
yonder sun, and also of the gods' desires. 

Thus with reference to the divinities. 

1 The fact that the Sanaa- Veda is composed chiefly of extracts from the Rig- 
Veda is held in mind throughout this and the following sections which deal with, 
the Ric and the Saman. 

183 



I.7.I-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 



SEVENTH KHANDA 

1. Now with reference to the self. 

The Ric is speech ; the Saman is breath. This Saman rests 
upon that Ric, Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon 
the Ric. sa is speech ; ama is breath. That makes sdma. 

2. The Ric is the eye ; the Saman is the soul (atman\ This 
Saman rests upon that Ric. Therefore the Saman is sung as 
resting upon the Ric. sa is the eye ; ama is the soul. That 
makes sdma. 

3. The Ric is the ear; the Saman is the mind. This Saman 
rests upon that Ric. Therefore the Saman is sung as lesting 
upon the Ric. sa is the ear ; ama is the mind. That makes 
sdma. 

4. Now, the Ric is the bright shining of the eye ; the 
Saman is the dark, the ultra-black. This Saman lests upon 
that Ric. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the 
Ric. sa is the bright shining of the eye ; ama is the dark, the 
ultra-black. That makes sdma. 

5. Now, this person who is seen within the eye is the hymn 
(rc\ is the chant (sdmaii), is the recitation (uktha), is the 
sacrificial formula (yajus), is the prayer (brahman}. 

The form of this one is the same as the form of that [Person 
seen in the sun]. The songs of the former are the songs of 
this. The name of the one is the name of the other. 

6. He is lord of the worlds which are under this one, and 
also of men's desires. So those who sing on the lute sing of 
him. Therefore they are winners of wealth. 

7. Now, he who sings the Saman, knowing it thus, sings of 
both ; through the former he wins the worlds which are beyond 
the former, and also the gods' desires. 

8. Through the latter he wins the worlds which are under 
the latter, and also men's desires. Therefore an Udgatri priest 
who knows this may say : [9] c What desire may I win for 
you by singing? 1 For truly he is lord of the winning of 
desires by singing, who, knowing this, sings the Saman yea, 
sings the Saman ! 

184 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-1.8.7 

EIGHTH KHANDA 
The Udgitha identified with the -ultimate, i. e. space 

1. There weie three men proficient in the Udgitha : Siiaka 
Salavatya, Caikitayana Dalbhya, and Pravahana JaivalL 
These said : ' We are proficient in the Udgitha. Come ! Let 
us have a discussion on the Udgitha ! J 

2. So be it,' said they, and sat down together. Then 
Pravahana Jaivali said : ' Do you two, Sirs, speak first. 
While there are two Brahmans speaking, I will listen to their 
word.' x 

3. Then Siiaka Salavatya said to Caikitayana Dalbhya: 
' Come ! Let me question you.' 

6 Question ! ' said he. 

4- * To what does the Saman go back? ' 

' To sound,' said he. 

* To what does sound go back ? ' 

* To breath/ said he. 

* To what does breath go back ? ' 
' To food/ said he. 

6 To what does food go back ? * 

* To water/ said he. 

5. * To what does water go back ? ' 
' To yonder world/ said he. 

' To what does yonder world go back ? ' 

{ One should not lead beyond the heavenly world/ said he. 
' We establish the Saman upon the heavenly world, for the 
Saman is praised as heaven/ 

6. Then Siiaka Salavatya said to Caikitayana Dalbhya: 
'Verily, indeed, your Saman, O Dalbhya, is unsupported. If 
some one now were to say " Your head will fall off/' your head 
would fall off/ 

7. ' Come 1 Let me learn this from you, Sir/ 
' Learn/ said he. 

* To what does yonder world go back ? ' 
1 To this world/ said he. 

1 The implication is that Pravahana was not a Brahman. In 5. 3. 5 he is 
spoken of as one of the princely class (rajanya}* 

185 



i. 8. 7-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

' To what does this world go back ? * 

c One should not lead beyond the world-support, 3 said he. 
1 We establish the Saman upon the world as a support, for the 
Saman is praised as a support.' 

8. Then Pravahana Jaivali said to him: 'Verily, indeed, 
your Saman, O Salavatya, comes to an end. If some one now 
were to say " Your head will fall off/' your head would fall off. 5 

1 Come ! Let me learn this from you, Sir. 3 

* Learn/ said he. 

NINTH K HAND A 

1. 'To what does this world go back?' 

5 To space,' said he. ' Verily, all things here arise out of 
space. They disappear back into space, for space alone is 
greater than these ; space is the final goal. 

2. This is the most excellent Udgltha. This is endless. 
The most excellent is his, the most excellent worlds does he 
win, who, knowing it thus, reverences the most excellent 
Udgltha. 

3. When Atidhanvan Saunaka told this Udgltha to Udara- 
sandilya, he also said : "As far as they shall know this Udgltha 
among your offspring, so far will they have the most excellent 
life in this world, [4] and likewise a world in yonder world." 
He who knows and reverences it thus has the most excellent 
life in this world, and likewise a world in yonder world yea, 
a world in yonder world/ 

TENTH KHAKDA 

The divinities connected with the three parts of the Chant 
i. Among the Kurus, when they were struck by hailstorms, 

there lived in the village of a rich man a very poor man,, 

Ushasti Cakrayana, with his wife Atiki. 
3, He begged of the rich man while he was eating beans. 

The latter said to him : I have no others than these which are 

set before me/ 

3. f Give me some of them/ said he, 

He gave them to him and said : ' Here is drink/ 

c Verily, that would be for me to drink leavings ! J said he. 

4. < Are not these [beans] also leavings?' 

186 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-1.11.3 

c Verily, I could not live, if I did not eat those/ said he. 
k The drinking of water is at my will.' 

5. When he had eaten, he took what still remained to his 
wife. She had already begged enough to eat. She took 
these and put them away. 

6. On the morrow he arose and said : 'Oh, if we could get 
some food, we might get a little money ! The king over there 
is going to have a sacrifice performed for himself. He might 
choose me to perform all the priestly offices.' 

7. His wife said to him : < Here, my lord, are the beans/ 
He ate them and went off to that sacrifice, which had already 
been begun. 

8. There he approached the Udgatri priests as they were 
about to sing the Stotra in the place for the singing. Then 
he said to the Prastotri priest: [9] < Prastotri priest, if you shall 
sing the Prastava (Introductory Praise) without knowing the 
divinity which is connected with the Prastava, your head will 
fall off/ 

10. Similarly also he said to the Udgatri priest: e Udgatri 
priest, if you shall chant the Udgltha (Loud Chant) without 
knowing the divinity which is connected with the Udgltha, 
your head will fall off/ 

u. Similarly also he said to the Pratihartri priest : c Prati- 
hartri priest, if you shall take up the Pratihara (Response) with- 
out knowing the divinity which is connected with the Pratihara, 
your head will fall off/ 

Then they ceased and quietly seated themselves. 

ELEVENTH KHANDA 

1. Then the institutor of the sacrifice said to him : 'Verily, 
I would wish to know you, Sir/ 

* I am Ushasti Cakrayana/ said he. 

2. Then he [i. e. the institutor] said : c Verily, I have been 
searching around for you, Sir, for all these priestly offices. 
Verily, not finding you, Sir, I have chosen others. [3] But do 
you, Sir, perform all the priestly offices for me/ 

' So be it/ said he (iti). ' But in this matter (tar hi] let these, 
indeed, being permitted, sing the Stotra ; but you should give 
me as much money as you would give them/ 



i. ii. 3-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

' So be it.' said the institutor of the saciifice. 

4. Then the Piastotri priest approached him and said: 
1 You, Sir, said unto me : " Prastotri priest, if you shall sing the 
Prastava without knowing the divinity which is connected 
with the Prastava, your head will fall off." Which is that 
divinity? ' 

5. ' Breath (prana)} said he. * Verily, indeed, all beings 
here enter [into life] with bieath and depart [from life] with 
breath. This is the divinity connected with the Prastava. If 
you had sung the Prastava without knowing it, your head 
would have fallen off, after you had been told so by me.' 

6. Then the Udgatri priest approached him and said : 
' You, Sir, said unto me : " Udgatri priest, if you shall chant 
the Udgltha without knowing the divinity which is connected 
with the Udgltha, your head will fall off." Which is that 
divinity? ' 

7. ' The Sun/ said he. ' Verily, indeed, all beings here sing 
(gdyanti) of the sun when he is up (uccais). This is the 
divinity connected with the Udgltha. If you had chanted the 
Udgltha without knowing it, your head would have fallen off, 
after you had been told so by me.' 

8. Then the Pratihartri priest approached him and said . 
* You, Sir, said unto me : " Pratihartri priest, if you shall take 
up the Pratihara without knowing the divinity which is 
connected with the Pratihara, your head will fall off." Which 
is that divinity ? ' 

9. 'Food,' said he. * Verily, indeed, all beings here live by 
taking up to themselves (pratiharamdnd) food. This is the 
divinity connected with the Pratihara. If you had taken up 
the Pratihara without knowing it, your head would have 
fallen off, after you had been told so by me.' 

TWELFTH KHANDA 
A satire on the performances of the priests (?) 

1. Now next, the Udgltha of the Dogs. 

So Baka Dalbhya or Glava Maitreya went forth for 
Veda- study. 

2. Unto him there appeared a white dog, Around this one 

188 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-1.13.* 

other dogs gathered and said : < Do you, Sir, obtain food for 
us by singing. Verily, we are hungry/ 

3. Then he said to them : ' In the morning you may 
assemble unto me here at this spot/ So Baka Dalbhya or 
Glava Maitreya kept watch. 

4. Then, even as [priests] here, when they are about to 
chant with the Bahishpavamana Stotra, glide hand in hand, 
so did they glide on. Then they sat down together and 
performed the preliminary vocalizing (hinkdra). 

5. They sang : ' Om \ Let us eat. Om \ Let us drink. 
Om ! May the god Varuna, Prajapati, and Savitri bring 
food here ! O Lord of food, bring food here ! yea, bring 
it here ! Om \ ' 

THIRTEENTH Kt-iANDA 1 
The mystical meaning of certain sounds in the Chant 

1. Verily, the sound ha-u is the world, [for this inter- 
jectional trill occurs in the Rathantara Saman, which is iden- 
tified with the earth]. 

The sound ha-i is wind, [for this interjectional trill occurs in 
the Vamadevya Saman, which has for its subject the origin of 
wind and water]. 

The sound atha is the moon, [for on food (anna] everything 
is established (sthita), and the moon consists of food]. 

The sound iha is oneself, [for oneself is here (iha)\. 

The sound I is Agni, [for all Samans sacred to Agni end 
with the sound ]. 

2. The sound u is the sun, [for people sing of the sun when 
it is up (ft-rd/wani)]. 

The sound e ib the Invocation, [for people call with ' Come S 
(e-hi) ']. 

The sound ait-ho-i is the Visvadeva gods, [for this interjec- 
tional trill occurs in the Saman to the VisVadeva gods]. 

The sound hih is Prajapati, [for Prajapati is undefined, and 
the sound kin also is indistinct]. 

svara (sound) is breath, [for that is the source of sound]. 

1 In order that this section may convey some meaning, the comnoentator Sankara's 
explanation of the basis of this series of identifications is added in brackets. 

189 



1. 13. 2-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

ya is food, [for everything here moves (yati) through the 
help of food], 

vac is Viraj, [for this interjectional trill occurs in the Saman 
to Viraj]. 

3. The sound hum, the variable thirteenth interjectional 
trill, is the Undefined. 

4. Speech yields milkthat is, the milk of speech itself 
for him, he becomes rich in food, an eater of food, 1 who knows 
thus this mystic meaning (upanisad) of the Samans yea, who 
knows the mystic meaning ! 



SECOND PRAPATHAKA 
The significance of the Chant in various forms 

FIRST KHANDA 
The Chant, good in various significances 

i. Oml Assuredly, the reverence of the Saman entire 
(samasta) is good (sadAzt}. Assuredly, anything that is good, 
people call saman (abundance); anything that is not good,, 
a-saman (deficiency). 

3. So also people say: 'He approached him with saman 
(kindliness 2 ) ' ; that is, they say : ' He approached him with 
good manner (sacttm}! 'He approached him with no saman ; 
that is, they say : ' He approached him with no good manner.' 

3. So also, further, people say : ' Oh ! we have saman 
(goods 3 )!' if it is something good (sddhu)\ that is, they 
say : ' Oh ! good ! ' ' Oh ! we have no saman \ ' if it is not 
good ; that is, they say : ' Oh I no good 1 ' 

4. He who, knowing this, reverences the Saman as good 
truly the prospect is that good qualities will come unto him 
and attend him. 

1 The preceding words of this section are a recurrent stereotyped expression 
found also at i. 3 7 and 2. 8. 3. 

2 Still another meaning of the word saman. 

8 A third distinct meaning of the word saman. 

IQO 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-2.4.1 

SECOND KHANDA 
Some analogies to the fivefold Chant 

1. In the worlds one should reverence a fivefold Saman 
(Chant). 

The earth is a Hinkara (Preliminary Vocalizing). 
Fire is a Prastava (Introductory Praise), 
The atmosphere is an Udgitha (Loud Chant), 
The sun is a Pratihara (Response). 
The sky is a Nidhana (Conclusion). 1 
Thus in their ascending order. 

2. Now in their reverse order. 
The sky is a Hinkara. 

The sun is a Prastava. 

The atmosphere is an Udgitha. 

Fire is a Pratihara. 

The earth is a Nidhana. 

3. The worlds, both in their ascending order and in their 
reverse order, serve him who, knowing this thus, reverences 
a fivefold Saman in the worlds. 

THIRD KHANDA 

i. In a rain -storm one should reverence a fivefold Saman. 

The preceding wind is a Hinkara. 

A cloud is formed that is a Prastava. 

It rains that is an Udgitha. 

It lightens, it thundersthat is a Pratihara. 
a. It lifts that is a Nidhana. 2 

It rains for him, indeed, he causes it to rain, who, knowing 
this thus, reverences a fivefold Saman in a rain-storm. 

FOURTH KHANDA 

i. In all waters one should reverence a fivefold Saman. 
When a cloud gathers that is a Hinkara. 
When it rains that is a Prastava. 

1 These are the five divisions of the fivefold Saman. 

2 Compare the similar identifications at AV. 9. 6. 47. 

191 



2.4.1-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Those [waters] which flow to the east they are an Udgltha. 
Those which flow to the west they are a Pratihara. 
The ocean is a Nidhana. 

2. He perishes not in water, he becomes rich in water, who, 
knowing this thus, reverences a fivefold Saman in all waters. 



FIFTH KHANDV 

i. In the seasons one should reverence a fivefold Saman. 
The spring is a Hinkara. 
The summer is a Prastava. 
The rainy season is an Udgltha. 
The autumn is a Pratihara. 
The winter is a Nidhana. 

i. The seasons serve him, he becomes rich in seasons, who, 
knowing this thus, reverences a fivefold Saman in the seasons, 

SIXTH KHANDA 

1. In animals one should reverence a fivefold Saman. 
Goats are a Hinkara. 

Sheep are a Prastava. 
C >ws are an Udgltha. 
Horses are a Pratihara. 
Man is a Nidhana. 

2. Animals come into his possession, he becomes rich in 
animals, who, knowing this thus, reverences a fivefold Saman 
in animals. 

SEVENTH KHANDA 

1. In the vital breaths (prand) one should reverence the 
most excellent fivefold Saman. 

Breath is a Hinkara. 
Speech is a Prastava. 
The eye is an Udgltha, 
The ear is a Pratihara. 
The mind is a Nidhana. 
Verily, these are the most excellent. 

2. The most excellent becomes his, he wins the most 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-3. 9. 3 

excellent worlds, who, knowing this thus, reverences the most 
excellent fivefold Saman in the vital breaths* 
So much for the fivefold. 



EIGHTH KHANDA 
Some analogies to the sevenfold Chant 

I. Now for the sevenfold. 
In speech one should reverence a sevenfold Saman. 

Whatsoever of speech is hum that is a Hinkara (Pre- 
liminary Vocalizing). 

Whatsoever is pra that is a Prastava (Introductory 
Praise). 

Whatsoever is a that is an Adi (Beginning). 
3. Whatsoever is ud that is an Udgitha (Loud Chant). 
Whatsoever \sprati that is a Pratihara (Response). 
Whatsoever is upa that is an Upadrava (Approach to 
the End). 

Whatsoever is ni that is a Nidhana (Conclusion). 1 
3. Speech yields milk that is, the milk of speech itself 
for him, he becomes rich in food, an eater of food, 2 who, 
knowing this thus, reverences a sevenfold Saman in speech. 

NINTH KHANDA 

1. Now, verily, one should reverence yonder sun as a seven- 
fold Saman. It is always the same (sama) ; therefore it is 
a Saman. It is the same with everyone, since people think : 
' It faces me ! It faces me ! ' Therefore It is a Saman. 

2. One should know that all beings here are connected 
with it. 

When it is before sunrise that is a Hinkara (Preliminary 
Vocalizing). Animals are connected with this [part] of it. 
Therefore they perform preliminary vocalizing. Truly, they 
are partakers in the Hinkara of that Saman. 

3. Now, when it is just after sunrise that is a Prastava 
(Introductory Praise). Men are connected with this [part] of 

1 These are the names of the members of a sevenfold Saman chant. 
a The preceding words of this section are a recurrent stereotyped expression 
found also at i. 3. 7 and i r 13. 4. 

193 O 



a 9- 3-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

it. Therefore they are desirous of praise (prastuti)> desirous 
of laudation. Truly, they are partakers in the Prastava of 
that Saman. 

4. Now, when it Is the cowgathering-time that is an Adi 
(Beginning). The birds are connected with this [part] of it. 
Therefore they support (ddayd) themselves without support 
(an-drambana) in the atmosphere and fly around. Truly, they 
are partakers in the Adi of that Saman. 

5. Now, when it is just at mid-day that is an Udgltha 
(Loud Chant), The gods are connected with this [part] of it. 
Therefore they are the best of Prajapati's offspring. Truly, 
they are partakers in the Udgltha of that Saman. 

6. Now, when it is past mid-day and before [the latter part 
of] the afternoon that is a Pratihara (Response). Fetuses 
are connected with this [part] of it. Therefore they are taken 
[or, held] up (fratthrta) and do not drop down. Truly, they 
are partakers in the Pratihaia of that Saman. 

7. Now, when it is past afternoon and before sunset that 
is an Upadrava (Approach to the end). Wild beasts are 
connected with this [part] of it. Therefore when they see a 
man, they approach (upadravanti] a hiding-place as their hole. 
Truly, they are partakers in the Upadrava of that Saman. 

8. Now, when it is just after sunset that is the Nidhana 
(Conclusion). The fathers are connected with this [part] of 
it. Therefore people lay aside (ni+ Vdka) the fathers. 
Truly, they are partakers in the Nidhana of that Saman. 



TENTH KHANDA 

The mystical significance of the number of syllables in 
the parts of a sevenfold Chant 

1. Now then, one should reveience the Saman, measured 
(sammita) in itself, as leading beyond death. 

htntara has three syllables, prastdva has three syllables. 
That is the same (samd). 

2. ddi has two syllables, pratihdra has four syllables. 
One from there, here that is the same. 

3. udgitha has three syllables, ^lpadrava has four syllables. 

194 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-2.12.1 

Three and threethat is the same, one syllable left over. 
Having three syllables that is the same. 

4. nidhana has three syllables. That is the same, too. 
These are twenty-two syllables. 

5. With the twenty-one one obtains the sun. Verily, the 
sun is the twenty-first from here. 1 With the twenty-two one 
wins what is beyond the sun. That is heaven (nakam). That 
is the sorrowless. 2 

6. He obtains the victory of the sun, indeed, a victory 
higher than the victory of the sun is his, who, knowing this 
thus, reverences the sevenfold Saman, measured in itself, as 
leading beyond death yea, who reverences the Saman ! 

ELEVENTH KHANDA 
t The analogical bases of the ten species of the fivefold Chant 

1. The wind is a Hinkara. 
Speech is a Prastava. 
The eye is an Udgitha. 
The ear is a Pratihara. 
The breath is a Nidhana. 

This is the Gayatrl Saman as woven upon the vital breaths 
(prana). 

2. He who knows thus this Gayatrl Saman as woven upon 
the vital breaths becomes possessor of vital breaths, reaches 
a full length of life, lives long, becomes great in offspring 
and in cattle, great in fame. One should be great-minded. 
That is his rule, 

TWELFTH KHANDA 

i. One rubs the fire-sticks together that is a Hinkara. 
Smoke is produced that is a Prastava. 
It blazes that is an Udgitha. 
Coals are formed that is a Pratihara. 

1 The commentator gives the explanation through the following curious calcula- 
tion of the distance separating the sun, from the earth 12 months, 5 seasons, 
3 world-spacesthen the sun is the twenty-first. 

2 The word nakam is made to yield the epithet * sorrowless * by an etymological 
pun, na-a-kam, ' no lack of desire.' 

195 03 



2,12.1-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

It becomes extinct that is a Nidhana, 
It becomes completely extinct that is a Nidhana. 
This is the Rathantara Saman as woven upon fire. 

2. He \\ho knows thus this Rathantara Saman as woven 
upon fire becomes an eater of food, eminent in sacred know- 
ledge, reaches a full length of life, lives long, becomes great in 
offspring and in cattle, great in fame. One should not take 
a sip and spit toward fire. That is his rule. 

THIRTEENTH KHANDA 

1. One summons that is a Hinkara. 
He makes request that is a Prastava. 

Together with the woman he lies down that is an 

o 

Udgitha. 

He lies upon the woman that is a Pratihara. 
He comes to the end that is a Nidhana. 
He comes to the finish that is a Nidhana. 1 
This is the Vamadevya Saman as woven upon copulation. 

2. He who knows thus this Vamadevya Saman as woven 
upon copulation comes to copulation, procreates himself from 
every copulation, reaches a full length of life, lives long, 
becomes great in offspring and in cattle, great in fame. One 
should never abstain from any woman. That is his rule. 

FOURTEENTH KHANDA 

1. The rising sun is a Hinkara. 
The lisen sun is a Prastava, 
Mid-day is an Udgitha. 
Afternoon is a Pratihara. 

When it is set that is a Nidhana. 
This is the Brihad Saman as woven upon the sun. 

2. He who knows thus this Brihad Saman as woven upon 
the sun becomes a brilliant eater of food, reaches a full length 
of life, lives long, becomes great in offspring and in cattle, 
great in fame. One should not find fault with it when it is hot. 
That Is his rule, 

1 For a somewhat different, but less probable, Tendering see Whitney, AJP. 
11.413. 

196 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-2.17.2 

FIFTEENTH KHANDA 

1. Mists come together that Is a Hinkara. 
A cloud is formed that is a Prastava. 
It rains that is an Udgitha. 

It lightens and thunders that Is a Pratihara. 
It holds up that is a Nidhana. 
This is the Vairupa Saman as woven upon rain (pdrjanya), 

2. He who knows thus this Vairupa Saman as woven upon 
rain acquires cattle both of various form (vt-rfipa) and of 
beautiful form (su-rfipa), reaches a full length of life, lives long, 
becomes great in children and in cattle, great in fame. One 
should not find fault with it when it rains. That is his rule. 

SIXTEENTH KHANDA 

1. Spring is a Hinkara. 
Summer is a Prastava. 

The rainy season is an Udgitha. 
Autumn is a Pratihara. 
Winter is a Nidhana. 
This is the Vairaja Saman as woven upon the seasons. 

2. He who knows thus this Vairaja Saman as woven upon 
the seasons shines like a king (virajati) with offspring, cattle, 
and eminence in sacred knowledge, reaches a full length of 
life, lives long, becomes great in offspring and cattle, great in 
fame* One should not find fault with the seasons. That is 
his rule. 

SEVENTEENTH KHANDA 

1. The earth is a Hinkara. 

The atmosphere is a Prastava. 

The sky is an Udgitha. 

The regions of the compass are a Pratihara. 

The ocean is a Nidhana. 

These are the verses of the Sakvari Saman as woven upon live 
worlds. 

2. He who knows thus these verses of the Sakvari Saman 
as woven upon the worlds becomes possessor of a world, 

197 



2.I7-H CHAXDOGYA UPANISHAD 

reaches a full length of life, lives long, becomes great in 
offspring and in cattle, great in fame. One should not find 
fault with the worlds. That is his rule. 

EIGHTEENTH KHANDA 

1. Goats are a Hinkara. 
Sheep are a Prastava. 
Cows are an Udgltha. 
Horses are a Pratihara. 
Man is a Nidhana. 

These are the verses of the RevatI Saman as woven upon 
animals. 

2. He who knows thus these verses of the RevatI Saman as 
woven upon animals becomes possessor of animals, reaches a 
full length of life, lives long, becomes great in offspring and in 
cattle, great in fame. One should not find fault with animals, 
That is his rule. 

NINETEENTH KHANDA 

1. Hair is a Hinkara. 
Skin is a Prastava. 
Flesh is an Udgitha. 
Bone is a Pratihara. 
Marrow is a Nidhana. 

This is the Yajnayajfiiya Saman as woven upon the members 
of the body. 

2. He who knows thus this Yajnayajfiiya Saman as woven 
upon the members of the body becomes possessor of the 
members of his body, does not become defective in any 
member of the body, reaches a full length of life, lives long, 
becomes great in offspring and in cattle, great in fame. One 
should not eat of marrow for a year. That is his rule. 
Rather, one should not eat of marrow at all. 

TWENTIETH KHANDA 
J. Agni (Fire) is a Hinkara. 
Vayu (Wind) is a Prastava. 
Aditya (Sun) is an Udgltha. 
The Nakshatras (Stars) are a Pratihara. 
198 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-2.22.1 

Candrama (Moon) is a Nidhana. 
This is the Raj ana Sam an as woven upon the divinities. 

2. He who knows thus this Rajana Saman as woven upon 
the divinities goes to the same world, to equality and to 
complete union (sayujya) with those very divinities, reaches a 
full length of life, lives long, becomes great in offspring and in 
cattle, great in fame. One should not find fault with the 
Brahmans. 1 That is his rule. 

TWENTY-FIRST KHANDA 
The Saman itself based on the world-all 
I. The triple knowledge 2 is a Hinkara. 
The three worlds 3 here are a Prastava. 
Agni, Vayu, and Aditya 4 are an Udgltha. 
Stars, birds, and light-rays are a Pratihara. 
Serpents, Gandharvas, and the Fathers are a Nidhana. 
This is the Saman as woven upon the wo rid- all. 

2. He who knows thus this Saman as woven upon the world- 
all becomes the world-all itself. 

3. On this point there is this verse : 

Whatever triple things are fivefold 
Than these things there is nothing better, higher. 

4. Who knows this fact, he knows the world-all; 
All regions of the compass bring him tribute. 

One should reverence the thought ' I am the world-all ! ' 
That is his rule. That is his rule ! 

TWENTY-SECOND KHANDA. 

Seven different modes of singing the chant, 
characteristic of different gods 

i. * I choose the roaring, animal-like form of the Saman * 
such is the Udgitha belonging to Agni. The indistinct form 
belongs to Prajapati ; the distinct, to Soma ; the soft and 
smooth, to Vayu ; the smooth and strong, to Indra ; the 

1 Inasmuch as they are the human representatives of divinity. 

2 That is, Rig- Veda, Sama-Veda, and Yajur-Veda. 
8 That is, earth, atmosphere, and sky. 

* Fire, Wind, and Sun, regarded as regents of the three worlds. For another 
example of the collocation of this triad see 3. 15. 6. 

199 



2.22.I-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

heron-like, to Brihaspati ; the ill-sounding, to Vamna. One 
may practise all these, but one should avoid that belonging to 
Varuna. 

Various desired results of chanting 

2. 'Let me obtain immortality for the gods by singing' thus 
should one obtain with his singing, ' Let me obtain oblation 
for the fathers by singing, hope for men, grass and water for 
cattle, a heavenly world for the sacrificer, food for myseli 
(atman)' one should sing the Stotra carefully, meditating 
these things in mind. 

The various sounds in the chant under the 
protection of different gods 

3. All vowels are embodiments (atman) of Indra All 
spirants are embodiments of Prajapati. Ail [other] consonants 
are embodiments of Mrityu (Death). 

If one should reproach a person on his vowels, let him say 
to that one : I have been a suppliant to Indra for protection. 
He will answer you/ 

4. So, if one should reproach him on his spirants, let him 
say to that one : * I have been a suppliant to Prajapati for 
protection. He will thrash you/ 

So, if one should reproach him on his [other] consonants, 
let him say to that one : ' I have been a suppliant to Mrityu 
(Death) for protection. He will burn you up/ 

5. All the vowels should be pronounced strong and sonant, 
with the thought : ' To Indra let me give strength/ All the 
spirants should be pronounced well open, without being slurred 
over, without being elided, with the thought : * To Prajapati 
let me entrust myself/ All the [other] consonants should be 
pronounced slowly, without being merged together, with the 
thought: 'From Mrityu (Death) let me withdraw myself 
(afmari).' 

TWENTY-THIRD KHANDA 
Different modes of religious life 

I. There are three branches of duty. Sacrifice, study of 
the Vedas, alms-giving that is the first (3) Austerity, in- 

300 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-2.24.4 

deed, is the second. A student of sacred knowledge (brakma- 
cartn) dwelling in the house of a teacher, settling himself 
permanently in the house of a teacher, is the third. 

All these become possessors of meritorious worlds. He 
who stands firm in Brahma attains immortality. 

The syllable ' Cm,' the acme of the cosmogony 

2 (3). Prajapati brooded upon the worlds. From them, 
when they had been brooded upon, issued forth the threefold 
knowledge. 1 He brooded upon this. From it, when it had 
been brooded upon, issued forth these syllables : bhur, bhuvah, 
svar? 

3 (4). He brooded upon them. From them, when they 
had been brooded upon, issued forth the syllable Om. As 
all leaves are held together by a spike, so all speech is held 
together by Om. Verily, Om is the woild-all. Verily, Om is 
this world-all. 

TWENTY-FOURTH KHANDA 

Earth, atmosphere, and sky the reward for performers 
of the morning, noon, and evening oblations 

i. The expounders of sacred knowledge (brahmavadin) 
say : ( Since to the Vasus belongs the morning Soma-hbation, 
to the Rudras the mid-day Soma-libation, to the Adityas and 
the Visvadevas the third Soma-libation, [a] where, then (tar hi) ^ 
is the sacrificed world ? J 

If one knows not, how can he perform [the sacrifice with 
success] ? So let him who knows perform. 

3. Before the commencement of the morning litany he sits 
down behind the Garhapatya fire, facing the north, and sings 
forth the Saman to the Vasus : 

4. ' Open the door to thy world, 
And let us see thee, 
For the obtaining of 
The sovereignty 1 ' 3 

1 That is, the three Vedas. 

2 Representing earth, atmosphere, and sk} r . 

3 The four stanzas contained in this Khanda are adapted to the purposes of the 
chant by the special prolongation (plutation) of some of the vowels and the 
occasional insertion of the laterjectional words hum and a. 

301 



2.34-5-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

5. So he offers the oblation and says: * Adoration to Agni, 
earth-inhabiting, world-inhabiting ! Find a world for me, the 
sacrificer ! Verily, that Is the sacrificer's world ! I will go [6] 
thither, I, the sacrificer, after life. Hail ! Thrust back the 
bar ! ' Thus having spoken, he rises. At the same time the 
Vasus bestow upon him the morning Soma-libation. 

7. Before the commencement of the mid-day Soma-libation 
he sits down behind the Agnidhriya fire, facing the north, and 
sings forth the Saman to the Rudras : 

8. e Open the door to thy world, 
And let us see thee, 
For the obtaining of 
Wide sovereignty ! ' 

9. So he offers the libation and says: 'Adoration to Vayu, 
atmosphere-inhabiting, world-inhabiting ! Find a world for 
me, the sacrificer ! Verily, that is the sacrificer's world ! I will 
go [10] thither, I, the sacrificer, after life. Hail ! Thrust back 
the bar ! ' Thus ha\ ing spoken, he rises. At the same time 
the Rudras bestow upon him the mid-day Soma-libation. 

ii. Before the commencement of the third Soma-libation 
he sits down behind the Ahavamya fire, facing the north, and 
sings forth the Saman to the Adityas and the Visvadevas : 
12. ' Open the door to thy world, 
And let us see thee, 
For the obtaining of 
Chief sovereignty ! ' 

13. Thus the [Saman] to the Adityas. Now the [Saman] 
to the Visvadevas : 

* Open the door to thy world, 
And let us see thee, 
For the obtaining of 
Full sovereignty!' 

14. So he offers the oblation and says : * Adoration to 
the Adityas and to the Visvadevas, sky-inhabiting, world- 
inhabiting ! Find a world for me, the sacrificer ! [15] Verily, 
that is the sacrificer's world ! I will go thither, I, the sacrificer, 
after life. Hail ! Thrust back the bar ! ' Thus having spoken, 
he rises. At the same time the Adityas and the Visvadevas 
bestow upon him the third Soma-libation. 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-3.3.1 

Verily, he knows the fulness of the sacrifice who knows this 
yea, who knows this ! 



THIRD PRAPATHAKA 
Brahma as the sun of the world-all 

FIRST KHANDA 
The sun as the honey extracted from all the Vedas 

1. Verily, yonder sun is the honey of the gods. The cross- 
beam l for it is the sky. The honeycomb is the atmosphere. 
The brood are the particles of light. 

2. The eastern rays of that sun are its eastern honey-cells. 
The bees are the Rig verses. The flower is the Rig- Veda. 
The drops of nectar fluid [arose as follows]. 

Verily, these Rig verses [3] brooded upon that Rig- Veda ; 
from it, when it had been brooded upon, there was produced 
as its essence splendor, brightness, power, vigor, and food. 

4- It flowed forth. It repaired to the sun. Verily, that is 
what that red appearance of the sun is. 

SECOND KHANDA 

1. So its southern rays are its southern honey-cells. The 
bees are the Yajus formulas. The flower is the Yajur-Veda. 
The drops of nectar fluid [arose as follows]. 

2. Verily, these Yajus formulas brooded upon that Yajur- 
Veda; from it, when it had been brooded upon, there was 
produced as its essence splendor, brightness, power, vigor, 
and food. 

3. It flowed forth. It repaired to the sun. Verily, that is 
what that white appearance of the sun is. 

THIRD KHANDA 

i. So its western rays are its western honey-cells. The bees 
are the Saman chants. The flower is the Sama-Veda. The 
drops of nectar fluid [arose as follows]. 

1 The beam from which the honeycomb hangs. 
203 



3.3 H CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

2. Verily, those Saman chants brooded upon that Sama- 
Veda. From it, when it had been brooded upon, there was 
produced as its essence splendor, brightness, power, vigor, and 
food. 

3. It flowed forth. It repaired to the sun. Verily, that is 
what that dark appearance of the sun is. 

FOURTH KHAXDA 

1. So its northern rays are its northern honey-cells. The 
bees are the [Hymns] of the Atharvans and Angirases l The 
flower is Legend and Ancient Lore (ttzhasa-purana) . The drops 
of nectar fluid [arose as follows]. 

2. Verily, those [Hymns] of the Atharvans and Angirases 
brooded upon that Legend and Ancient Lore. From it, when 
it had been brooded upon, there was produced as its essence 
splendor, brightness, power, vigor, and food. 

3. It flowed forth. It repaired to the sun. Verily, that is 
what that exceedingly dark appearance of the sun is. 

FIFTH KHAXDA 

1. So its upward rays are its upper honey-cells. The bees 
are the Hidden Teachings [i.e. the Upanishads], The flower 
is Brahma. The drops of nectar fluid [arose as follows]. 

2. Verily, those Hidden Teachings brooded upon that 
Brahma ; from it, when it had been brooded upon, there was 
produced as its essence splendor, brightness, power, vigor, and 
food. 

3. It flowed forth. It repaired to the sun. Verily, that is 
what seems to tremble in the middle of the sun. 

4. Verily, these are the essences of the essences, for the 
Vedas are essences and these are their essences. Verily, these 
are the nectars of the nectars, for the Vedas are nectars and 
these are their nectars. 

SIXTH K HAND A 

The knower of tlie cosmic significance of the sacred 
scriptures advances to the world-sun, Brahma 

i. The Vasus live upon that which is the first nectar [i.e. the 

1 A designation of the Atharva- Veda. 
304 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-3.8.3 

Rig- Veda] through Agni as their mouth. Verily, the gods 
neither eat nor drink. They are satisfied merely with seeing 
that nectar. 

2. These enter that [red] form of the sun and come forth 
from that form. 

3. He who knows thus that nectar becomes one of the Vasus 
themselves and through Agni as his mouth is satisfied merely 
with seeing that nectar. He enters that very form and comes 
forth from that form. 

4. As long as the sun shall rise in the east and set in the 
west, so long will he compass the overlordship and the chief 
sovereignty (svarajya) of the Vasus. 

SEVENTH KHANDA 

i. Now, the Rudras live upon what is the second nectar 
[i. e. the Yajur- Veda] through Indra as their mouth. Verily, 
the gods neither eat nor drink. They aie satisfied merely 
with seeing that nectar. 

3. These enter that [white] form and come forth from that 
form. 

3. He who knows thus that nectar becomes one of the 
Rudras themselves and through Indra as his mouth is satisfied 
merely with seeing that nectar. He enters that very form and 
comes forth from that form. 

4. As long as the sun shall rise in the east and set in the 
west, twice so long will it rise in the south and set m the north, 
and just that long will he compass the overlordship and the 
chief sovereignty of the Rudras. 

EIGHTH KHANDA 

1. Now, the Adityas live upon what is the third nectar 
[i. e. the Sama-Veda] through Varuna as their mouth. Verily, 
the gods neither eat nor drink. They are satisfied merely 
with seeing that nectar. 

2. These enter that [dark] form and come forth from that 
form. 

3. He who knows thus that nectar becomes one of the 
Adityas themselves and through Varuna as his mouth is 

205 



3.8.3-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

satisfied merely with seeing that nectar. He enters that very 
form and comes forth from that form, 

4. So long as the sun shall rise in the south and set in the 
north, twice so long will it rise in the west and set in the east, 
and just that long will he compass the over-lordship and the 
chief sovereignty of the Adityas. 

NINTH KHAXDA 

1. Now, the Maruts live upon what is the fourth nectar 
[i.e. the Atharva-Veda] through Soma as their mouth. Verily, 
the gods neither eat nor drink. They are satisfied merely with 
seeing that nectar. 

2. These enter that [exceedingly dark] form and come forth 
from that form. 

3. He who knows thus that nectar becomes one of the 
Maruts themselves and through Soma as his mouth is satisfied 
merely with seeing that nectar. He enters that very form and 
comes forth from that form. 

4. As long as the sun shall rise in the west and set in the 
east, twice so long will it rise in the north and set in the south, 
and just that long will he compass the overlordship and the 
chief sovereignty of the Maruts. 

TENTH KHANDA 

1. Now, the Sadhyas live upon what is the fifth nectar [i. e. 
the Upanishads] through Brahma as their mouth. Verily, the 
gods neither eat nor drink. They are satisfied merely with 
seeing that nectar. 

2. These enter that form [which seems to tremble in the 
middle of the sun] and come forth from that form. 

3. He who knows thus that nectar becomes one of the 
Sadhyas themselves and through Brahma as his mouth is 
satisfied merely with seeing that nectar. He enters that very 
form and comes forth from that form. 

4. As long as the sun shall rise in the north and set in the 
south, twice so long will it rise in the zenith and set in the 
nadir, and just that long will he compass the overlordship 
and the chief sovereignty of the Sadhyas. 

306 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-3.12.4 

ELEVENTH KHANDA 

i. Henceforth, after having risen in the zenith, it will no 
more rise nor set. It will stand alone in the middle. On this 
point there is this verse : 

2. In yonder sphere it has not set, 1 
Nor ever has it nsen up; 
And by the truth of this, ye gods, 
Of Brahma let me not be robbed. 

3. Verily, it neither rises nor sets for him, it is evermore 
day for him, who knows thus this mystic doctrine (upanisad] 
of Brahma. 

4. Brahma told this to Prajapati; Prajapati, to Manu ; 
Mami, to his descendants. To Uddalaka Arum, as being the 
eldest son, his father declared this Brahma. 

5. Verily, a father may teach this Brahma to his eldest son 
or to a worthy pupil, [6] [but] to no one else at all Even if 
one should offer him this [earth] that is encompassed by water 
and filled with treasure, [he should say] : This, truly, is more 
than that ! This, truly, is more than that ! ' 

TWELFTH KHANDA 
The Gayatri meter as a symbol of all that is 

1. Verily, the Gayatri meter is everything here that has 
come to be, whatsoever there is here. Verily, the Gayatri is 
speech. Verily, speech both sings of (gdyati) and protects 
(trayate) everything here that has come to be. 

2. Verily, what this Gayatri is that is the same as what 
this earth is ; for on it everything here that has come to be is 
established. It does not extend beyond it. 

3. Verily, what this earth isthat is the same as what the 
body in man here is ; for in it these vital breaths are established. 
They do not extend beyond it. 

4. Verily, what the body in man is that is the same as 
what the heart within man here is ; for on it these vital breaths 
are established. They do not extend beyond it. 

1 Adopting Boh.tlingk's emendation, nimumtoca, for the impossible na nimloca. 

207 



3-I2.5-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

5. This is the four-quartered sixfold Gayatil. With 
reference to it a Rig verse states: 

6. His greatness is of such extent, 
Yet Purusha is greater still. 
All beings are one fourth of him ; 
Three fourths, the immortal in the sky. 1 

7. Verily, what Is called Brahma that is the same as what 
the space outside of a person is. Verily, what the space 
outside of a person is [8] that is the same as what the space 
within a person is. Verily, what the space within a person 
is [9] that is the same as what the space here within the 
heart is. That is the Full, the Non-active. 2 Full, non- 
active prosperity he obtains who knows this. 

THIRTEENTH KHANDA 
The five door-keepers of the heavenly world 

1. Verily, indeed, this heart here has five openings for the 
gods. 

As for its eastern opening that is the Pi ana breath, that is 
the eye, that is the sun. One should reverence that as glow 
and as food. He becomes glowing and an eater of food who 
knows this. 

2. Now, as for its southern opening that is the Vyana 
breath, that is the ear, that is the moon. One should rever- 
ence that as prosperity and splendor. He becomes prosperous 
and splendid who knows this. 

3. Now, as for its western opening that is the Apana 
breath, that is speech, that is fire. One should reverence that 
as eminence in sacred knowledge and as food. He becomes 
eminent in sacred knowledge and an eater of food who knows 
this. 

4. Now, as for its northern opening- that is the Samana 
breath, that is mind, that is the rain-god (Parjanya). One 
should reverence that as fame and beauty. He becomes 
famous and beauteous who knows this. 

5. Now as for its upper opening that is the Udana breath, 

1 RV. 10. 90. 3, with slight variations. 
8 This same characterization is found at Erih. 2, i. 5. 
308 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [- 

that is wind, that is space. One should reverence that as 
vigor and greatness. He becomes vigorous and great who 
knows this. 

6. Verily, these same are five Brahma-men, door-keepers of 
the heavenly world. Who knows these thus as five Brahma- 
men, as door-keepers of the heavenly world, in his family 
a hero is born. He reaches the heavenly world who knows 
these thus as five Brahma-men, door-keepers of the heavenly 
world. 

The ultimate exists within oneself 

7. Now, the light which shines higher than this heaven, on 
the backs of all, on the backs of everything, in the highest 
worlds, than which there are no higher verily, that is the 
same as this light which is here within a person. 

There is this seeing of it [8] when one perceives by touch 
this heat here in the body. There is this hearing of it when 
one closes his ears and hears as it were a sound, as it were 
a noise, as of a fire blazing. One should reverence that light 
as something that has been seen and heard. He becomes 
one beautiful to see, one heard of in renown, who knows 
this yea, who knows this ! 



FOURTEENTH 
The individual soul identical with the infinite Brahma 

i. 'Verily, this whole world is Brahma. Tranquil, let one 
\vorship It as that from which he came forth, as that into 
which he will be dissolved, as that in which he breathes. 2 

Now, verily, a person consists of purpose (kratu-maya). 
According to the purpose which a person has in this world, 
thus does he become on departing hence. So let him form for 
himself a purpose. 

s. He who consists of mind, whose body is life (prana\ 
whose form is light, whose conception is truth, whose soul 
(dtmati) is space, containing all works, containing all desires, 
containing all odors, containing all tastes, encompassing this 

1 This section, which occurs also as Sat. Br. 10. 6. 3, constitutes the famous 
Sandilya-mdya, or Doctrine of Sandilya. 

2 Thus Sankara explains the threefold mystic epithet taj- fa-Ian. 



3-I4-H CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

whole world, the unspeaking, the unconcerned [3] this Soul 
of mine within the heart is smaller than a grain of rice, or a 
barley-corn, or a mustard-seed, or a grain of millet, or the 
kernel of a grain of millet ; this Soul of mine within the heart 
is greater than the earth, greater than the atmosphere, greater 
than the sky, greater than these worlds. 

4. Containing all works, containing all desires, containing all 
odors, containing all tastes, encompassing this whole world, the 
unspeaking, the unconcerned this is the Soul of mine within 
the heart, this is Brahma. Into him I shall enter on departing 
hence. 

If one would believe this, he would have no more doubt. 
Thus used Sandilya to say yea, Sandilya! 

FIFTEENTH KHAKDA 
The universe as a treasure- chest and refuge 

i. The chest whose space is atmosphere, 
With earth for bottom, ne'er decays. 
Its corners are the poles of heaven. 
Its, upper opening is the sky. 
This chest is one containing wealth. 
Within it everything here rests. 

2. Its eastern quarter is named Sacrificial Ladle (/>//?). l 
Its southern quarter is named Over-powering. 2 Its western 
quarter is named Queen (rdjm)? Its northern quarter is 
named Wealthy. 4 The wind Is the child of these quarters 
of heaven. He who knows this wind thus as the child of 
the quarters of heaven mourns not for a son. 

c I here know this wind thus as the child of the quarters of 
heaven. Let me not mourn for a son.' 

3, * I take refuge in the imperishable chest with this one, 
with this one, with this one/ 5 

1 For one faces the east when one offers a sacrifice for oneself (juhute). 

3 For it is the region of Yama, the god of the dead. 

8 For it is the region of King {rajan} Varana, or because of the red (raga} of 
t\\ ilight. 

* For it is the region presided over by Ktibera, the god of wealth. These are 
Sankara's explanations of the four epithets. 

8 bankara explains that the son's name is here to be said three times. 

3IO 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-3.16.3 

e I take refuge in breath (prana}^ with this one, with this one, 
with this one. 5 

' I take refuge in bhur with this one, with this one, with 
this one.' 

' I take refuge in bkuvas with this one, with this one, with 
this one/ 

I take refuge in svar with this one, with this one, with this 
one. J 

4. When I said, <I take refuge in breath' breath, verily, 
is everything here that has come to be, whatsoever there is. 
So it was in this I took refuge, 

5. So when I said, * I take refuge in bhur? what I said was : 
6 1 take refuge in earth ; I take refuge in atmosphere ; I take 
refuge in sky.' 

6. So when I said, c I take refuge in bhtmasl what I said was : 
( I take refuge in Agni (Fire) ; I take refuge in Vayu (Wind) ; 
I take refuge in Aditya (Sun).' 

7. So when I said, ' I take refuge in svar? what I said was : 
' I take refuge in the Rig- Veda; I take refuge in the Yajur- 
Veda ; I take refuge in the Sama-Veda. 3 That was what I 
said. 

SIXTEENTH KHANDA 
A person's entire life symbolically a Soma-sacrifice 

1. Veiily, a person is a sacrifice. His [first] twenty- four 
years are the morning Soma-libation, for the Gayatri meter 
has twenty-four syllables and the morning Soma-libation is 
offered with a Gayatri hymn. The Vasus are connected with 
this part of the sacrifice. Verily, the vital breaths (prdnd) are 
the Vasus, for they cause everything here to continue (Vvas). 

2. If any sickness should overtake him in this period of life, 
let him say : ' Ye vital breaths, ye Vasus, let this morning 
libation of mine continue over to the mid-day libation. Let 
not me, the sacrifice, be broken off in the midst of the vital 
breaths, of the Vasus.' He arises from it ; he becomes free 
from sickness. 

3. Now the [next] forty-four years are the mid-day libation, 

1 That is, in wind, the breath of the world-alL 



3- 1 & 3-1 CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

for the Trishtubh meter has forty-four syllables and the mid- 
day libation is offered with a Trishtubh hymn. The Rudras 
are connected with this part of the sacrifice. Verily, the vital 
breaths are the Rudras, for [on departing] they cause every- 
thing here to lament (Vrud). 1 

4. If any sickness should overtake him in this period of life, 
let him say : * Ye vital breaths, ye Rudras, let this mid-day 
libation of mine continue over to the third libation. Let not 
me, the sacrifice, be broken off in the midst of the vital breaths, 
of the Rudras.' He arises from it, he becomes free from 
sickness. 

5. Now. the [next] forty-eight years are the third libation, 
for the Jagati meter has forty-eight syllables and the third 
libation is offered with a Jagati hymn. The Adityas are 
connected with this part of the sacrifice. Verily, the vital 
breaths are the Adityas, for [on departing] they take every- 
thing to themselves (adadate}. 

6. If any sickness should overtake him in this period of life, 
let him say: 'Ye vital breaths, ye Adityas, let this third 
libation of mine continue to a full length of life. Let not me, 
the sacrifice, be broken off in the midst of the vital breaths, 
of the Adityas.' He arises from it ; he becomes free from 
sickness. 

7. Verily, it was this that Mahidasa Aitareya knew when 
he used to say : ' Here, why do you afflict me with this sick- 
ness me, who am not going to die with it?' He lived 
a hundred and sixteen years. He lives to a hundred and six- 
teen years who knows this. 2 

SEVENTEENTH KHANDA 

i When one hungers and thirsts and does not enjoy him- 
self that is a Preparatory Consecration Ceremony (dtksa). 

2. When one eats and drinks and enjoys himself then he 
joins in the Upasada ceremonies. 3 

1 This same etymological explanation occurs at Brih. 3. 9. 4. 

2 That is, who knows this doctrine of the 24 + 44 + 48 years. 

* Ihe ceremonies which constitute a part of the Jyotistoma (Praise of Light) 
form of the Soma sacrifice and during which the sacnficer is allowed a certain 
amount of food. 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-3.18.2 

3. When one laughs and eats and practises sexual intercourse 
then he joins in the Chant and Recitation (stuta-sastrd). 

4. Austerity, alms-giving, uprightness, harmlessness, truth- 
fulness these are one's gifts for the priests. 

5. Therefore they say : ' He will procreate (sosyati) I He 
has procreated (asosta) I' 1 that is his rebirth (puuar-titpadana). 
Death is an ablution after the ceremony. 

6. When Ghora Angirasa explained this to Krishna, the 
son of DevakI, he also explained for he had become free 
from desire ' In the final hour one should take refuge in 
these three thoughts: "You are the Indestructible; you are 
the Unshaken ; you are the very essence of life (prana)? ' 
On this point there are these two Rig verses : 

7. Proceeding from primeval seed, 
[The early morning light they see, 
That gleameth higher than the heaven]. 3 
Fiom out of darkness all around, 
We, gazing on the higher light 
Yea, gazing on the higher light 
To Surya, god among the gods, 
We have attained the highest light 1 
yea, the highest light! 8 



EIGHTEENTH KHANDA 
The fourfold Brahma in the individual and in the world 

i. One should reverence the mind as Brahma. Thus with 
reference to the self. 

Now with reference to the divinities. One should reverence 
space as Brahma. 

This is the twofold instruction with reference to the self 
and with reference to the divinities. 

3. That Brahma has four quarters. 4 One quarter is speech. 

1 In. this exposition of the similarities between man and the sacrifice these two 
words are used in a double signification. They mean also, m relation to the 
sacrifice : * He will press out [the Soma juice] I He has pressed [it] out I * 

a SV. i. i, 10, varying slightly from RV. 8. 6. 30. 

* VS. 20. 21, varying slightly from RV. i. 50. 10. 

4 Referring to RV. 10. 90. 3, already quoted at Chand. 3. 1 2. 5. 

313 



3- 1 8. a-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

One quarter is breath. One quarter is the eye. One quarter 
is the ear. Thus \\ith reference to the self. 

Now with reference to the divinities. One quarter is Agni 
(Fire). One quarter is Vayu (Wind). One quarter is Aditya 
(the Sun). One quarter is the quarters of heaven. 

This is the twofold instruction with reference to the self 
and with reference to the divinities. 

3. Speech, truly, is a fourth part of Brahma. It shines and 
glows with Agni as its light. He shines and glows with fame, 
with splendor, and with eminence in sacred knowledge who 
knows this. 

4. Breath, truly, is a fourth part of Brahma. It shines and 
glows with Vayu as its light. He shines and glows with fame, 
with splendor, and with eminence in sacred knowledge who 
knows this. 

5. The eye, truly, is a fourth part of Brahma. It shines and 
glows with Aditya as its light. He shines and glows with 
fame, with splendor, and with eminence in sacred knowledge 
who knows this. 

6. The ear, truly, is a fourth part of Brahma. It shines and 
glows with the quarters of heaven as its light. He shines 
and glows with fame, with splendor, and with eminence in 
sacred knowledge who knows this yea 3 who knows this ! 



NINETEENTH KHANDA 

The cosmic egg 

1. The sun is Brahma this is the teaching. A fuither 
explanation thereof [is as follows]. 

In the beginning this world was merely non-being. It was 
existent* It developed. It turned into an egg. It lay for 
the period of a year. It was split asunder. One of the two 
eggshell-parts became silver, one gold. 

2. That which \\as of silver is this earth. That which was 
of gold is the sky. What was the outer membrane is the 
mountains. What was the inner membrane is cloud and mist. 
What were the veins are the rivers. What was the fluid 
within is the ocean. 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-4.1.5 

3. Now, what was born therefrom is yonder sun. When 
it was born, shouts and hurrahs, all beings and all desires rose 
up toward it. Therefore at its rising and at its every return 
shouts and hunahs, all beings and all desires rise up toward it. 

4. He who, knowing it thus, reverences the sun as Brahma 
the prospect is that pleasant shouts will come unto him and 
delight him yea, delight him 1 



FOURTH PRAPATHAKA 
Conversational instructions 

FIRST KHANDA 

The story of Janasruti and Raikya wind and breath, 
as snatchers-unto-themselves 

1. Oml Now there was Janasruti, the great-grandson [of 
Jana^ruta], a pious dispenser, a liberal giver, a preparer of 
much food. He had rest-houses built everywhere with the 
thought, ' Everywhere people will be eating of my food. 5 

2. Now then, one time swans flew past in the night, and 
one swan spoke to another thus : Hey ! Ho ! Short-sight ! 
Short-sight ! The light of Jana^ruti, the great-grandson [of 
Janasruta], has spread like the sky. Do not touch it, lest it 
burn you up 1 ' 

3. To it the other one then replied : c Come ! Who is that 
man of whom you speak as if he were Raikva, the man with 
the cart ? ' 

' Pray, how is it with Raikva, the man with the cart ? ' 

4. ' As the lower throws of dice all go to the highest throw, 
to the winner, so whatever good thing creatures do, all goes 
to him. I say the same thing of whoever knows what he 
knows. 1 

5. Now Janasruti, the great-grandson [of Janasruta], over- 
heard this. Then when he rose he said to the attendant * : 
* Lo ! you speak [of me] as if I were Raikva, the man with 
the cart ! ' 

4 Pray, how is It with Raikva, the man with the cart ? * 

1 Whose custom it is continually to flatter his master. 

315 



4 i. 6-] CHANDOGYA UPAXISHAD 

6. ' As the lower threw s of dice all go to the highest throw, 
to the winner, so to this man, whatever good thing creatures 
do, all goes to him. I say the same thing of whoever kno\\s 
v.hat he knows.' 

7. Then the attendant, having sought, came back, saying, 
; I did not find him/ 

Then he said to him : Oh ! Where one searches for a Brah- 
man, theie seek for him/ 

8. He approached a man who was scratching the itch under- 
neath a cart, and said to him : ' Pray, Sir, are you Raikva, the 
man with the cart ? ' 

c Oh ! I am, indeed/ he acknowledged. 

Then the attendant went back, and said: e l have found him. 1 



SECOND K HAND A 

i. Then Janasruti, the great-grandson [of Janasruta], took 
six hundred cows and a gold necklace and a chariot drawn by 
a she-mule, and \\ent back to him. 

He said to him : [3] Raikva, here are six hundred cows, 
and here is a gold necklace, and here is a chariot drawn by 
a she-mule. Now, Sir, teach me that divinity the divinity 
\\hich you reverence.' 

3. And to him then the other replied : * Oh ! Necklace and 
carriage along with the cows be yours, Sudra ! ' 

And then again J anasruti, the great-grandson [of Janasruta], 
taking a thousand cows and a gold necklace and a chariot 
drawn by a she-mule, and his daughter too, went unto him. 

4. Then he spoke unto him : ' Raikva, here are a thousand 
cows, and here is a gold necklace, and here is a chariot drawn 
by a she-mule, and here is a wife, and here is the village in 
v,hich you dwell. Pray, Sir, do you teach me.' 

5. Then, lifting up her face toward himself, he [i. e. Raikva] 
said: ' He has brought these [cows] along! Sudra, merely 
with this face you would cause me to speak/ 

So those are called the Raikvaparna [villages], among the 
people of the Mahavrishas, where at his offer 1 he lived. 
Then he said to him : 

1 Literally, ' f or him J (asmai). 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-43.8 

THIRD K HAND A 

i. The Wind (Vayu), verily, is a snatcher-unto-itself. 
Verily, when a fire blows out, it just goes to the Wind. When 
the sun sets, it just goes to the Wind. When the moon sets, 
it just goes to the Wind. 

3. When water dries, goes up, it just goes to the Wind. 
For the Wind, truly, snatches all here to itself. Thus with 
reference to the divinities. 

3. Now with reference to oneself. 

Breath (prdna), verily, is a snatcher-unto-itself. When one 
sleeps, speech just goes to breath ; the eye, to breath ; the ear, 
to breath ; the mind, to breath ; for the breath, truly, snatches 
all here to itself. 

4. Verily, these are two snatchers-unto-themselves : the 
Wind among the gods, breath among the vital breaths. 

5 Now, once upon a time when Saunaka Kapeya and 
Abhipratarin Kakshaseni were being served with food, a stu- 
dent of sacred knowledge begged of them. They did not give 
to him. 

6. Then he said : 

" One God (deva) has swallowed up four mighty beings 

(mahdfman). 

Who is that world's protector, O Kapeya ? 
Him mortal men perceive not, though abiding 
In manifolded forms, Abhipratarin. 

Verily, this food has not been offered to whom it belongs." 

7. Then Saunaka Kapeya, considering this, replied : 

" The Self (atman) of gods, of creatures Procreator, 
With golden teeth Devourer, truly Wise One 
His mightiness they say is tmly mighty ; 
He eats what is not food, and is not eaten. 

Thus, verily, O student of sacred knowledge, do we reverence 
It. Give ye him alms." 

8. Then they gave to him. 

These five l and the other five 2 make ten, and that is the 

1 Wind, fire, sun, moon, and water. Cf. 4. 3. I, 2. 
3 Breath, speech, eye, ear, and mind. Cf. 4. 3. 3. 



4-3-H CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

highest throw in dice. Therefore in all regions ten, the highest 
throw, is food. That is Viraj l and an eater of food. Through 
it this whole world came to light. This whole world comes to 
light for him, he becomes an eater of food, who knows this 
yea, who knows this/ 

FOURTH KHAOTA 
Satyakama instructed concerning four quarters of Brahma 

1. Once upon a time Satyakama Jabala addressed his mother 
Jabala : ' Madam ! I desire to live the life of a student of 
sacred knowledge. Of what family, pray, am I ? 5 

2. Then she said to him . * I do not know this, my dear of 
what family you are. In my youth, when I went about a great 
deal serving as a maid, I got you. So I do not know of what 
family you are. However, I am Jabala by name ; you are 
Satyakama by name. So you may speak of yourself as 
Satyakama Jabala/ 

3. Then he went to Haridrumata Gautama, and said : e I will 
live the life of a student of sacred knowledge. I will become 
a pupil of yours, Sir/ 

4. To him he then said: ' Of what family, pray, are you, my 
dear? 3 

Then he said : e I do not know this, Sir, of what family I am. 
I asked my mother. She answered me: ".In my youth, when 
I went about a great deal serving as a maid, I got you. So 
I do not know this, of what family you are. However, I am 
Jabala by name; you are Satyakama by name." So I am 
Satyakama Jabaia, Sir/ 

5- To him he then said : ' A non-Brahman (a-brahmana) 
would not be able to explain thus. Bring the fuel, my dear. 
I will receive you as a pupil. You have not deviated from 
the truth/ 

After having received him as a pupil, he separated out four 
hundred lean, \veak cows and said : f Follow these, my dear.' 

As he was driving them on, he said : * I may not return 
without a thousand/ So he lived away a number of years. 
When they came to be a thousand, 

1 The name of an early mythological ^presentation of original matter ; also the 
name of a meter of ten sjllables. 

318 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-4.6.4 

FIFTH KHANDA 

[j] then the bull spoke to him, saying: ' Satyakama ! 5 

< Sir !' he replied. 

* We have reached a thousand, my dear. Bring us to the 
teacher's house. [2] And let me tell you a quarter of 
Brahma.' 

Tell me, Sir. 1 

To him it then said : ' One sixteenth is the east. One six- 
teenth is the west. One sixteenth is the south. One sixteenth 
is the north. This, verily, my dear, is the quarter of Brahma, 
consibting of four sixteenths, named the Shining. 

3. He who, knowing it thus, reverences a quartet of Brahma, 
consisting of four sixteenths, as the Shining, becomes shining 
in this world. Then he wins shining worlds who, knowing it 
thus, reverences a quarter of Brahma, consisting of four six- 
teenths, as the Shining. 

SIXTH KHANDA 

1. Fire will tell you a quarter.' 

He then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows on. 
Where they came at evening, there he built a fire, penned in 
the cows, laid on fuel, and sat down to the west of the fire, 
facing the east. 

3. The fire spoke to him, saying: * Satyakama ! ' 

4 Sir!' he replied. 

3. * Let me tell you, my dear, a quarter of Brahma.' 
' Tell me, Sir.' 

To him it then said : e One sixteenth is the earth. One 
sixteenth is the atmosphere. One sixteenth is the sky. One 
sixteenth is the ocean. This, verily, my dear, is the quarter 
of Brahma, consisting of four sixteenths, named the Endless. 

4. He who, knowing it thus, reverences a quarter of Brahma, 
consisting of four sixteenths, as the Endless, becomes endless 
in this world. Then he wins endless worlds who, knowing it 
thus, reverences a quarter of Brahma, consisting of four six- 
teenths, as the Endless. 

$19 



4-7-I-] CHANDOGYA UPAXISHAD 

SEVENTH KHAXDA 

i. A swan will tell you a quarter.' 

He then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows on. 
Where they came at evening, there he built a fire, penned in 
the cows, laid on the fuel, and sat down to the west of the fire, 
facing the east. 

a. A swan flew down to him, and spoke to him, saying : 
c Satyakama ! ' 

' Sir ! ' he replied. 

3. c Let me t^ll you, my dear, a quarter of Brahma/ 
: Tell me, Sir. 5 

To him it then said : One sixteenth is fire. One sixteenth 
is the sun. One sixteenth is the moon. One sixteenth is 
lightning. 

This, verily, my dear, is the quarter of Brahma, consisting 
of four sixteenths, named the Luminous. 

4. He who, knowing it thus, reverences a quarter of Brahma, 
consisting of four sixteenths, as the Luminous, becomes lumi- 
nous in this world. Then he wins luminous worlds who, 
knowing it thus, reverences a quarter of Brahma, consisting 
of four sixteenths, as the Luminous. 

EIGHTH KHANDA 

i . A diver-bird will tell you a quarter.' 

He then, when it was the morrow, drove the cows on. 
Where they came at evening, there he built a fire, penned in 
the cows, laid on fuel, and sat down to the west of the fire, 
facing the east. 

3. A diver-bird flew down to him, and spoke to him, 
saying: * Satyakama!' 

( Sir 1 ' he replied. 

3. * Let me tell you, my dear, a quarter of Brahma.' 

1 Tell me, Sir, 3 

To him it then said: 'One sixteenth is breath. One 
sixteenth is the eye. One sixteenth is the ear. One sixteenth 
is mind. This, verily, my dear, is the quarter of Brahma, 
consisting of four sixteenths, named Possessing-a-support. 

320 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-4.10.4 

4. He who, knowing it thus, reverences a quarter of Brahma, 
consisting of four sixteenths, as Possessing-a-support, comes to 
possess a support in this world. Then he wins worlds possess- 
ing a support who, knowing it thus, reverences a quarter of 
Brahma, consisting of four sixteenths, as Possessing-a-support' 

NINTH KHANDA 

T. Then he reached the teacher's house. The teacher spoke 
to him, saying : * Satyakama ! ' 

( Sir ! ' he replied. 

2. ' Verily, my dear, you shine like a Brahma-knouer. 
Who, pray, has instructed you ? ' 

1 Others than men/ he acknowledged. ' But do you yourself 
please speak to me ; [3] for I have heard from those who are 
like you, Sir, that the knowledge which has been learned from 
a teacher best helps one to attain his end.' 

To him he then declared it. In it then nothing whatsoever 
was omitted yea, nothing was omitted. 



TENTH KHANDA 
Brahma as life, joy, and the void 

1. Now, verily, Upakosala Kamalayana dwelt with Satya- 
kama Jabala as a student of sacred knowledge. For twelve 
years he tended his fires. Then, although accustomed to allow 
other pupils to return home, him he did not allow to return. 

2. His wife said to him : The student of sacred knowledge 
has performed his penance. He has tended the fires well. Let 
not the fires anticipate you in teaching him. Teach him your- 
self.' 

But he went off on a journey without having told him. 

3. Then, on account of sickness, he [i. e. Upakosala] took to 
not eating. 

The teacher's wife said to him : c Student of sacred knowledge, 
eat. Why, pray, do you not eat ? ' 

Then he said : * Many and various are the desires here in 
this man. I am filled up with sicknesses. I will not eat. 3 

4. So then the fires said among themselves : * The student of 



4. io. 4-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

sacred knowledge has performed his penance. He has tended 
us well. Come ! Let us teach him/ 

Then they said to him: [5] 'Brahma is life (prdna}. 
Biahtna is joy. Brahma is the void.' 

Then he said : ' I understand that Brahma is life. But joy 
and void I do not understand/ 

They said : Joy (ka) verily, that is the same as the Void (kha). 
The Void verily, that is the same as Joy/ And then they 
explained to him life and space. 

ELEVENTH KHANDA 

The same person in tlie sun, the moon, and lightning 
as in fire and other objects 

I. So then the householder's (Garhapatya) fire instructed 
him: * Earth, fire, food, sun [are forms of me. But] the 
Person who is seen in the sun I am he ; I am he indeed !' 

3. [Chorus of the fires :] He who knows and reverences this 
fire thus, repels evil-doing from himself, becomes possessor of a 
world, reaches a full length of life, lives long. His descendants 
do not become destroyed. Both in this world and in the yonder 
we serve him who knows and reverences this fire thus/ 

TWELFTH KHANDA 

I. So then the southern sacrificial (Anvaharyapacana) fire 
instructed him : 'Water, the quarters of heaven, the stars, the 
moon [are forms of me. But] the Person who is seen in the 
moon I am he ; I am he indeed ! ' 

3. [Chorus of the fires :] ' He who knows and reverences this 
fire thus, repels evil-doing from himself, becomes possessor of 
a world, reaches a full length of life, lives long. His descendants 
do not become destroyed. Both in this world and in the 
yonder we serve him who knows and reverences this fire thus/ 

THIRTEENTH KHAKDA 

I. So then the eastern (Ahavaniya) fire instructed him : 
'Breath, space, sky, lightning [are forms of me. But] the 
Person who is seen in the lightning I am he; I am he 
indeed!* 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-4-15-3 

2. [Chorus of the fires ] c He who knows and reverences this 
fire thus, repels evil-doing from himself, becomes possessor of 
a world, reaches a full length of life, lives long. His descendants 
do not become destroyed. Both in this world and in the 
yonder we serve him who knows and reverences this fire thus/ 

FOURTEENTH KHANDA 
The soul, and its way to Brahma 

1. Then the fires said: 'Upakosala dear, you have this 
knowledge of ourselves and the knowledge of the Soul (Atman). 
But the teacher will tell you the way. 3 

Then the teacher returned. The teacher spoke to him, 
saying: 'Upakosala!' 

2. ' Sir ! ' he then replied. 

' Your face, my dear, shines like a Brahma-know r er j s. Who, 
pray, has instructed you ? ' 

f Who, pray, would instruct me, Sir ? ' Here he denied it. as 
it were. * These ! They are of this appearance now, but they 
were of a different appearance ! * Here he alluded to the 
fires. 

What, pray, my dear, did they indeed tell you ? ' 

3. f This ' he acknowledged. 

Verily, my dear, they did indeed tell you the worlds. But 
I will tell you something. As water adheres not to the leaf of 
a lotus-flower, so evil action adheres not to him who knows 
this. 5 

1 Tell me, Sir.' 

To him he then said : 

FIFTEENTH KHANDA 

1. ' That Person who is seen in the eye He is the Self 
(Atman),' said he. ' That is the immortal, the fearless. That 
is Brahma. So even if they pour clarified butter or water on 
that, it goes away to the edges. 

2. They call this " Loveliness-uniter " (samyad^amd)^ for all 
lovely things (varna) come together (samyanti) unto it. All 
lovely things come together unto him who knows this. 

3. And this is also w Goods-bringer " (yamani}, for it brings 

233 



5- 3-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 



(\/ni) all goods (vama}. He brings all goods who knows 
this. 

4. And this one is also " Light-bringer " (bhamam\ for it 
shines ( \/bha) in all worlds. He shines in all worlds who 
knows this. 

5. Now, whether they perform the cremation obsequies in 
the case of such a person or not, they [i. e. the dead] pass over 
into a flame ; from a flame, into the day ; from the day, into 
the half-month of the waxing moon ; from the half-month of 
the waxing moon, into the six months during which the sun 
moves northwards ; from the months, into the year ; from the 
year, into the sun ; from the sun, into the moon ; from the moon, 
into lightning. There there is a Person (purusd) who is 
non-human (a-manava). 

6. He leads them on to Brahma. This is the way to the 
gods, 1 the way to Brahma. They who proceed by it return not 
to the human condition here yea, they return not ! ' 

SIXTEENTH KHANDA 
The Brahman priest properly silent at the sacrifice 

i. Verily, he who purifies here 2 is a sacrifice. Truly, when 
he moves, he purifies this whole world. Since when he moves 
iyan) he purifies this whole world, therefore indeed he is a 
sacrifice (yajna). 

His two paths are mind and speech. 

3. Of these the Brahman priest (brahma) forms one with his 
mind ; the Hotri, the Adhvaryu, and the Udgatri priests, the 
other with speech. 

In case, after the morning litany has commenced, the Brah- 
man priest interrupts before the concluding verse, [3] he forms 
only one path. The other becomes discontinued. 

As a one-legged man walking, or a chariot proceeding with 
one wheel, suffers injury, so his sacrifice suffers injury. The 
institutor of the sacrifice suffers injury after the sacrifice 
which suffers injury. He becomes worse off by having 
sacrificed. 

2 This same way is described subsequently at 5. 10. 1-2. 
8 That is, the wind. 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-4.17.6 

4. But in case, after the morning litany has commenced, the 
Brahman priest does not interrupt before the concluding verse, 
they form both paths; the other does not become discon- 
tinued. 

5. As a two-legged man walking, or a chariot proceeding 
with both wheels, is well supported, so his sacrifice is well 
supported. The institutor of the sacrifice is well supported 
after the sacrifice which is well supported. He becomes better 
off by having sacrificed. 



SEVENTEENTH KHANBA 

How the Brahman priest rectifies mistakes in the 
sacrificial ritual 

1. Prajapati brooded upon the worlds. As they were being 
brooded upon, he extracted their essences : fire from the earth, 
wind from the atmosphere, the sun from the sky. 

2. Upon these three deities he brooded. As they were 
being brooded upon, he extracted their essences : from the fire, 
the Rig verses ; from the wind, the Yajus formulas ; the Saman 
chants^ from the sun. 

3. Upon this threefold knowledge he brooded. As it was 
being brooded upon, he extracted its essences : bhur from the 
Rig verses, bhuvas from the Yajus formulas, svar from the 
Saman chants. 

4. So if there should come an injury in connection with the 
Rig verses, one should make an oblation in the householder's 
(Garhapatya) fire with the words c bhur \ Hail ! ' So by the 
essence of the Rig verses themselves, by the power of the Rig 
verses he mends the injury to the Rig verses of the sacrifice. 

5. Moreover, if there should come an injury in connection 
with the Yajus formulas, one should make an oblation in the 
southern (Dakshina) fire with the words 'bhuvasl Hail! 3 So 
by the essence of the Yajus formulas themselves, by the power 
of the Yajus formulas he mends the injury to the Yajus 
formulas of the sacrifice. 

6. Moreover, if there should come an injury in connection 
with the Saman chants, one should make an oblation in the 
eastern (Ahavanlya) fire with the words ' war \ Hail i ' So by 

Q 



4.I7-H CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

the essence of the Saman chants, by the po\ver of the Saman 
chants he mends the injury to the Saman chants of the sacrifice. 
7. So, as one would mend gold with borax-salt, silver with 
gold, tin with silver, lead with tin, iron with lead, wood with 
iron or with leather, [8] even so with the power of those worlds, 
of those divinities, of that triple knowledge one mends the 
injury to the sacrifice. Verily, that sacrifice is healed in which 
there is a Brahman priest who knows this. 

9. Verily, that sacrifice is inclined to the north 1 in which 
there is a Brahman priest who knows this. Verily, there is 
this song on the Brahman priest \\ho knows this : 

Whichever way he 2 turns himself, 

In that same way goes [10] common man. 

The Brahman priest alone protects 

The sacnficers 3 like a dog. 4 

Verily, the Brahman priest who knows this guards the 
sacrifice, the institutor of the sacrifice, and all the priests. 
Therefore one should make as his Brahman priest one who 
knows this, not one who does not know this yea, not one 
who does not know this. 

FIFTH PRAPATHAKA 

Concerning breath, the soul, and the Universal 

Soul 

FIRST KHANDA 

The rivalry of the five bodily functions, and tlie 
superiority of breatft 

i. Oni \ Verily, he who knows the chiefest and best, 
becomes the chiefest and best. Breath, verily, is the chiefest 
and best. 

1 That is, auspicious. {sankara. 

2 The Brahman priest That is, the Brahman is the leader of mankind. But 
Sankara interprets . * Wherever it goes back (i. e. there is a defect in the sacrifice j, 
thither the man (i.e. the Brahman) goes, to mend the defect with his knowledge/ 
Deussen interprets these lines : 

' Whichever way one turns himself, 
Thereon a human being goes.' 
Max Muller suggests still another idea. 

3 The word kurun may also mean ' the Kuru people.' 

* Adopting, as do BR. and Deussen, the reading $va instead of afva, * a mare.' 

2,2,6 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-5.1.10 

a. Verily, he who knows the most excellent, becomes the 
most excellent of his own [people]. Speech, verily, is the 
most excellent. 

3. Verily, he who knows the firm basis, has a firm bas's 
both in this world and in the yonder. The eye, verily, is a 
firm basis. 

4. Verily, he who knows attainment for him wishes are 
attained, both human and divine. The ear, verily, is attain- 
ment. 

5. Verily, he who knows the abode, becomes an abode of his 
own [people]. The mind, verily, is the abode. 

6. Now, the Vital Breaths (prdna} 1 disputed amongthemselves 
on self-superiority, saying [in turn] : ' I am superior ! 3 * I am 
superior ! ' 

7. Those Vital Breaths went to Father Prajapati, and said : 
* Sir ! Which of us is the most superior? ' 

He said to them : 'That one of you after whose going off 
the body appears as if it were the very worst off he is the 
most superior of you/ 

8. Speech went off. Having remained away a year, it 
came around again, and said : ' How have you been able to 
live without me ? ' 

* As the dumb, not speaking, but breathing with the breath, 
seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, thinking with the 
mind. Thus/ 

Speech entered in. 

9. The Eye went off. Having remained away a year, 
it came around again, and said : * How have you been able to 
live without me ? ' 

* As the blind, not seeing, but breathing with the breath, 
speaking with speech, hearing with the ear, thinking with the 
mind. Thus.' 

The Eye entered in. 

10. The Ear went off. Having remained away a year, 
it came around again, and said : ' How have you been able to 
live without me ? ' 

1 The word might almost be translated * Senses * ; but c Functions ' would perhaps 
more accurately represent the quaint old idea in the modern scientific terminology. 
Cf. the other accounts of this rivalry at Bnh. 6. I. 7-14 and Kaush. 3. 3. 

227 Q 3 



5.i. lo-] CHAXDOGYA UPANISHAD 

'As the deaf, not hearing, but breathing with the breath, 
speaking with speech, seeing with the eye, thinking with the 
mind. Thus. J 

The Ear entered in. 

11. The Mind uent off. Having remained away a year, 
it came around again, and said : { How have you been able to 
live without me? 3 

*As simpletons, mindless, but breathing with the breath, 
speaking with speech, seeing with the eye, hearing with the 
ear. Thus. 5 

The Mind entered in. 

12. Now when the Breath was about to go off as a fine 
horse might tear out the pegs of his foot-tethers all together, 
thus did it tear out the other Breaths all together. They all 
came to it, and said : w Sir ! Remain, You are the most 
superior of us. Do not go off.' 

13. Then Speech said unto that one: : If I am the most 
excellent, so are you the most excellent. 5 

Then the Eye said unto that one : * If I am a firm basis, so 
are you a firm basis/ 

14. Then the Ear said unto that one : ( If I am attainment, 
so are you attainment. 3 

Then the Mind said unto that one : * If I am an abode, so 
are you an abode.' 

15. Verily, they do not call them ' Speeches, 3 nor Eyes, 3 
nor < Ears/ nor { Minds. 3 They call them * Breaths ' (prdna), 
for the vital breath is all these. 



SECOND KHAXDA 

1. It said : ' What will be my food ? * 

6 Whatever there is here, even to dogs and birds,' they said. 

So this, verily, is the food (anna) of breath (ana). Verily, 
breath is its evident name. Verily, in the case of one who 
knows this, there is nothing whatever that is not food. 

2. It said : * What will be my garment ? ' 
6 Water, 5 they said. 

Therefore, verily, when people are about to eat, they 
enswathe it [Le. the breath] with water both before and 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-5.2.7 

after. 1 It Is accustomed to receive a garment ; it becomes not 
naked. 

3 When Satyakama Jabala told this to Gosruti Vaiyagra- 
padya, he also said : c Even if one should tell this to a dried-up 
stump, branches would be produced on it and leaves would 
spring forth.' 

Tlie * mixed potion' incantation for the attainment 
of greatness 

4. Now, if one should wish to come to something great, let 
him on the night of a new moon perform the Preparatory 
Consecration Ceremony (Diksha), and on the night of the full 
moon mix a mixed potion of all sorts of herbs with sour 
milk and honey. 

' Hail to the chiefest and best ! ' with these words he should 
off era libation of melted butter in the fire and pour the residue 
into the potion. 

5. ' Hail to the most excellent I 'with these words he should 
offer a libation of melted butter in the fire and pour the residue 
into the potion. 

' Hail to the firm basis ! ' with these words he should offer 
a libation of melted butter in the fire and pour the residue into 
the potion. 

' Hail to the abode I ' with these words he should offer 
a libation of melted butter in the fire and pour the residue into 
the potion. 

6. Then, creeping back [from the fire], and taking the potion 
in his hollowed hands, he mutters: c Thou art He (ama) by 
name, for this whole world is at home (ama) in thee, for thou 
art pre-eminent and supreme (srestka), king and overlord. 
Let him bring me to pre-eminence and supremacy (sraisthya], 
kingship and overlordship ! Let me be all this ! ' 2 

7. Verily then with this Rig verse 3 he takes a sip at each 
hemistich : 

'The food which is god Savitri's/ 
here he takes a sip 

1 By sipping at the commencement of a meal and by nosing out the mouth at 
the close of the meal the familiar custom in India. 

2 Or, c this world-all.' 
* RV. 5. 82. i. 



5.2.7-] CHAXDOGYA UPANISHAD 

'That for ourselves do we prefer/ 
here he takes a sip 

'The best, the all-refreshing food;* 
here he takes a sip 

' The Giver's strength may we attain ! ' 
here he takes a sip. 

8. After having cleansed the drinking-vessel or goblet, he 
lies down to the west of the fire either on a skin or on the 
bare ground with voice restrained and self-possessed. If he 
should see a woman, he may know that the rite is successful. 

9. As to this there is the following verse : 

If during riles done for a wish 
One sees a woman in his dieam, 
Success he there may recognize 
In this appearance of his dream 

In this appearance of his dream. 

THIRD KHANDA* 
Th.e course of the soul in its reincarnations 

1. Svetaketu Aruneya attended an assembly of the Pancalas. 
Then Pravahana Jaibali said to him : * Young man, has your 
father instructed you? ' 

1 He has indeed, Sir.' 

2. ' Do you know unto what creatures go forth hence ? ' 
<No ; Sir.' 

' Do you know how they return again ? ' 

< No, Sir.' 

c Do you know the parting of the two ways, one leading to 
the gods, and one leading to the fathers ? ' 
' No, Sir.' 

3. * Do you know how [it is that] yonder world is not filled up? J 

< No, Sir.' 

* Do you know how in the fifth oblation water comes to 
have a human voice ? ! 
4 No, indeed, Sir.* 

4. * Now, pray, how did you say of yourself that you had 

1 With the instruction of Svetaketu in Khandas 3-10 compare the parallel 
account at Bnh. 6. 2, 

230 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD C-<? <> i 

L <iJ *J' 

been instructed? Indeed, how could one who would not know 
these things speak of himself as having been instructed ? ' 

Distressed, he then went to his father's place. Then he 
baid to him : i Verily, indeed, without having instructed me, you, 
Sir, said : " I have instructed you." 

5. Five questions a fellow of the princely class (rafanya- 
handhu) has asked me. I was not able to explain even one 
of them/ 

Then he [i.e. the father] said: ' As you have told them to 
me here, I do not know even one of them. If I had known 
them, how would I not have told them to you> ' 

6. Then Gautama 1 went to the king's place. To him, 
when he arrived, he [i.e. the king] had proper attention shown! 
Then on the morrow he went up to the audience-halL Then 
he [i. e. the king] said to him : ' Honored Gautama, you may 
choose for yourself a boon of human wealth/ 

Then he said: c Human wealth be yours, O king ! The word 
which you said in the presence of the young man, even that 
do you speak to me/ 

Then he became troubled. 

7. ' Wait a while/ he commanded him. Then he said : ' As 
to what you have told me, Gautama, this knowledge has 
never yet come to Brahmans before you ; and therefore in all 
the worlds has the rule belonged to the Kshatriya only/ Then 
he said to him : 

FOURTH KHANDA 

1. 'Yonder world, verily, O Gautama, Is a sacrificial fire. 
In this case the sun is the fuel; the light-rays, the smoke ; 
the day, the flame ; the moon, the coals ; the stars, the sparks. 

2. In this fire the gods offer faith (sraddha). From this 
oblation arises King Soma. 

FIFTH KHANDA 

i. The rain- cloud, verily, O Gautama ; is a sacrificial fire. 
In this case wind is the fuel ; mist, the smoke ; lightning, the 
flame ; the thunderbolt, the coals ; hailstones, the sparks. 

1 That is, Gautama Arum, the fattier. 



5.53-] CHANDOGYA UPAXISHAD 

2. In this fire the gods offer King Soma. From this obla- 
tion arises rain. 

SIXTH KHANDA 

1. The earth, verily, O Gautama, is a sacrificial fire. In 
this case the year is the fuel ; space, the smoke ; night, the 
flame ; the quarters of heaven, the coals ; the intermediate 
quarters of heaven, the sparks. 

2. In this fire the gods offer rain. From this oblation 
arises food. 

SEVENTH KHANDA 

1. Man, verily, O Gautama, is a sacrificial fire. In this 
case speech is the fuel; breath, the smoke; the tongue, the 
flame ; the eyes, the coals ; the ear, the sparks. 

2. In this fire the gods offer food. From this oblation 
arises semen. 

EIGHTH KHANDA 

1. Woman, verily, O Gautama, is a sacrificial fire. In this 
case the sexual organ is the fuel ; when one invites, the smoke ; 
the vulva, the flame; when one inserts, the coals; the sexual 
pleasure, the sparks. 

2. In this fire the gods offer semen. From this oblation arises 
the fetus. 

NINTH KHANDA 

1. Thus indeed in the fifth oblation water comes to have 
a human voice. 

After he has lain within for ten months, or for however long 
it is, as a fetus covered with membrane, then he is born. 

2. When born, he lives for as long as is his length of life. 
When deceased, they carry him hence to the appointed place 
for the fire from whence indeed he came, from whence he 
arose. 

TENTH KHANDA 

i. So those who know this, and those too who worship in 

a forest with the thought that Faith is austerity/' pass into 

the flame l ; from the flame, into the day ; from the day, into 

the half-month of the waxing moon ; from the half-month of the 

waxing moon, into the six months during which the sun moves 

1 That is, into the flame of the cremation fire. 

333 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-5.10,8 

northward ; [2] from those months, Into the year ; from the year, 
into the sun ; from the sun, into the moon ; from the moon, 
into the lightning. Theie there is a Person (pnrusa) who is 
non- human (a-manava). He leads them on to Brahma. This 
is the way leading to the gods. 1 

3. But those who in the village reverence a belief in sacrifice, 
merit, and almsgiving they pass into the smoke 2 ; from the 
smoke, into the night ; from the night, into the latter half of 
the month ; from the latter half of the month, into the six 
months during which the sun moves southward these do not 
reach the year ; [4] from those months, into the world of the 
fatheis ; from the world of the fathers, into space ; from space, 
into the moon. That is King Soma. That is the food of the 
gods. The gods eat that. 

5. After having remained in it as long as there is a residue 
[of their good works], then by that course by which they came 
they return again, just as they came, into space ; from space, into 
wind. After having become wind, one becomes smoke. 
After having become smoke, he becomes mist. 

6. After having become mist, he becomes cloud. After 
having become cloud, he rains down. They are born here as 
rice and barley, as herbs and trees, as sesame plants and beans. 
Thence, verily, indeed, it is difficult to emerge; for only if 
some one or other eats him as food and emits him as semen, 
does he develop further. 

7. Accordingly, those who are of pleasant conduct here 
the prospect is, indeed, that they will enter a pleasant womb, 
either the womb of a Brahman, or the womb of a Kshatriya, or 
the womb of a Vaiya. But those who are of stinking conduct 
here the prospect is, indeed, that they will enter a stinking 
womb, either the womb of a dog, or the womb of a swine, or 
the womb of an outcast (canddla}. 

8. But on neither of these ways are the small, continually 
returning creatures, 3 [those of whom it is said .] " Be born, and 
die" theirs is a third state. 

Thereby [it comes about that] yonder world Is not filled up. 

1 This same way has already been described in 4. 15. 5-6. 

2 That is, into the smoke of the cremation fire. 

3 Such as flies, worms, etc. 



5. ic. 8-] CHAXDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Therefore one should seek to guard himself. As to this 
there is the following verse : 

9. The plunderer of gold, the liquor-drinker, 

The invader of a teacher's bed, the Brahman-killer 
These four sink downward m the scale, 
And, fifth, he who consorts \uth them. 

10. But he who knows these five fires thus, is not stained 
with evil, even though consorting with those people. He 
becomes pure, clean, possessor of a pure world, who knows this 
yea, he who knows this ! * 



ELEVENTH 
The Universal Soul 

1. Pracinasala Aupamanyava, Satyayajna Paulushi, Indra- 
dyumna Bhallaveya, Jana Sarkarakshya, and Budila Asvatarasvi 
these great householders, greatly learned in sacred lore 
(srotriya), having come together, pondered: 'Who is our 
Atman (Soul)? What is Brahma?' 

2. Then they agreed among themselves: e Verily, Sirs, 
Uddalaka Arum" here studies exactly this Universal (vaisvd- 
nara) Atman (Soul), Come, let us go unto him.' 

Then unto him they went. 

3. Then he agreed with himself: c These great householders, 
greatly learned in sacred lore, will question me. I may not be 
able to answer them everything. Come ! Let me direct them 
to another.' 

4. Then he said to themj ' Verily, Sirs, Asvapati Kaikeya 
studies just this Universal Atman (Soul). Come ! Let us go 
unto him/ 

Then unto him they went. 

5. Then to them severally, when they arrived, he had proper 
attentions shown. He was indeed a man who, on rising, 
could say 2 : 

'Within my realm there is no thief, 
No miser, nor a drinking man, 
None altarless, none ignorant, 
No man unchaste, no wife unchaste/ 

1 Another version is found at at. Br. 10. 6. i. 

2 Denssen's interpretation. 

234 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-5.13.2 

1 Verily, Sirs, I am about to have a sacrifice performed. 
As large a gift as I shall give to each priest, so large a gift 
will I give to you, Sirs. Remain, my Sirs ' 

6. Then they said : ' With whatever subject a person is con- 
cerned, of that indeed he should speak. You know just this 
Universal Atman (Soul). Him indeed do you tell to us/ 

7. Then he said to them: 'On the morrow will I make 
reply/ Then with fuel in their hands 1 in the morning they 
returned. Then, without having first received them as pupils, 
he spoke to them as follows : 

TWELFTH KHANDA 

T. f Aupamanyava, whom do you reverence as the Atman 
(Soul)?' 

'The heaven indeed, Sir, O King, said he. 

'The Universal Atman (Soul) is, verily, that brightly 
shining one (sutejas) which you reverence as the Atman (Soul). 
Therefore Soma is seen pressed out (suta] and continually 
pressed out in your family. 

3. You eat food ; you see what is pleasing. He eats food ; 
he sees what is pleasing. There is eminence in sacred 
knowledge in the family of him who reverences the Universal 
Atman (Soul) thus. That, however, is only the head of the 
Atman (Soul),' said he. 'Your head would have fallen off, if 
you had not come unto me/ 

THIRTEENTH KHANDA 

i. Then he said to Satyayajna Paulushi : ' Praclnayogya I 
Whom do you reverence as the Atman (Soul) ?' 

'The sun indeed^Sir, King/ said he. 

c The Universal Atman (Soul) is, verily, that manifold one 
which you reverence as the Atman (Soul). Therefore much 
of all sorts is seen in your family, [2] [e.g.] a chariot drawn by 
a she-mule rolled up [before your door], a female slave, a gold 
necklace. You eat food ; you see what is pleasing. He eats 
food ; he sees what is pleasing. There is eminence in sacred 
knowledge in the family of him who reverences that Universal 

1 As a token of disclplestip. Compare 4. 4 5. 



5-13-H CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

Atman (Soul) thus. That, however, is only the eye of the 
Atman (Soul)/ said he. ' You would have become blind, if you 
had not come unto me. ? 

FOURTEENTH KHANDA 

1. Then he said to Indradyumna Bhallaveya: 'Vaiyaghra- 
padya ! Whom do you reverence as the Atman (Soul) ? J 

'The wind indeed, Sir, King/ said he. 

( The Universal Atman (Soul) is, verily, that which possesses 
various paths, which you reverence as the Atman (Soul). 
Therefore offerings come unto you in various ways ; rows of 
chariots follow you in various ways. 

2. You eat food ; you see what is pleasing. He eats food ; 
he sees what is pleasing. There is eminence in sacred 
knowledge in the family of him who reverences that Universal 
Atman (Soul) thus. 

That, however, is only the breath of the Atman (Soul)/ 
said he. 'Your breath would have departed, if you had not 
come unto me.' 

FIFTEENTH KHANDA 

1. Then he said to Jana: ' Sarkarakshya ! Whom do you 
reverence as the Atman (Soul) ? * 

' Space indeed, Sir, O King/ said he. 

' The Universal Atman (Soul) is, verily, that expanded one, 
which you reverence as the Atman (Soul). Therefore you aie 
expanded with offspring and wealth. 

2. You eat food ; you see w T hat is pleasing. He eats food ; 
he sees what is pleasing. There is eminence in sacred know- 
ledge in the family of him who reverences that Universal 
Atman (Soul) thus. 

That, however, is only the body (samdehd) of the Atman 
(Soul)/ said he. Your body would have fallen to pieces, if 
you had not come unto me.' 

SIXTEENTH KHANDA 

I. Then he said to Budila Asvatarasvi: * Vaiyaghrapadya ! 
Whom do you reverence as the Atman (Soul) ? ' 
1 Water indeed, Sir, O King/ said he. 
* The Universal Atman (Soul) is, verily, that wealth, which 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-5.18.3 

you reverence as the Atman (Soul). Therefoie you are 
wealthy and thriving. 

2. You eat food ; you see what is pleasing. He eats food ; 
he sees what is pleasing. There is eminence in sacred 
knowledge in the family of him who reveiences that Universal 
Atman (Soul) thus. 

That, however, is only the bladder of the Atman (Soul)/ said 
he. c Your bladder would have burst, if you had not come 
unto me.' 

SEVENTEENTH K HAND A 

1. Then he said to Uddalaka Aruni : 4 Gautama ! Whom do 
you reverence as the Atman (Soul) ? ' 

'The earth inde_ed, Sir, O King/ said he. 

'The Universal AtmanJSoul) is, verily, that support, which 
you reverence as the Atman (Soul). Therefore you are 
supported with offspring and cattle. 

2. You eat food ; you see what is pleasing. He eats food ; 
he sees what is pleasing. There is eminence in sacred know- 
ledge in the family of him who reverences that Universal Atman 
(Soul) thus. 

That, however, is only the feet of the Atman (Soul)/ said he. 
4 Your feet would have withered away, if you had not come 
unto me. J 

EIGHTEENTH KHANDA 

1. Then he said to them : ' Verily, indeed, you here eat food, 
knowing this Universal Atman (Soul) as if something separate. 
He, however, who reverences this Universal Atman (Soul) that 
is of the measure of the span l thus, 2 [yet] is to be measured by 
thinking of oneself 3 he eats food in all worlds, in all beings, in 
all selves. 

2. The brightly shining [heaven] is indeed the head of that 
Universal Atman (Soul). The manifold [sun] is his eye. 
That which possesses various paths [I.e. the wind] is his 
breath. The extended [space] is his body. Wealth [i.e. 

1 From earth to heaven as ankara suggests. 

2 Deictically. 

3 abht~vi-mana t a word of not altogether certain meaning, either from */ma 'to 
measure,' or from *Jman * to think/ like the immediately preceding pradeka- 

^ or perhaps pregnantly referring to both, 

237 



5. 1 8. 2-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

water] is indeed his bladder. The support [i. e. the earth] 
is indeed his feet. The sacrificial area is indeed his breast. 
The sacrificial grass is his hair. The Garhapatya fire is 
his heart. The Anvaharyapacana fire is his mind. The 
Ahavaniya fire is his mouth. 

NINETEENTH KHANDA 

The mystical Agnihotra sacrifice to the Universal Soul 
in one's own self 

1. Therefore the first food which one may come to, should 
be offered. The first oblation which he would offer he should 
offer with " Hail to the Prana breath ! 5> The Prana breath is 
satisfied. 

2. The Prana breath being satisfied, the eye is satisfied. The 
eye being satisfied, the sun is satisfied. The sun being satisfied, 
the heaven is satisfied. The heaven being satisfied, whatever 
the heaven and the sun rule over is satisfied. Along with the 
satisfaction thereof, he is satisfied with offspring, with cattle, with 
food, with the glow of health, and with eminence in sacred 
knowledge. 

TWENTIETH KHANDA 

1. Then the second oblation which he would offer he should 
offer with 4< Kail to the Vyana breath ! " The Vyana breath is 
satisfied. 

2. The Vyana breath being satisfied, the ear is satisfied. The 
ear being satisfied, the moon is satisfied. The moon being 
satisfied, the quarters of heaven are satisfied. The quarters 
of heaven being satisfied, whatever the moon and the quarters 
of heaven rule over is satisfied. Along with the satisfaction 
thereof, he is satisfied with offspring, with cattle, with food, 
with the glow of health, and with eminence in sacred knowledge. 

TWENTY-FIRST KHANDA 

i. Then the third offering which he would offer he should 
offer with " Hail to the Apana breath ! " The Apana breath is 
satisfied. 

3. The Apana breath being satisfied, speech is satisfied. 

238 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-5.24.3 

Speech being satisfied, fire is satisfied. Fire being satisfied, the 
earth is satisfied. The earth being satisfied, whatever the 
earth and fire rule over is satisfied. Along with the satisfaction 
thereof, he is satisfied with offspring, with cattle, with food, 
with the glow of health, and with eminence in sacred know- 
ledge. 

TWENTY-SECOND KHANDA 

i. Then the fouith offering which he would offer he should 
offer with " Hail to the Samana breath ! " The Samaria breath 
is satisfied. 

3. The Samana breath being satisfied, the mind is satisfied. 
The mind being satisfied, the rain-god (Parjanya) is satisfied. 
The rain-god being satisfied, lightning is satisfied. Lightning 
being satisfied, whatever the rain-god and lightning rule over is 
satisfied. Along with the satisfaction thereof, he is satisfied 
with offspring, with cattle, with food, with the glow of health, and 
with eminence in sacred knowledge. 

TWENTY-THIRD KHANDA 

1. Then the fifth offering which he would offer he should 
offer with " Hail to the Udana breath ! " The Udana breath is 
satisfied. 

2. The Udana breath being satisfied, wind is satisfied. 1 Wind 
being satisfied, space is satisfied. Space being satisfied, what- 
ever wind and space rule over is satisfied. Along with the 
satisfaction thereof, he is satisfied with offspring, with cattle, 
with food, with the glow of health, and with eminence in sacred 
knowledge. 

TWENTY-FOURTH KHANDA 

1. If one offers the Agnihotra (fire) sacrifice without knowing 
this that would be just as if he were to remove the live coals 
and pour the offering on ashes* 

2. But if one offers the Agnihotra sacrifice knowing it thus, his 
offering is made in all worlds, in all beings, in all selves. 

3. So, as a rush-reed laid on a fire would be burned up, even 

1 According to the Poona and Madras editions of the Chandogya Upanishad 
the first part of this paragraph would read ; The Udana breath being satisfied, 
the skin is satisfied. The skin being satisfied, wind is satisfied,' etc. 

239 



5.24.3-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

so are burned up all the evils of him who offers the Agnihotra 
sacrifice knowing it thus. 

4. And therefore, if one who knows this should offer the 
leavings even to an outcast (candala), it would be offered in 
his Universal Atman (Soul). As to this there is the follow- 
e : 

As hungry children sit around 
About their mother here in life, 
E'en so all beings sit around 
The Agnihotra sacrifice.' 



SIXTH PRAPATHAKA 

The instruction of vetaketu by TTddalaka 
concerning the key to all knowledge 

FIRST KHANDA 

The tlireefold development of tlie elements and of man 
from the primary unitary Being 

1. Om \ Now, there was Svetaketu Aruneya. To him his 
father said : * Live the life of a student of sacred knowledge. 

o 

Verily, my dear, from our family there is no one unlearned [in 
the Vedas] (an-ucya\ a Brahman by connection (brahma-bandhu) 
as it were. 

2. He then, having become a pupil at the age of twelve, 
having studied all the Vedas, returned at the age of twenty-four, 
conceited, thinking himself learned, proud. 

3. Then his father said to him : * Svetaketu, my dear, since 
now you are conceited, think yourself learned, and are proud, 
did you also ask for that teaching whereby what has not been 
heard of becomes heard of, what has not been thought of 
becomes thought of, what has not been understood becomes 
understood?' 

4. 'How, pray, Sir, is that teaching?' 

(4) c Just as, my dear, by one piece of clay everything made 
of clay may be known the modification is merely a verbal 
distinction, a name ; the reality is just " clay " 

5. Just as, my dear, by one copper ornament everything 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-6.3.1 

made of copper may be known the modification is merely 
a verbal distinction, a name ; the reality is just " copper" 

6. Just as, my dear, by one nail-scissors everything made 
of iron may be known the modification is merely a verbal 
distinction, a name ; the reality is just "iron" so, my dear, is 
that teaching,' 

7. c Verily, those honored men did not know this; for, if 
they had known it, why would they not have told me ? But 
do you, Sir, tell me it. 3 

4 So be it, my dear/ said he. 

SECOND KHANDA 

1. e ln the beginning, my dear, this world was just Being 
(sat), one only, without a second. To be sure, some people 
say l ; " In the beginning this world was just Non-being (a-sat), 
one only, without a second ; from that Non-being Being was 
produced." 

2. But verily, my dear, whence could this be?' said he. 
'How from Non-being could Being be produced? On the 
contrary, my dear, in the beginning this world was just Being, 
one only, without a second. 

3. It bethought itself: " Would that I were many ! Let me 
procreate myself!" It emitted heat. That heat bethought 
itself: "Would that I were many! Let me procreate myself." 
It emitted water. Therefore whenever a person grieves or 
perspires from the heat, then there is produced water [i.e. 
either tears or perspiration]. 

4. That water bethought itself: "Would that I were many ! 
Let me procreate myself." It emitted food. Therefore 
whenever it rains, then there is abundant food. So food for 
eating is produced just from water. 

THIRD KHANDA 

i. Now, of these beings here there are just three origins 2 : 
[there are beings] born from an egg, born from a living thing, 
born from a sprout. 

1 As, for example, in 3. 19. i and Tait. 2. 7. 
a Literally 'seeds ' (&ya). 

341 R 



6.3-H CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

a. That divinity [i e. Being] bethought itself: " Come ! Let 
me enter these three divinities [i.e. heat, water, and food] with 
this living Soul (atman\ and separate out name and form. 1 

3. Let me make each one of them threefold." That divinity 
entered into these three divinities with this living Soul, and 
separated out name and form. 

4. It made each of them threefold. 

Now, verily, my dear, understand from me how each of 
these three divinities becomes threefold. 

FOURTH KHANDA 

1. Whatever red form fire has, is the form of heat ; what- 
ever white, the form of water ; whatever dark, the form of 
food. The firehood has gone from fire : the modification is 
merely a verbal distinction, a name. The reality is just " the 
three forms." 

2. Whatever red form the sun has, is the form of heat ; 
whatever white, the form of water ; whatever dark, the form 
of food. The sunhood has gone from the sun: the modifi- 
cation is merely a verbal distinction, a name. The reality is 
just " the three forms." 

3. Whatever red form the moon has, is the form of heat , 
whatever white, the form of water; whatever dark, the form of 
food. The moonhood has gone from the moOn : the modifi- 
cation is merely a verbal distinction, a name. The reality is 
just " the three forms." 

4. Whatever red form the lightning has, is the form of heat ; 
whatever white, the form of water; whatever dark, the form 
of food. The lightninghood has gone from the lightning : the 
modification is merely a verbal distinction, a name. The reality 
is just '* the three forms." 

5. Verily, it was just this that the great householders, 
greatly learned in sacred lore, knew when they said of old 2 : 
" No one now will bring up to us what has not been heard of, 
what has not been thought of, what has not been understood.'' 
For from these [three forms] they knew [everything]. 

6. They knew that whatever appeared red was the form of 

2 'Name and form' is the Sanskrit idiom for c individuality.' 
8 Compaie Mund. 1. 1. 3. 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-5.5-5 

heat. They knew that whatever appeared white was the 
form of water. They knew that whatever appeared dark was 
the form of food. 



7. They ^knew^ that whatever appeared un-understood, Is 
a combination of just these divinities. 

Verily, my dear, understand from me how each of these 
three divinities, upon reaching man, becomes threefold. 

FIFTH KHAKDA 

i. Food, when eaten, becomes divided into three parts. 
That which is its coarsest constituent, becomes the feces ; that 
which is medium, the flesh ; that which is finest, the mind. 

3. Water, when drunk, becomes divided into three parts. 
That which is its coarsest constituent, becomes the urine : 
that which is medium, the blood; that which is finest, the 
breath (prana). 

3. Heat, when eaten, becomes divided into three parts. 
That which is its coarsest constituent, becomes bone; that 
which is medium, the marrow ; that which is finest, the voice. 

4. For. my dear, the mind consists of food ; the breath 
consists of water ; the voice consists of heat.' 

' Do you, Sir, cause me to understand even more.' 
{ So be it, rny dear, 5 said he. 

SIXTH KHAKDA 

1. * Of coagulated milk, my dear, when churned, that which 
is the finest essence all moves upward ; it becomes butter, 

2. Even so, verily, my dear, of food, when eaten, that 
which is the finest essence all moves upward; it becomes 
the mind. 

3. Of water, my dear, when drunk, that which is the finest 
essence all moves upward ; it becomes the breath. 

4. Of heat, my dear, when eaten, that which is the finest 
essence all moves upward ; it becomes the voice. 

5. For, my dear, the mind consists of food; the breath 
consists of water ; the voice consists of heat/ 

f Do you. Sir, cause me to understand even more/ 
* So be it, my dear/ said he. 

'343 R* 



6. ;.!-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

SEVENTH KHANDA 

1. 'A person, my dear, consists of sixteen parts. For 
fifteen days do not eat ; drink water at will. Breath, which 
consists of water, will not be cut off from one who drinks 
water.' 

2. Then for fifteen days he did not eat. So then he 
approached him, saying, fi What shall I say, Sir ? ' 

1 The Rig verses, my dear, the Yajus formulas, the Saman 
chants/ 

Then he said : ' Verily, they do not come to me, Sir. 1 

3. To him he then said : ' Just as, my dear, a single coal of 
the size of a fire-fly may be left over from a great kindled fire, 
but with it the fire would not thereafter burn much so, my 
dear, of your sixteen parts a single sixteenth part may be 
left over, but with it you do not now apprehend the Vedas. 
(4) Eat ; [4] then you will understand from me.' 

(4) Then he ate. So then he approached him. Then 
whatsoever he asked him, he answered everything (5) To him 
he then said : 

5. c Just as, my dear, one may, by covering It with straw, 
make a single coal of the size of a fire-fly that has been left over 
from a great kindled fire blaze up, and with it the fire 
would thereafter burn much [6] so, my dear, of your sixteen 
parts a single sixteenth part has been left over. After having 
been covered with food, it has blazed up. With it you now 
apprehend the Vedas ; for, my dear, the mind consists of food, 
the breath consists of water, the voice consists of heat/ 

Then he understood from him yea, he understood. 

EIGHTH KHANDA 
Concerning sleep, hunger and thirst, and dying 

I. Then Uddalaka Arum said to Svetaketu, his son: 
* Understand from me, my dear, the condition of sleep. 
When a person here sleeps (svapitfy as it is called, then, my 
dear, he has reached Being, he has gone to his own (svam 
apita). Therefore they say of him " he sleeps " ; for he has 
gone to his own. 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-6.8.6 

2. As a bird fastened with a string, after flying in this 
direction and in that without finding an abode elsewhere, rests 
down just upon its fastening even so, my dear, the mind, 
after flying in this direction and in that without finding an 
abode elsewhere, rests down just upon breath; for the mind, 
my dear, has breath as its fastening. 

3. Understand from me, my dear, hunger (asana) and 
thirst. When a peison here is hungry (asihsati], as it is 
called, just water is leading off (nayanti] that which has been 
eaten ( Vas}. So, as they speak of " aleader-of-cows" (go-nay a), 
" a leader-of-horses " (asva-ndya), " a leader-of-men " (purusa- 
naya)) so they speak of water as "a leader- of- food " (asa-ndya, 
hunger). 

On this point, my dear, understand that this [body] is 
a sprout which has sprung up. It will not be without a root. 

4. What else could its root be than food ? Even so, my 
dear, with food for a sprout, look for water as the root. With 
water, my dear, as a sprout, look for heat as the root. 
With heat, my dear, as a sprout, look for Being as the root. 
All creatures here, my dear, have Being as their root, have 
Being as their home, have -Being as their support 

5. Now, when a person here is thirsty, as it is called, just 
heat is leading off that which has been drunk. So, as they 
speak of "a leader-of-cows " (go-nay a) , "a leader-of-horses " 
(asva-nayd)) " a leader-of-men " (purusa-naya), so one speaks of 
heat as " a leader-of-water " (uda-nya, thirst). 

On this point, my dear, understand that this [body] is 
a sprout which has sprung up. It will not be without a root. 

6. Where else could its root be than in water? With 
water, my dear, as a sprout, look for heat as the root. With 
heat, my dear, as a sprout, look for Being as the root. 
All creatures here, my dear, have Being as their root, have 
Being as their abode, have Being as their support. 

But how, verily, my dear, each of these three divinities, 
upon reaching man, becomes threefold, has previously L been 
said. 

When a person here is deceasing, my dear, his voice goes 
into his mind ; his mind, into his breath ; his breath, into heat; 

1 In 6. 5. 1-4. 
345 



68.6-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

the heat, into the highest divinity. (7) That which is the 
finest essence [7] this whole world has that as its soul. 
That is Reality (satya\ That is Atman (Soul). That art 
thou, Svetaketu. 5 1 

' Do you, Sir, cause me to understand even more/ 

' So be it, my dear/ said he. 



NINTH KHANDA 

The unitary World-Soul, the immanent reality 
of all things and of man 

I, c As the bees, my dear, prepare honey by collecting the 
essences of different trees and i educing the essence to a unity, 
[a] as they are not able to discriminate " I am the essence of 
this tree," *" I am the essence of that tree " even so, indeed, 
my dear, all creatures here, though they reach Being, 2 know 
not " We have reached Being." 

3. Whatever they are in this world, whether tiger, or lion, 
or wolf, or boar, or worm, or fly, or gnat, or mosquito, that 
they become. 

4. That which is the finest essence this whole world has 
that as its soul. That is Reality. That is Atman. (Soul). 
That ait thou, Svetaketu. 5 

c Do you, Sir, cause me to understand even more/ 
1 So be it, my dear/ said he. 

TENTH KHAXDA 

i. 'These rivers, my dear, flow, the eastern toward the 
east, the western toward the west. They go just from the 
ocean to the ocean. They become the ocean itself. As there 
they know not " I am this one," " I am that one "[2] even so, 
indeed, my dear, all creatures here, though they have come 
forth from Being, know not "We have come forth from Being." 
Whatever they are in this world, whether tiger, or lion, or 

1 In an article entitled 'Sources of the filosofy of the Upanisads/y^OS*, 36 
(1916), pp, 197-204, Edgerton translates as follows (p. 200, n.*5): What that 
subtle essence is, a-state-of-having-that(-ffw5)-as-its-essence is this unherse 
that is the Real, that is the Soul, that art thou, Svetaketu.' * 

8 In deep sleep and in death. 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-6.12.1 

wolf, or boar, or worm, or fly, or gnat, or mosquito, that they 
become. 

3. That which is the finest essence this whole world has 
that as its soul. That is Reality. That is Atman (Soul). 
That art thou, Svetaketu/ 

1 Do you. Sir, cause me to understand even more.* 

f So be it, my dear/ said he. 

ELEVENTH KHANDA 

1. f Of this great tree, my dear, if some one should strike at 
the root, it would bleed, but still live. If some one should 
strike at its middle, it would bleed, but still live. If some one 
should strike at its top, it would bleed, but still live. Being 
pervaded by Atman (Soul), it continues to stand, eagerly 
drinking in moisture and rejoicing. 

2. If the life leaves one branch of it, then it dries up. It 
leaves a second , then that dries up. It leaves a third ; then 
that dries up. It leaves the whole ; the whole dries up. Even 
so, indeed, my dear, understand, 5 said he. 

3. * Verily, indeed, when life has left it, this body dies. The 
life does not die. 

That which is the finest essence this whole world has that 
as its soul. That is Reality. That is Atman (Soul). That 
art thou, Svetaketu. 1 

* Do you, Sir, cause me to understand even more/ 

* So be it, my dear/ said he. 

TWELFTH KHANDA 

I. c Bring hither a fig from there/ 
' Here it is, Sir/ 

* Divide it/ 

' It is divided, Sir/ 

' What do you see there ? ' 

* These rather (iva) fine seeds, Sir/ 
'Of these, please (tinga), divide one/ 
' It is divided, Sir/ 

* What do you see there ? J 
'Nothing at all, Sir/ 

247 



6. i z. 2-] CHAXDOGYA UPANISHAD 

2. Then he said to him: 'Verily, my dear, that finest 
essence which you do not perceive verily, my dear, from that 
finest essence this great Nyagrodha (sacred fig) tree thus 1 
arises. 

3. Believe me, my dear,' said he, (3) 'that which is the finest 
essence this \\holeworld has that as its soul. That is Reality. 
That is Atman (Soulj. That art thou, Svetaketu/ 

4 Do you, Sir 5 cause me to understand even more.' 
* So be it, my dear, 5 said he. 



THIRTEENTH KHAKDA 

1. e Place this salt in the water. In the morning come unto 
me. 5 

Then he did so. 

Then he said to him : * That salt you placed in the water 
last evening please, bring it hither.' 

Then he grasped for it, but did not find it, as it was com- 
pletely dissolved. 

2. ' Please, take a sip of it from this end/ said he. * How 
is it ? ' 

' Salt.' 

f Take a sip from the middle/ said he. ' How is it ? * 

' Salt/ 

' Take a sip from that end/ said he. c How is it ? ' 

1 Salt.' 

* Set it aside. 2 Then come unto me. 1 

He did so, saying, ' It is always the same/ 
Then he said to him : ' Verily, indeed, my dear, you do not 
perceive Being here. Verily, indeed, it is here. 

3. That \\hich is the finest essence this whole world has 
that as its soul. That is Reality. That is Atman (Soul). 
That art thou, Svetaketu.' 

' Do you, Sir, cause me to understand even more/ 

* So be it, my dear/ said he. 

1 Deictically. 

* Instead of abhi-pra-asya Bohtlmgk and Roth (BR. I. 543 s.v.) read abht-tra- 
a^ya, e add more unto it/ 

348 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-6.15.3 

FOURTEENTH KHANDA 

i. e Just as, my dear, one might lead away from the Gandharas 
a person with his eyes bandaged, and then abandon him in an 
uninhabited place ; as there he might be blown forth either to 
the east, to the north, or to the south, since he had been led 
off with his eyes bandaged and deserted with his eyes ban- 
daged ; [2] as, if one released his bandage and told him, "In 
that direction are the Gandharas ; go in that direction ! " he 
would, if he were a sensible man, by asking [his way] from 
village to village, and being informed, arrive home at the 
Gandharas even so here on earth one who has a teacher 
knows : " I belong here only so long as I shall not be released 
[from the body]. Then I shall arrive home." 

3. That which is the finest essence this whole world has 
that as its soul. That is Reality. That is Atman (Soul). 
That art thou, Svetaketu.' 

* Do you. Sir, cause me to understand even more/ 

' So be it, my dear,' said he. 



FIFTEENTH KHANDA 

I. ( Also, my dear, around a [deathly] sick person his kins- 
men gather, and ask, " Do you know me ? " " Do you know 
me ? " So long as his voice does not go into his mind, his 
mind into his breath, his breath into heat, the heat into the 
highest divinity so long he knows. 

3. Then when his voice goes into his mind, his mind into his 
breath, his breath into heat, the heat into the highest divinity l 
then, he knows not. 

3. That which is the finest essence this whole world has 
that as its soul. That is Reality. That is Atman (Soul). 
That art thou, Svetaketu.' 

( Do you, Sir, cause me to understand even more. 1 

4 So be it, my dear/ said he. 

1 This same statement of the order of the cessation of functions on the approach 
of death occurs in 6. 8 6. 

249 



6.T6.I-] CHAXDOGYA UPANISHAD 

SIXTEENTH KHAXDA 

I. ' And also, my dear, they lead up a man seized by the 
hand, and call : " He has stolen ! He has committed a theft ! 
Heat the ax for him ! " If he is the doer of the deed, there- 
upon he makes himself (dtmdnam) untrue. Speaking untruth, 
he covers himself with untruth. He seizes hold of the heated 
ax, and is burned. Then he is slain. 

1. But if he is not the doer of the deed, thereupon he makes 
himself true. Speaking truth, he covers himself with truth. 
He seizes hold of the heated ax, and is not burned. Then 
he is released. 

3. As in this case he would not be burned [because of the 
truth], so this whole world has that [truth] as its soul. That is 
Reality, That is Atman (Soul). That art thou, Svetaketu.' 

Then he understood it from him yea, he understood. 



SEVENTH PRAPATHAKA 
The instruction of Narada by Sanatkumara 

Progressive worship of Brahma up to the Universal Soul 
FIRST KHAKDA 

1. Om \ ' Teach me. Sir ! ' l with these words Narada carne 
to Sanatkumara. 

To him he then said : ' Come to me with what you know. 
Then I will tell you still further.' 

2, Then he said to him: 'Sir, I know the Rig- Veda, the 
Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Atharva-Veda as the fourth, 
Legend and Ancient Lore (itihdsa-purana) as the fifth, the 
Veda of the Vedas [i.e. Grammar], Rites for the Manes, 
Mathematics, Augury (daiva). Chronology, Logic, Polity, the 
Science of the Gods (deva-mdya]^^ Science of Sacred Know- 
ledge (prahworiidya)) Deinonology (bkuta-vidya), Military 
Science (ksatra-vidya)^ Astrology (naksatra-wdya)> the Science 

1 This sentence adhthi bkagauo lacks but the word brahma to be the same as 
the request which Bhrign Vanrai put to his father in a similar progressive definition 
in Tail. 3. I : adhihi bhag&uo brahma^ ' Sir, declare Brahma/ 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-7.2.1 

of Snake-charming, and the Fine Arts (sarpa-dcvajana-vidya)! 
This, Sir, I know. 

3. Such a one am I, Sir, knowing the sacred sayings (mantra- 
vid], but not knowing the Soul (Atman). It has been heard 
by me from those who are like you, Sir, that he who knows 
the Soul (Atman) crosses over sorrow. Such a sorrowing one 
am I, Sir. Do you. Sir, cause me, who am such a one, to cross 
over to the other side of sorrow.' 

To him he then said : < Verily, whatever you have here 
learned, verily, that is mere name (naman). 

4. Verily, a Name are the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the 
Sama-Veda, the Atharva-Veda as the fourth, Legend and 
Ancient Lore (itihasa-purana) as the fifth, the Veda of the 
Vedas [i.e. Giammar], Rites for the Manes, Mathematics, 
Augury (dcava) y Chronology, Logic, Polity, the Science of the 
Gods (deva-mdya), the Science of Sacred Knowledge (brakwa- 
vidya), Demonology (bhuia-mdya\ Military Science (ksatra- 
mdya), Astrology (naksatra-mdya), the Science of Snake- 
charming, and the Fine Arts (sarpa-devajana-mdya). This is 
mere Name. Reverence Name. 

5. He who reverences Name as Brahma as far as Name goes, 
so far he has unlimited freedom, he who reverences Name as 
Brahma/ 

' Is there, Sir, moie than Name? ' 

' There is, assuredly, more than Name.' 

' Do you, Sir, tell me it/ 

SECOND KHANDA 

i. ' Speech (vac\ assuredly, is more than Name. Speech, 
verily, makes known the Rig- Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama- 
Veda, the Atharva-Veda as the fourth, Legend and Ancient 
Lore as the fifth, the Veda of the Vedas [i.e. Grammar], Rites 
for the Manes, Mathematics, Augury, Chronology, Logic, 
Polity, the Science of the Gods, the Science of Sacred 
Knowledge, Dernonolpgy, Military Science, Astrology, the 
Science of Snake-charming, and the Fine Arts, as well as 
heaven and earth a wind and space, water and heat, gods and 

1 "With this list, which recurs here and in the seventh Khanda a compare the 
somewhat similar enumerations at Brih. a. 4. xo; 4. I. 2; 4. 5. n* 

251- 



72.I-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

men, beasts and birds, grass and trees, animals together with 
worms, flies, and ants, right and wrong, true and false, good and 
bad, pleasant and unpleasant. Verily, if there were no speech, 
neither right nor wrong would be known, neither true nor false, 
neither good nor bad, neither pleasant nor unpleasant. Speech, 
indeed, makes all this known. Reverence Speech. 

a. He who reverences Speech as Brahma as far as Speech 
goes, so far he has unlimited freedom, he who reverences 
Speech as Brahma. 5 

Is there, Sir, more than Speech? 3 

* There is, assuredly, more than Speech.' 
e Do you, Sir, tell me it. J 

THIRD KHANDA 

1. 'Mind (manas), assuredly, is more than Speech. Verily, 
as the closed hand compasses two acorns, or two kola-berries, or 
two dice-nuts, so Mind compasses both Speech and Name. When 
through Mind one has in mind "I wish to learn the sacred 
sayings (mantra)'' then he learns them ; " I wish to perform 
sacred works (karma)" then he performs them; S 'I would 
desire sons and cattle," then he desires them ; " I would desire 
this world and the yonder," then he desires them. Truly the 
self (atman) is Mind. Truly, the world (loka) Is Mind. Truly, 
Brahma is Mind. 

2. He who reverences Mind as Brahma as far as Mind 
goes, so far he has unlimited freedom, he who reverences Mind 
as Brahma.' 

' Is there, Sir, more than Mind ? ' 

* There is, assuredly, more than Mind.' 

* Do you, Sir, tell me it/ 

FOURTH KHANDA 

I, 'Conception (samkalpd), assuredly, is more than Mind. 
Verily, when one forms a Conception, then he has in Mind, then 
he utters Speech, and he utters it in Name. The sacred say- 
ings (mantra) are included in Name ; and sacred works in the 
sacred sayings. 

3. Verily, these have Conception as their union-point 3 have 

25% 



CHAXDOGYA UPANISHAD [-7.53 

Conception as their soul, are established on Conception. 
Heaven and earth were formed through Conception. Wind 
and space weie formed through Conception. Water and 
heat were formed through Conception. Through their having 
been formed, rain becomes formed. Through rain having been 
formed, food becomes formed. Through food having been 
formed, living creatures (prand) become formed. Through 
living creatures having been formed, sacred sayings (mantra] 
become formed. Through sacred sayings having been formed, 
sacred works (karma) become [performed. Through sacred 
works having been [performed, the world becomes formed. 
Through the world having been formed, everything becomes 
formed. Such is Conception. Reverence Conception. 
* 3. He who reverences Conception as Brahma he, verily, 
attains the Conception-worlds; himself being enduring, the 
enduring worlds ; himself established, the established worlds ; 
himself unwavering, the unwavering worlds. As far as Concep- 
tion goes, so far he has unlimited freedom, he who reverences 
Conception as Brahma.' 

e Is there, Sir, more than Conception ? ' 

* There is, assuredly, more than Conception/ 

* Do you. Sir, tell me it.' 

FIFTH KHANDA 

1. 'Thought (citta\ assuredly, is more than Conception. 
Verily, when one thinks, then he forms a conception, then he 
has in Mind, then he utters Speech, and he utters it in Name. 
The sacred sayings (mantra) are included in Name ; and 
sacred works in the sacred sayings. 

2. Verily, these things have Thought as their union-point, 
have Thought as their soul, are established on Thought 
Therefore, even if one who knows much is without Thought, 
people say of him ; " He is not anybody, whatever he knows ! 
Verily, if he did know, he would not be so without Thought ! " 
On the other hand, if one who knows little possesses Thought, 
people are desirous of listening to him. Truly, indeed, Thought 
is the union-point, Thought is the soul (atman), Thought is the 
support of these things. Reverence Thought. 

3. He who reverences Thought as Brahma he, verily, 

253 



7.5.3-] CHAXDOGYA UPANISHAD 

attains the Thought-worlds ; himself being enduring, the 
enduring worlds ; himself being established, the established 
worlds ; himself being unwavering, the unwavering worlds. 
As far as Thought goes, so far he has unlimited freedom, he 
who reverences Thought as Brahma.' 

* Is there. Sir, more than Thought ? ' 

4 There is, assuredly, more than Thought.' 

* Do you, Sir s tell me it.' 

SIXTH KHAKDA 

1. 'Meditation (dhyana), assuredly, is more than Thought. 
The earth meditates, as it were (iva). The atmosphere medi- 
tates, as it were. The heaven meditates,, as it were. Water 
meditates, as it were. Mountains meditate, as it were. Gods 
and men meditate, as it were. Therefore whoever among men 
here attain greatness they have, as it were, a part of the 
reward of meditation. Now, those who are small are quarrelers, 
tale-bearers, slanderers. But those who are superior they 
have, as it were, a part of the reward of Meditation. Reverence 
Meditation. 

2. He who reverences Meditation as Brahma as far as 
Meditation goes, so far he has unlimited freedom, he who 
reverences Meditation as Brahma,' 

4 Is there, Sir, more than Meditation ? ' 
'There is, assuredly, more than Meditation.' 
' Do you, Sir, tell me it.' 

SEVENTH KHANDA 

i. * Understanding (injnana], assuredly, is more than 
Meditation. Verily, by Understanding one understands the 
Rig- Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Atharva-Veda 
as the fourth, Legend and Ancient 1,orz(itikasa-purana) as the 
fifth, the Veda of the Vedas [i. e. Grammar], Rites for the 
Manes, Mathematics, Augury (daiva], Chronology, Logic, 
Polity, the Science of the Gods (deva-vidyS), the Science of 
Sacred Knowledge (brahtna-vidyd), Demonology (lhuta-vidya\ 
Military Science (ksatra-vidya), Astrology (naksatra-mdya\ the 
Science of Snake-charming, and the Fine Arts (sar$a-devttjana- 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-7.9.1 

vidya), as well as heaven and earth, wind and space, water and 
heat, gods and men, beasts and birds, grass and trees, animals 
together with worms, flies, and ants, right and wrong, true and 
false, good and bad, pleasant and unpleasant, food and drink, 
this world and the yonder all this one understands just with 
Understanding. Reverence Understanding. 

3. He who reverences Understanding as Brahma he, verily, 
attains the worlds of Understanding (vifndna) and of Knowledge 
(jndna). As far as Understanding goes, so far he has un- 
limited freedom, he who reverences Understanding as Brahma/ 

' Is there, Sir, more than Understanding?' 

* There is, assuredly, more than Understanding.' 

* Do you, Sir, tell me it.' 

EIGHTH KHANDA 

1. 'Strength (bala), assuredly, is more than Understanding. 
Indeed, one man of Strength causes a hundred men of Under- 
standing to tremble. When one is becoming strong, he 
becomes a rising man. Rising, he becomes an attendant. 
Attending, he becomes attached as a pupil. Attached as a 
pupil, he becomes a seer, he becomes a hearer, he becomes 
a thinker, he becomes a perceiver, he becomes a doer, he 
becomes an understander. By Strength, verily, the earth 
stands ; by Strength, the atmosphere ; by Strength, the sky ; 
by Strength, the mountains ; by Strength, gods and men ; by 
Strength, beasts and birds, grass and trees, animals together 
with worms, flies, and ants. By Strength the world stands. 
Reverence Strength, 

2. He who reverences Strength as Brahma as far as 
Strength goes, so far he has unlimited freedom, he who 
reverences Strength as Brahma/ 

f Is there, Sir, more than Strength ? ' 

c There is, assuredly, more than Strength/ 

' Do you, Sir, tell me it/ 

NINTH KHANBA 

i. c Food'(<z7z#), assuredly, is more than Strength. There- 
fore, if one should not eat for ten days, 1 even though he might 

1 Literally 'nights. 1 



7.9.I-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

live, yet verily he becomes a non-seer, a non-hearer, a non- 
thinker, a non-perceiver, a non-doer, a non-understander. But 
on the entrance of food he becomes a seer, he becomes a 
hearer, he becomes a thinker, he becomes a perceiver, he 
becomes a doer, he becomes an undeistander. Reverence 
Food. 

2. He who reverences Food as Brahma he, verily, attains 
the worlds of Food and Drink. As far as Food goes, so far 
he has unlimited freedom, he who reverences Food as Brahma/ 

' Is there, Sir, more than Food? ' 

' There is, assuredly, more than Food.' 

' Do you, Sir, tell me it.' 

TENTH KHANDA 

1. 'Water of as), verily, is more than Food. Therefore, 
when there is not a good rain. living creatures (prand) sicken 
with the thought, " Food will become scarce/ 5 But when 
there is a good rain, living creatures become happy with the 
thought, " Food will become abundant/' It is just Water 
solidified that is this earth, that is the atmosphere, that is the 
sky, that is gods and men, beasts and birds, grass and trees, 
animals together with worms, Hies, and ants ; all these are just 
Water solidified. Reverence Water. 

2. He who reverences Water (apas) as Brahma obtains 
\apnoti) all his desires and becomes satisfied. As far as Water 
goes, so far he has unlimited freedom, he who reverences 
Water as Brahma/ 

c Is there, Sir, more than Water ? ' 

* There is, assuredly, more than Water/ 

c Do you, Sir s tell me it/ 

ELEVENTH KHANDA 

i. ' Heat (tejas), verily, is more than Water. That, verily, 
seizes hold of the wind, and heats the ether (akasa). Then 
people say : " It is hot ! It is burning hot ! Surely it will 
rain!" Heat indeed first indicates this, and then lets out 
water. So, with lightnings darting up and across the sky, 
thunders roll. Therefore people say: "It lightens! It 

356 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-J-M^ 

thunders ! Surely it will rain ' " Heat indeed first indicates 
this, and then lets out water. Reverence Heat. 

2. He who reverences Heat as Brahma he, verily, being 
glowing, attains glowing, shining worlds freed from darkness. 
As far as Heat goes, so far he has unlimited Freedom, he 
who reverences Heat as Brahma.' 

c Is there, Sir, more than Heat > ' 

'There is, assuredly, more than Heat.' 

f Do you, Sir, tell me it.' 

TWELFTH KII\NI>A 

1. ' Space (dkdsa)^ assuredly, is more than Hedt. In Space, 
\erily, are both sun and moon, lightning, stars and fire 
Through Space one calls out ; through Space one hears , 
through Space one answers. In Space one enjoys himself, 
in Space one does not enjoy himself. In Space one is born ; 
unto Space one is born. Reverence Space* 

2. He who reverences Space as Brahma he, verily, attains 
spacious, gleaming, unconfined, wide-extending worlds. As 
far as Space goes, so far he has unlimited ftecdotn, he \\ho 
reverences Space as Brahma.' 

' Is there, Sir, more than Space > ' 

There is, assuredly, more than Space ' 

* Do you, Sir, tell me it' 

THIRTEENTH K HAND A 

j. 'Memory (smara), verily, is more than Space There- 
fore, even if many not possessing Memory should be assembled, 
indeed they would not hear any one at all. they would not 
think, they would not understand. But assuredly, if they 
should remember, then they would hear, then they would think, 
then they would understand. Through Memory, assuredly, 
one discerns his children; through Memory, his cattle, 
Reverence Memory. 

3. He who reverences Memory as Brahma as far as 
Memory goes, so far he has unlimited freedom, he who 
reverences Memory as Brahma.' 

1 Is there, Sir, more than Memory ? J 



7 i3-H CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

5 Theie is, assuredly, more than Memory.' 
4 Do you, Sir, tell me it. 1 

FOURTEENTH KHANDA 

1. 'Hope idsd)> assuredly, is more than Memory. When 
kindled by Hope, verily. Memory learns the sacred sayings 
t//^//^;'^ , [kindled by Hope] one performs sacred works 
(karma)) longs for sons and cattle for this world and the 
yonder. Reverence Hope. 

2. He who reverences Hope as Brahma through Hope all 
his desires prosper, his wishes are not unavailing. As far as 
Hope goes, so far he has unlimited freedom, he who reverences 
Hope as Brahma. 1 

' Is there, Sir, more than Hope ' 

' There is, assuredly, more than Hope.' 

k Do you. Sir, tell me it. 1 

FIFTEENTH K HAND A 

1. 'Life \prana, breath), verily, is more than Hope. 
Just as, verily, the spokes are fastened in the hub, so on this 
vital breath everything is fastened. Life (prdna} goes on with 
vital breath (prdna). Vital breath (prdna) gives life (prdna) , 
it gives [life] to a living creature (prdna). One's father is 
vital breath; one's mother, vital breath; one's brother, vital 
breath ; one's sister, vital breath ; one's teacher (dcdryd), vital 
breath ; a Brahman is vital breath. 

2. If one answers harshly, as it were (iva) 9 a father or mother, 
or brother, or sister, or teacher, or a Brahman, people say to him 
11 Shame on you ! Verily, you are a slayer of your father ! 
Verily, you are a slayer of your mother ! Verily, you are a 
slayer of your brother ! Verily, you are a slayer of your sister ' 
Verily, you are a slayer of your teacher ! Verily, you are a 
blayer of a Brahman ! " 

3. But if, when the vital breath has departed from them, 
one should even shove them with a poker and burn up every 
bit of them, 1 people would not say to him: "You are a 
slayer of your father," nor " You are a slayer of your mother/ 1 

1 In the cremation-pile. 

258 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-7.19.1 

nor '-You are a. slayer of youi brother, 33 nor " You are a slayer 
of your sister," nor C You are a slayer of your teacher," nor 
" You are a slayer of a Brahman/ 3 

4- For indeed, vital breath (prdna) is all these things. 
Verily, he who sees this, thinks this, understands this, becomes 
a supeiior speaker. Even if people should say to him Vfc You 
are a superior speaker," he should say cc I am a superior 
speaker." He should not deny it. 

SIXTEENTH KHANDA 

i . But he, verily, speaks superiorly who speaks superiorly 
with Truth (satya).' 

' Then I, Sir would speak superiorly with Truth.' 
* But one must desire to understand the Truth/ 
1 Sir, I desire to understand the Truth/ 



SEVENTEENTH KHANDA 

i. 'Verily, when one understands, then he speaks the Tiuth. 
One who does not understand, does not speak the Truth. 
Only he who understands speaks the Truth. But one must 
desire to understand Understanding (vtjnaiia)' 

1 Sir, I desire to understand Understanding-/ 

o 

EIGHTEENTH KHANDA 

i. "Verily, when one thinks, then he understands. Without 
thinking one does not understand. Only after having thought 
does one understand. But one must desire to understand 
Thought (mat^): 

1 Sir, I desire to understand Thought/ 

NINETEENTH KHANDA 

i. f Verily, when one has Faith, then he thinks. One who 
has not Faith does not think. Only he who has Faith thinks. 
But one must desire to understand Faith (sraddha)* 

f Sir, I desire to understand Faith/ 

259 S2 



7.30.I-] CHAXDOGYA UPANISHAD 

TWENTIETH KHAXDV 

i. c Verily, when one grows forth, then he has Faith. One 
who does not grow forth does not have faith. Only he who 
grows forth (ni&+ J stha] has faith. But one must desire to 
understand the Growing Forth (nih~sthd). 3 

1 Sir, I desire to understand the Growing Forth.' 

T\VEXTY-HRST KilAXDA 

i. e Verily, \vhen one is active, then he grows forth. Without 
being active one does not grow forth Only by activity does 
one grow forth. But one must desire to understand Activity 
(krti)! 

( Sir, I desire to understand Activity.' 

T\\hXTY-SECOXD KH UXDA 

i. 'Veiily, when one gets Pleasure for himself, then he is 
active. Without getting Pleasuie one is not active. Only by 
getting Pleasure is one active. But one must desire to under- 
stand Pleasure (snkha)? 

' Sir, I desire to understand Pleasure ; 

TWENTY-THIRD KHANDA 

I, c Verily, a Plenum is the same as Pleasure. There is no 
Pleasure in the small Only a Plenum is Pleasure. But one 
must desire to understand the Plenum (bhuman}" 

' Sir. I desire to understand the Plenum.' 

T\\LXTY-FOURTH KHAXDA 

i. * Where one sees nothing else, hears nothing else, under- 
stands nothing else that is a Plenum. But where one sees 
something elsethat is the small. Verily, the Plenum is the 
same as the immortal ; but the small is the same as the mortal/ 
* That Plenum, Sir on what is it established ? ' 
C 0n its own greatness unless, indeed, not on greatness at 
all. 

Here on earth people call cows and horses, elephants and 
gold, slaves and wives, fields and abodes ''greatness." I do 

260 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-7.26.1 

not speak thus; I do not speak thus/ said he; ' for [in that 
case] one thing is established upon another. 

T\\ ENTY-FIFTH KHANDA 

1. That [Plenum], indeed, is below. It is above. It is to the 
west. It is to the east. It is to the south. It is to the north. 
It, indeed, is this whole world. 

Now next the instruction with regard to the Ego (ahamkara- 
desa). 

' 1, indeed, am below. I am above I am to the west. I am 
to the east. I am to the south. I am to the north. I, indeed, 
am this whole world.' 

2. Now next the instruction with regaid to the soul (dtrnd- 
dcsa). 

6 The Soul (Atman), indeed, is below. The Soul is above 
The Soul is to the west. The Soul is to the east. The Soul 
is to the south. The Soul is to the noith. The Soul, indeed, 
is this whole world. 

Verily, he who sees this, who thinks this, who understands 
this, who has pleasure in the Soul, who has delight in the Soul, 
who has intercourse with the Soul, \\ho has bliss in the Soul- 
he is autonomous (sva-raj) ; he has unlimited freedom in all 
worlds. But they who know otherwise than this, are hetero- 
nomous (anya-rajaii) ; they have perishable worlds ; in all 
worlds they have no freedom. 

TWENTY-SIXTH KHANDA 

i. Verily, for him who sees this, who thinks this, who 
understands this, Vital Breath (p-ana) arises from the Soul 
(Atman) ; Hope, from the Soul ; Memory, from the Soul ; 
Space (akaia), from the Soul , Heat, from the Soul ; Water, 
from the Soul ; appearance and disappearance, from the Soul ; 
Food, from the Soul ; Strength, from the Soul ; Understanding, 
from the Soul ; Meditation, from the Soul ; Thought, from the 
Soul; Conception, from the Soul; Mind, from the Soul; 
Speech, from the Soul ; Name, from the Soul ; sacred sayings 
(mantra}^ from the Soul ; sacred works (karma), from the 
Soul ; indeed this whole world, from the Soul.' 

361 



7.26.2-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

2. As to this there is the following verse : 

The seer sees not death, 
Nor sickness, nor any distress. 
The seer sees only the All, 
Obtains the All entirely. 

That [Soul] is onefold, is threefold, fivefold, sevenfold, and also 
ninefold ; 

Again, declared elevenfold, 
And hundred-and-eleven-fold, 
And also twenty-thousand-fold. 1 

In pure nourishment (ahara-suddhi) there is a pure nature 
(sattva-htddki). In a pure nature the traditional doctrines 
(smrfi) become firmly fixed. In acquiring the traditional 
doctrines there is release from all knots [of the heart]. To such 
a one 2 who has his stains wiped away the blessed Sanat- 
kumara shows the further shore of darkness. People call him 
Skanda 3 yea. they call him Skanda. 



EIGHTH PRAPATHAKA 
Concerning the nature of the soul 

FIRST KHANDA 
The universal real Soul, within the heart and in the world 

j. Om\ [The teacher should say:] 'Now, what is here in 
this city of Brahma, 4 is an abode, a small lotus-flower. 6 
Within that is a small space. What is within that, should be 
searched out ; that, assuredly, is what one should desire to 
understand/ 

2. If they [i.e. the pupils] should say to him : c This abode, 

1 For this same idea of the indefinite self-indmduation of ultimate reality see 
Maitri 5. 2. 

2 As, for example, Xarada, the instruction of whom by Sanatkumara forms this 
entire Seventh Prapathaka up to this point. 

8 Meaning, etymo logically, 'the Leaper[-over] .' Perhaps the idea of this 
apparently later addition is, that the teacher of this Upanishadic doctnne, which 
< overcomes * darkness, is compared to indeed, is identified with Skanda, god of 
war in later Hinduism, the leader of hosts. 

* Explained by Sankara as * the body.* 

5 Explained by 3ankara as * the heart.' 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-8.1.6 

the small lotus-flower that is here in this city of Brahma, and 
the small space within that what is there there which should 
be searched out, which assuredly one should desite to under- 
.stand ? 5 [3] he should say : ' As far, verily, as this world-space 
(ayam akasa) extends, so far extends the space within the 
heart. Within it, indeed, are contained both heaven and earth, 
both fire and wind, both sun and moon, lightning and the stars, 
both what one possesses here and what one does not po&se^ ; 
everything here is contained within it. 3 

4. If they should say to him : ' If within this city of Brahma 
is contained everything here, all beings as well as all desires, 
when old age overtakes it or it perishes, what is left over thei e- 
from ? ' [5] he should say : e That does not grow old with one 3 * 
old age ; it is not slain \\ith one's murder. That 1 is the real 
city of Brahma. In it desires are contained. That is the Soul 
(Atman), free from evil, ageless, deathless, sorrowless, hunger- 
less, thirstless, whose desire is the Real, whose conception is the 
Real. 

For, just as here on eaith human beings follow along m 
subjection to command ; of whatever object they are desirous, 
whether a realm or a part of a field, upon that they live 
dependent 2 

6. As here on eaith the world which is won by work (karma- 
fita lokd) becomes destroyed, even so there the world which is 
won by merit (pnnya-jita loka] becomes destroyed. 

Those who go hence without here having found the Soul 
(Atman) and those real desires (satya kdma} for them in all 
the worlds there is no freedom. But those who go hence 
having found here the Soul and those real desires for them in 
all worlds there is freedom. 

1 And not the body. 

2 The apodosis of this comparison seems to be lacking However, the general 
idea is doubtless the same as in the following prophecies: i.e. they who in this 
life are slaves to the dictates of desire like the slaves of a ruler, will continue 
unchanged in the hereafter. Whitney, in his review of 4 Bohtlmgk's Upanishach ' 
m the American Journal of Philology, vol. ii } p 429, interprets the protasis 
somewhat differently : * " For just as here subjects (of a king who leads them into 
a new territory) settle down according to order, [and] whatever direction their 
desires take them to, what region, what piece of ground, that same they severally 
live upon " so, we are to understand, is it also in the other world ; one's desires 
determine his condition there/ 

263 



8.2i-] CIIAXDOGYA UPANISHAD 

SECOND KHANDA 

1. If he becomes desirous of the world of fathers, meiely 
out of his conception (samkalpa) fathers arise. Possessed of 
that \\orld of fatheis, he is happy. 

2. So, if he becomeb desirous of the world of mothers, meiely 
out of his conception motheis arise. Possessed of that world 
of mothers, he is happy. 

3. So, if he becomes desirous of the world of bi others, merely 
out of his conception brothers arise. Possessed of that world 
of brothers, he is happy. 

4. So, if he becomes deshous of the world of sisteis, merely 
out of his conception sisters arise. Possessed of that world of 
sisteis, he is happy. 

5. So, if he becomes desirous of the world of friends, merely 
out of his conception friends arise. Possessed of that world of 
friends, he is happy. 

6. So, if he becomes desirous of the world of perfume and 
garlands, merely out of his conception perfume and garlands 
arise. Possessed of that world of perfume and garlands, he is 
happy. 

7. So, if he becomes desirous of the world of food and drink, 
merely out of his conception food and drink arise. Possessed 
of that world of food and drink, he is happy. 

8. So, if he becomes desirous of the world of song and music, 
merely out of his conception song and music arise. Possessed 
of that world of bong and music, he is happy. 

9. So, if he becomes desirous of the world of women, merely 
out of his conception women arise. Possessed of that world of 
\\omen, he is happy. 

10. Of whatever object he becomes desirous, whatever desire 
he desires, merely out of his conception it arises. Possessed of 
it, he is happy. 

THIRD KHANDA 

i . These same are real desires (satya kama) with a covering 
of what is false. Although they are real, there is a covering 
that is false. 

For truly, whoever of one's [fellows] departs hence, one does 
not get him [back] to look at here. 

264 



CHAXDOGYA UPANISHAD |_-' s -4- 2 

2. But those of one's [fellous] who are alive there, and those 
who have departed, and whatever else one desires but does 
not get all this one finds by going in there [i.e. in the Soul] ; 
for there, truly, are those real desires of his which have a cover- 
ing of what is false. 

So, just as those who do not know the spot might go over 
a hid treasuie of gold again and again, but not find it, even 
so all creatures here go day by day to that Brahma-world 
(bra/ima-loka) [in deep sleep], but do not find it ; for truly 
they are carried astiay by what is false. 

3 Verily, this Soul (Atman) is in the heait. The etymolo- 
gical explanation (nirnkta) thereof is this . This one is in the 
heart (hrdy ay am) ; theiefore it is the heait (hrdayam}. Day 
by day, verily, he who knows this goes to the heavenly world 
(svarga I ok a). 

4. Now, that serene one l who, rising up out of this body, 
i caches the highest light and appears with his own formhe 
is the Soul (Atman)/ said he [i.e. the teacher]. c That is the 
immortal, the fearless. That is Brahma.' 

Verily, the name of that Brahma is the Real (satyam). 

5 Verily, these are the three syllables, sat-ti-yam? The 
sat (Being) -that is the immortal. The ti that is the mortal.-" 
Now the yam with that one holds the two together. Because 
with it one holds (Vyam) the two together, therefore it is yam. 
Day by day, verily,, he who knows this goes to the heavenly 
world. 

FOURTH K HAND A 

1. Now, the Soul (Atman) is the bridge [or, dam], the 
separation for keeping these worlds apait. Over that bridge 
[or, darn] there cross neither day, nor night, nor old age, nor 
death, nor sorrow, nor well-doing, nor evil-doing. 

2. All evils turn back therefrom, for that Brahma-world is 
freed from evil. (2) Therefore, verily, upon crossing that 
bridge, if one is blind, he becomes no longer blind ; if he is 
sick, he becomes no longer sick. Therefore, verily, upon 

1 That is, the soul in deep sleep. 

2 Another analytic explanation of the word satyam occurs at Brih. 5. 5. I. 

3 Perhaps on the ground that the sound ti is contained in the word martya, 
meaning ' mortal ' 

265 



K.4.3-1 CHAXDOGYA UPANTSHAD 

ciossing that bridge, the night appears even as the day, for 
that Brahma-world is ever illumined. 

3. But only they who find that Brahma-world through the 
chaste life of a student of sacred knowledge (brahmacarya) 
only they possess that Brahma-world. In all worlds they 
possess unlimited freedom. 

FIFTH K HAND A 

The true way to the Brahma- world, through a life of 
abstinent religious study 

1. Now, what people call saciifice ' (yajna\ is really the 
chaste life of a student of sacred knowledge (brahmacarya], for 
only through the chaste life of a student of sacred knowledge 
does he who is a knower (yajnatr) find that [world]. 

Now, what people call l what has been sacrificed 5 (is tarn) is 
really the chaste life of a student of sacred knowledge, for only 
after having searched (istva) with the chaste life of a student of 
sacred knowledge does one find the Soul (Atman^. 

2. Now, what people call * the protracted sacrifice ' (sattra- 
yana) is really the chaste life of a student of sacred knowledge, 
for only through the chaste life of a student of sacred know- 
ledge does one find the protection (trdna) of the real (sat) Soul 
(Attnan). 

Now, what people call ' silent asceticism ' (mauna) is really 
the chaste life of a student of sacred knowledge, for only in 
finding the Soul through the chaste life of a student of sacied 
knowledge does one [really] think (manute). 

3- Now, what people call 'a course of fasting 3 (an-asakayana 1 ) 
is really the chaste life of a student of sacred knowledge, for 
the Soul ^Atman) which one finds through the chaste life of 
a student of sacred knowledge perishes not (na nasyati). 

Now, what people call ' betaking oneself to hermit life in the 
forest 1 (aranyayana) is really the chaste life of a student of 
sacred knowledge. Verily, the two seas in the Brahma-world, 
in the third heaven from here, are Ara and Nya. There is 
the lake Airammadlya ('Affording Refreshment and Ecstasy'); 

1 According to another possible division of the compound word which Sankaia 
seems to have adopted, <x-nai<&a~ayana, it would mean * entrance into the 
unpenshing.' 

266 



CIIAXDOGYA UPANISHAD | -8.6.6 

thcie, the fig-tree bomasd\ana (' the Soma->ieldmg ') ; there, 
Brahma's citadel, Aparajita ( c the Unconquered '), the golden 
hall of the Lord (prab/ut). 

4 But only they who find those two seas, Ara and Nya, in 
the Brahma-world through the chaste life of a student of sacred 
knowledge only they possess that Brahma-world. In all the 
worlds they possess unlimited freedom. 

SIXTH KHANDA 
Passing out from the heart through the sun to immortality 

L. Now, as for these arteries of the heart they arise from 
the finest essence, which is reddish brown, white, blue, yellow, 
and red : so it is said. Verily, yonder sun is reddish brown , 
it is white ; it is blue , it is yellow ; it is red. 

2. Now, as a great extending highway goes to two villages, 
this one and the yonder, even so these lays of the sun go to 
two worlds, this one and the yonder. They extend from 
yonder sun, and creep into these arteries. They extend from 
these arteries, and creep into yonder sun. 

3. Now, when one is thus sound asleep, composed, serene, 
he knows no dream , then he has crept into these arteries ; so 
no evil touches him, for then he has reached the Bright Power 
(tejas). 

4 Now, when one thus becomes reduced to weakness, those 
sitting around say ' Do you know me ? ' * Do you know 
me > ' As long as he has not depaited from this body, he 
knows them. 

5. But when he thus departs from this body, then he ascends 
upward with these very rays of the sun. With the thought of 
Oin^ verily, he passes up. As quickly as one could direct his 
mind to it, he comes to the sun. That, verily, indeed, is the 
world-door, an entrance for knowers, a stopping foi non- 
knowers. 

6. As to this there is the following verse . 
There are a hundred and one aiteries of the heait* 
One of these passes up to the ciown of the head. 
Going up by it, one goes to immortality. 

The others are for departing in various diiections. 1 
1 Thib stanza recnrs at Katha 6. 16. 
267 



8-71-1 CHANDOGVA UPANISHAD 

StAENTH KHAXDA 

The progressive instruction of Indra by Prajapati 
concerning the real self 

1. ' The Self (Atman), which is free from evil, ageless, death- 
less, sorro\vless, hungerless, thirstless., whose desire is the Real, 
whose conception is the Real He should be searched out, 
Him one should desire to understand. He obtains all worlds 
and all desires who has found out and who understands that 
Self/ Thus spake Prajapati. 

2. Then both the gods and the devils (deva-asurd) heard it. 
Then they said l Come ' Let us search out that Self, the 
Self by searching out whom one obtains all worlds and all 
desires 1 ' 

Then Indra fiom among the godb went forth unto him, and 
Virocana from among the devils. Then, without communicating 
with each other, the two came into the presence of Prajapati, 
fuel in hand. 1 

3. Then for thirty-two years the two lived the chaste life of 
a student of sacred knowledge (brahmacarya) 

Then Prajapati said to the two : { Desiring what have you 
been living ? ' 

Then the two said : * ' The Self (Atrnan), which is free from 
evil, ageless, deathless, sorrowless, hungerless, thirstless, whose 
desire is the Real, whose conception is the Real He should 
be searched out, Him one should desire to understand. He 
obtains all worlds and all desires who has found out and who 
understands that Self." Such do people declare to be your 
words, Sir. We have been living desiring Him.' 

4. Then Prajapati said to the two . l That Person who is seen 
in the eye He is the Self (Atman) of whom I spoke. 2 That 
is the immortal, the fearless. That is Brahma.' 

' But this one, Sir, who is observed in water and in a mirror 
which one is he ? ' 
1 The same one, indeed, is observed In all these,' said he. 

1 In token of discipleship. 

2 Or the text might be tianslated { '* That Peison who is seen in the eye He 

is the Self," said he. f That is the immortal, the fearless. That is Brahma." ' 
Such quite certainly is the translation of the very same words which have already 
occurred in 4 15 i. 

268 



CIlAXDOGYA UPANISHAD | 8.85 

KrOHTIf KlIANDA 

1. c Look at yourself in a pan of \vater. Anything that you 
do not understand of the Self, tell me.' 

Then the two looked in a pan of watci. 
Then Prajapati said to the two : ' What do you .^ec 3 ' 
Then the two said. l We see eveiything heie, Sir, a Self 
corresponding exactly, even to the hair and finger-nails J ' 

2. Then Prajapati said to the two 4 Make yourselves \vell- 
ornamented, well-dressed, adorned, and look in a pan of \\ater. 3 

Then the two made themselves well-ornamented, well-dressed, 
adorned, and looked in a pan of water. 

Then Prajapati said to the two : ' What do you see ' 

3. Then the two said 'Just as we oursehes are here, Sir, 
well-ornamented, well-dressed, adoined so there, Sn, \\eli- 
ornamented, well-dressed, adoined ' 

c That is the Self,' said he. That is the immortal, the fear- 
less. That is Brahma.' 

Then with tranquil heait (santa-hrdaya) the two went forth 

4. Then Prajapati glanced after them, and said : < They go 
without having comprehended, without having found the Self 
(Atman) Whosoever shall have such a mystic doctrine 
(upanisad), be they gods or be they devils, they shall peiibh.' 

Then with tranquil heart Virocana came to the devils. To 
them he then declared this mystic doctrine (upamsad) : One- 
self (atman} 1 is to be made happy here on earth. Oneself 
is to be waited upon. He who makes his own self (atman\ 
happy here on earth, who waits upon himself he obtains both 
worlds, both this woild and the yonder. 7 

5. Therefore even now here on earth they .say of one who is 
not a giver, who is not a believer (a-sraddadhdna\^ who is not 
a sacrifice^ * Oh ! devilish (astir a) f ' for such is the doctrine 
(upamsad) of the devils. They adorn the body (sarira] of 
one deceased with what they have begged, with dress, \\ith 
ornament, as they call it, for they think that thereby they will 
win yonder world. 

1 Besides meaning ' oneself,' as it evidently does both in this paragraph and in 
the beginning of the following paragraph, the word Stman may also have the 
connotation 4 one's body/ which seems to be the meaning in the latter half of the 
following paragraph. 

269 



8.9-I-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 



NINTH KIIANDA 

i. But then Indra, even before reaching the gods, saw this 
danger . Just as, indeed, that one [i.e. the bodily self] is well- 
ornamented when this body (sartra) is well-omamented well- 
dressed when this is well-dressed, adorned when this is adorned, 
even so that one is blind when this is blind, lame when this is 
lame, maimed when this is maimed. It perishes immediately 
upon the perishing of this body. I see nothing enjoyable in 
this.' 

a. Fuel in hand, back again he came Then Prajfipati said 
to him ' Desiring what O Maghavan (' Munificent One'), have 
you come back again, since you along with Virocana went forth 
with tranquil heart ? ' 

Then he said : ' Just as, indeed, that one [i.e. the bodily self] 
is well-ornamented when this body is well-ornamented, well- 
dressed when this is well-dressed, adorned when this is adorned, 
even so it is blind when this is blind, lame when this is lame, 
maimed when this is maimed. It perishes immediately upon 
the perishing of this body. I see nothing enjoyable in this.' 

3. c He is even so, O Maghavan, 1 said he. However, I will 
explain this further to you. Live with me thirty-two years 
more.' 

Then he lived with him thirty-two years more. 

To him [i.e. to Indra] he [i.e. Prajapati] then said 

TENTH KHANDA 

_i. * He who moves about happy in a dream he is the Self 
(Atman)/ said he. ' That is the immortal, the fearless. That 
is Brahma.* 

Then with tranquil heart he [i.e. Indra] went forth. 

Then, even before reaching the gods, he saw this danger : 
' Now, even if this body is blind, that one [i.e. the Self, Atman] 
is not blind. If this is lame, he is not lame. Indeed, he does 
not suffer defect through defect of this. [2] He is not slain 
with one's murder. He is not lame with one's lameness. 
Nevertheless, as It were (iva\ they kill him j as it were, they 

270 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-8.11.* 

unclothe 1 him; as it were, he comes to expeiience what Ls 
unpleasant ; as it were, he even weeps I see nothing enjoy- 
able in this/ 

3. Fuel in hand, back again he came. Then Prajapati said 
to him: < Desiring what, Maghavan, have you come back- 
again, since you went forth with tranquil heart?' 

Then he said : ' Now, Sir, even if this body is blind, that one 
[i.e. the Self] is not blind. If this is lame, he is not lame. 
Indeed, he does not suffer defect through defect of this. [4] He 
is not slain with one's murder. He is not lame \\ith one's 
lameness. Nevertheless, as it were, they kill him , as it \\eie, 
they unclothe 1 him; as it were, he comes to expeiience nhat 
is unpleasant; as it were, he even weeps. I sec nothing- 
enjoyable in this.' 

'He is even so, O Maghavan/ said he. 'However, I \\ill 
explain this further to you. Live with me thirty-two years 
more/ 

Then he lived with him thirty-two years more. 

To him [i. e. to Indra] he [i. e. Prajapati] then said 



ELEVENTH KHANDA 

i. ' Now, when one is sound asleep, composed, serene, and 
knows no dieam that is the Self (Atman),' said he. ; That is 
the immortal, the fearless. That is Brahma ' 

Then with tranquil heart he went forth. 

Then, even before reaching the gods, he saw this danger : 

* Assuredly, indeed, this one does not exactly know himself 
(dtmanam) with the thought " I am he," nor indeed the things 
here. He becomes one who has gone to destruction. I see 
nothing enjoyable in this/ 

a. Fuel in hand, back again he came. Then Prajapati said 
to him : * Desiring what, O Maghavan, have you come back 
again, since you went forth with tranquil heart ^ * 

Then he [i. e. Indra] said : ' Assuredly, this [self] does not 
exactly know himself with the thought " I am he," nor indeed 

1 Reading Tncchadayanti with all the texts, from +/chad. However, the Com. 
explains as 'they chase.* The parallel passage in Brih 4 3. 20 has vuchayayatt 

* tear to pieces/ from */cka. 

271 



8. EI 2-] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

the things here. He becomes one who has gone to destruc- 
tion. I see nothing enjoyable in this.' 

3. * He is even so, Maghavan,' said he. < However, I will 
explain this further to you, and there is nothing else besides 
this. Live with me five years more.' 

Then he lived with him five years more. That makes one 
hundred and one years. Thus it is that people say, ' Verily, 
for one hundred and one years Maghavan lived the chaste life 
of a student of sacred knowledge (brahmacarya) with Pra- 
japati.' 

To him [i e. to Indra] he [i.e. Prajapati] then saicl 

T\\'ELtTH KHANDA 

1. ' O Maghavan, verily, this body (sarira) is mortal. It has 
been appropriated by Death (Mrityu). [But] it is the standing- 
ground of that deathless, bodiless Self (Atman). Verily, he 
who is incorporate has been appropriated by pleasure and pain. 
Verily, there is no freedom from pleasure and pain for one while 
he is incorporate. Verily, while one is bodiless, pleasure and 
pain do not touch him. 

2. The wind is bodiless. Clouds, lightning, thunder these 
are bodiless. Now as these, when they arise from yonder space 
and reach the highest light, appear each with its own form, 
[3] even so that serene one (samprasada), when he rises up 
from this body (sarira) and reaches the highest light, appears 
with his own fo* m. Such a one is the supreme person (uttama 
purusa). There such a one goes around laughing, sporting, 
having enjoyment with women or chariots or friends, not 
remembeiing the appendage of this body. As a draft-animal 
i& yoked in a wagon, even so this spirit (prana] is yoked in this 
body. 

4. Now, when the eye is directed thus toward space, that is 
the seeing person (caksusa pitrusa ) ; the eye is [the instrument] 
for seeing. Now, he who knows " Let me smell this" that is 
the Self (Atman) ; the nose is [the instrument] for smelling. 
Now, he who knows " Let me utter this JJ that is the Self; the 
voice is [the instrument] for utterance. Now, he who knows 
' Let me hear this " that is the Self; the ear is [the instrument] 
for hearing. 



CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD [-8.14.1 

5. Now, he who knows "Let me think this" that is, the 
Self, the mind (manas) is his divine eye (daiva cakstt). He, 
verily, with that divine eye the mind, sees desires here, and 
experiences enjoyment. 

6. Verily, those gods who are in the Brahma-world l rever- 
ence that Self. Therefore all worlds and all desires have been 
appropriated by them. He obtains all worlds and all desires 
who has found out and who understands that Self (Atman).' 

Thus spake Prajapati yea, thus spake Prajapati ! 



THIRTEENTH KIIAXDA 
A paean of the perfected soul 

i. From the daik I go to the varicolored. From the vari- 
colored I go to the dark. Shaking off evil, as a horse his hairs ; 
shaking off the body (sanra), as the moon releases itself from 
the mouth of Rahu 2 ; I, a perfected soul (krtatman). pass into 
the uncreated Brahma- world yea, into it I pass ' 

FOURTEENTH KHANDA 
The exultation and prayer of a glorious learner 

j. Verily, what is called space (dkdsa) is the accomplisher of 
name and form. 3 That within which they are, is Brahma. 
That is the immortal. That is the Self (Atman. Soul;. 

I go to Prajapati's abode and assembly-hall. 

I am the glory of the Brahmans (brakmana), the glory of the 
princes (rajan), the glory of the people (vis). 

I have attained unto glory. 

May I, who am the glory of the glories, not go to hoary and 
toothless, yea to toothless and hoary and driveling [old age] ! 

Yea, may I not go to driveling [old age] ! 

1 Who received this instruction from Prajapati through Indra 3 the chief of the 
Vedic gods. 

2 Referring to the familiar idea that an eclipse is caused by the dragon Rahu's 
attempt to swallow the moon. 

3 f Name and form ' is the Sanskrit expression for the modern term c indi- 
viduality.' 



8.1- i] CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD 

FIFTEENTH KHANDA 
Final words to the departing pupil 
i. This did Brahma tell to Prajapati; Prajapati, to Manu , 



j to human beings (praja). 
He who according to rule has learned the Veda from the 
family of a teacher, in time left over from doing work for the 
teacher ; he who, after having come back again, in a home of 
his own continues Veda-study in a clean place and produces 
[sons and pupils] , he who has concentrated all his senses upon 
the Soul (Atman) ; he who is harmless (ahimsant) toward all 
things elsewhere than at holy places (ttrtha) 1 he, indeed, who 
lives thus throughout his length of life, reaches the Brahma- 
world and does not return hither again yea, he does not return 
hither again ? - 

1 That Is, at animal sacrifices. 
- That is, in reincarnation. 



274 



TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD 

FIRST VALLI 
(Siksha Valll, * Chapter concerning Instruction 9 ) 

FIRST ANUVAKA 

Invocation, adoration, and supplication 
Oml 

Propitious unto us, Mitra ! Propitious, Yaruna ! 
Propitious unto us let Aryaman be! 
Propitious unto us, Indra ! Brihaspati ! 
Propitious unto us, Vishnu, the Wide-strider ! * 
Adoration to Brahrna ! Adoration to thee, Vayu ! 
Thou, indeed, art the perceptible Brahma. Of thee, indeed, 
the perceptible Brahma, will I speak. I will speak of the 
right (rta). I will speak of the true. Let that favor me ! Let 
that favor the speaker ! Let it favor me ! Let it favor the 
speaker ! 

Om \ Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! 

SECOND ANUVAKA 
lesson on Pronunciation 

Om \ We will expound Pronunciation 2 : 

the sound (varnd) ; 

the accent (svara) ; 

the quantity (matra) ; 

the force (bald) ; 

the articulation (sama) ; 

the combination (santana). 
Thus has been declared the lesson on Pronunciation, 2 

1 This stanza = RV. i. 90. 9, a hymn to the All-Gods. 

2 In the summary title of the chapter, which, includes various instructions, the 
word iiksa probably has its general meaning of Instruction.' But hereas also in 
Mund. i. i. 5 it has a specialized, technical meaning, * the Science of Pronun- 
ciation/ As the first stage in the * instruction * concerning the Vedas, this Is 
elaborated as the formal discipline named Siksha. the first of the six Vedangas 
('Limbs of the Veda'}. 



i.3 i-] TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD 

THIRD ANUVAKA 
The mystic significance of combinations 

i. Glory (yasas) be with us two l ! 

Pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasci) be with 
us two l ! 

Now next, we will expound the mystic meaning (upamsad) 
of combination (samkztd) in five heads : 
with regard to the world ; 
with regard to the luminaries ; 
with regard to knowledge; 
with regard to progeny ; 
with regard to oneself. 

Now, with regard to the world. 

The earth is the prior form ; the heaven, the latter form. 
Space is their conjunction; [2] wind, the connection Thus 
with regard to the world. 

Now, with regard to the luminaries. 

Fire is the prior form ; the sun, the latter form. Water is 
their conjunction; lightning, the connection. Thus with regard 
to the luminaries. 

Now, with regard to knowledge. 

The teacher is the prior form ; [3] the pupil, the latter foim 
Knowledge is their conjunction ; instruction, the connection. 
Thus with regard to knowledge. 

Now, with regard to progeny, 

The mother is the prior form ; the father, the latter form. 
Progeny is their conjunction ; procreation, the connection. 
Thus with regard to progeny. 

4. Now, with regard to oneself. 

The lower jaw is the prior form ; the upper jaw, the latter 
form. Speech is their conjunction ; the tongue, the connec- 
tion. Thus with regard to oneself. 

These are the great combinations. He who knows these 
combinations thus expounded, becomes conjoined with offspring, 
with cattle, with pre-eminence in sacred knowledge, with food, 
with the heavenly world. 

1 That is, the teacher and the pupil. 
276 



TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD [-1-4-3 

FOURTH ANUVAKA 
A teacher's prayer 

i. He \\ho is pre-eminent among the Vedic hjmns (chandas\ who 

is the all-formed (yisva-rupa}, 
Who has sprung into being from immoitahty abo\e the Vedic 

hymns 

Let this India save (*/spr) me \\ith intelligence! 
O God (deva\ I would become possessor of immortalitv ' 
I\Iay my body be very vigorous ' 
May my tongue be exceeding sweet! 
May I hear abundantly with my ears ! 
Thou art the sheath of Brahma, 
With intelligence covered o'er' 
Guard for me what I have heard' 
[It is Prosperity] who brings, extends, 
[-2] And long 1 makes her own 
My garments and co\\s, 
And food and drink alway. 
Therefore bring me prosperity (trz) 
In wool, along with cattle ! 
Hail! 

May students of sacred knowledge (braJimacann) come unto 
me ! Hail ! 

May students of sacred knowledge come apart unto me 1 



May students of sacred knowledge come forth unto me ! 
Hail 1 

May students of sacred knowledge subdue themselves ! Hail ! 

May students of sacred knowledge tranquillize themselves ! 
Hail ! 

3. May I become glorious among men ! Hail ! 

May I be better than the very rich i Hail ! 

Into thee thyself, O Gracious Lord (bhaga], may I enter ! 
Hail ! 

Do thou thyself, O Gracious Lord, enter into me ! Hail ! 

In such a one, a thousandfold ramified O Gracious Lord, 
in thee I am cleansed ! Hail ! 

1 If the reading should be 'dram instead of ciram> then f shortly.' The two 
following lines, whose grammatical structure is not evident, seem to interrupt this 
sentence. 

277 



i. 4-3-] TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD 

As waters run downward, as months into the year, so, 
O Establisher (dhdtr)^ may students of sacred knowledge run 
unto me from all sides ! Hail ! 

Thou art a refuge ! Shine upon me ' Come unto me ' 

FIFTH ANUVAKA 
The fourfold mystic Utterances 

i. Bhur\ Bhuvasl Suvarl Verily, these are the three 
Utterances (uyakrti). And beside these, too, Mahacamasya 
made known a fourth, namely Mahas (Greatness) ! That is 
Brahma. That is the body (atman) ; other divinities are the 
limbs. 

Bhur, verily, is this world ; B/mvas, the atmosphere ; Suvar, 
yonder world; [a] Mahas, the sun. Verily, all worlds are 
made greater (mahiyante) by the sun. 

Bhur, verily, is Agni (Fire) ; Bhuvas, Vayu (Wind) ; Suvar, 
Aditya (Sun) ; Mahas, the moon. Verily, all lights are made 
greater by the moon. 

Bklir, verily, is the Rig verses ; Bhuvas, the Saman chants ; 
Suvar, the Yajus formulas; [3] Mahas, sacied knowledge 
(brahma). Verily, all the Vedas are made greater by sacred 
knowledge. 

Bhur, verily, is the in-breath (prdna] ; Bhuvas, the out- 
breath (apand) ; Savor ^ the diffused breath (vyanct) ; Mahas, 
food (anna). Verily, all the vital breaths (prdna) are made 
greater by food. 

Verily, these four are fourfold. The Utterances are four 
and four. He who knows these, knows Brahma ; to him all 
the gods bring strength. 

SIXTH ANUVAKA 

A departing person's attainment with the four Utterances 
i. This space that is within the heart therein is the person, 
consisting of mind (mano-maya), immortal, resplendent. That 
which hangs down between the palates like a nipple that is 
Indra's 1 place of exit. 

1 A name for the individual soul, as in Ait. i. 3. 12, 14. 
278 



TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD [-1.8 

piercing the head at the point where is the edge of the hair, 
with the word B/iiirhe stands upon Agni (Fire) : with the word 
BJmvas, upon Vayu (Wind); [3] with the word Suvar upon 
Aditya (the Sun) , with the word Mafias, upon Brahma. He 
obtains self-rule (sva-rajya). He obtains the lord of the mind 
Lord of the voice, lord of the eye, lord of the ear, loid of the 
understanding this and more he becomes, even Brahma, whose 
body is space (akasa-sarlra), whose soul is the real (satyatmati), 
whose pleasure-ground is the breathing spirit, whose mind L 
bliss (mana-ananda), abounding in tranquillity (ianti-samrddha), 
immortal Thus, Pradnayogya (Man of the Ancient Yoga) , 
worship. 1 

SEVENTH ANUVAKA 

The fivefoldness of the world and of the individual 
Earth, atmosphere, heaven, quarters intermediate 

of heaven, quarters ; 

fire, wind, sun, moon, stars; 

water, plants, trees, space, one's body. 

Thus with regard to material existence (adhi-bhiita}. 
Now with regard to oneself (adhy-atma}. 
Prana Vyana Apana Udana Samana 

breath, breath, breath, breath, breath 

sight, hearing, mind, speech, touch; 

skin, flesh, muscle, bone, marrow. 

Having analyzed in this manner, a seer has said : fc Fivefold, 
verily, is this whole world. With the fivefold, indeed, one wins- 
the fivefold/ 2 

EIGHTH ANUVAKA 
Glorification of the sacred word 6 Om > 

Om is brahma? 

Om is this whole world. 

1 That is, the conditioned (sa-gund} Brahma, who may be worshiped. The 
absolute, unconditioned Brahma is the object of intellectual appreciation, i.e. of 
knowledge, not of worship. 

2 A similar theory is expressed at Brih. I. 4. 17 

3 Perhaps with a double meaning both * sacred word ' and the philosophical 
* Brahma/ 

279 



I.8-J TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD 

Om that is compliance. As also, verily, it is well known 
upon the words < O ! Call forth ! ' 1 they call forth. 

With Om ' they sing the Saman chants. 

With ' Om ! Som ! ' they recite the Invocations of Praise 
(sastra). 

With Om ' the Adhvaryu priest utters the Response. 

With ' Om ' the Brahman priest (brahma) utters the Intro- 
ductory Eulogy (pra+ Vstu). 

With % Om ' one 2 assents to the Agni-oblation (agmhotra). 

Oml sa y s a Brahman (brakmana) about to recite, may 
I get the sacred word (brahma} \ ' He does get the sacred 
word. 3 

NINTH AXUVAKA 
Study of tiie sacred word tke most important of all duties 

The right (rta), and also study and teaching. 4 

The true (satya), and also study and teaching 

Austerity (tapas), and also study and teaching. 

Self-control (dama)^ and also study and teaching. 

Tranquillity (sama)> and also study and teaching. 

The [sacrificial] fires, and also study and teaching. 

The Agnihotra sacrifice, and also study and teaching. 

Guests, and also study and teaching. 

Humanity (manusa), and also study and teaching. 

Offspring, and also study and teaching. 

Begetting, and also study and teaching. 

Procreation, and also study and teaching. 

* The true ! ' says Satyavacas ( Truthful ') Rathitara. 

w Austerity ! ' says Taponitya ( c Devoted-to-austerity ') 
Pauru&shtL 

'Just study and teaching!' says Naka ( 4 Painless 1 ) Maud- 
galya, c for that is austerity for that is austerity.' 

1 In the ritual, the signal from the Adhvaryn priest for a response from the 
sacnficer. 

2 That is, the person instituting the sacrifice. 

3 That is, the Veda Com. 

4 That is, of the Veda. Com. 



280 



TAITTIRIYA UPAXISHAD [-i.ir 2 

TENTH AXUVAKA 
The excellence of Veda -knowledge a meditation 

I am the mover 1 of the tree 1 
My fame is like a mountain's peak 1 
Exaltedly pure, like the excellent nectar in the sun,- 
I am a shining treasure, 
Wise, immortal, indestructible 3 j 

This is Trisanku's recitation on Veda-knou ledge. 4 

ELEVENTH ANUVAKA 
Practical precepts to a student 

i. Having taught the Veda, a teacher further instructs 
a pupil : 

Speak the truth. 

Practise virtue (dharma). 

Neglect not study [of the Vedas]. 

Having brought an acceptable gift to the teacher, cut not off 
the line of progeny. 

One should not be negligent of truth. 

One should not be negligent of virtue. 

One should not be negligent of welfare. 

One should not be negligent of prosperity. 

One should not be negligent of study and teaching. 

3. One should not be negligent of duties to the gods and to 
the fathers. 

Be one to whom a mother is as a god. 

Be one to whom a father is as a god. 

1 That is, ' I am the feller of the tree of world-delusion (samtant} ' according to 
Sankara. He also proposes, as a synonym for 'mo'ver,' antatydmui* * inner con- 
troller ' which suggests to Deussen the (less likely) interpretation ' I am the 
moving (or, animating) spirit of the tree of life.' 

2 Literally ' courser ' ; a reference here perhaps to the i honey in the sun * of 
Chand. 3. i. So 6ankara divides the words, vajzni \>a sv~amrtam But if 
vajimvasv amrtam, as BR. suggest, then c the Immortal, possessing [possibly, 
* bestowing ' according to BR^\ power/ 

2 amrto 'ksitah. If amrtoksitah, then f sprinkled with immortality (or, with 
nectar).' 

4 Or, c Veda-repetition ' (veda-anuvacand). The whole paragraph is an obscure, 
mystical meditation, either a preparatory invocation for the study of the Vedas, or 
a summary praise of its exalting and enlightening effect. 

28T 



I.U.3-] TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD 

Be one to whom a teacher is as a god. 

Be one to whom a guest Is as a god. 

Those acts which are irreproachable should be practised, and 
no others. 

Those things which among us are good deeds should be 
revered by you, [3] and no others. 

Whatever Brahmans (brahmana) are superior to us, for them 
refreshment should be procured by you with a seat. 1 

One should give with faith (sraddha). 

One should not give without faith. 

One should give with plenty (sri)2 

One should give with modesty. 

One should give with fear. 

One should give with sympathy (sam-vid)? 

Now, if you should have doubt concerning an act, or doubt 
concerning conduct, [4] if there should be there Brahmans 
competent to judge, apt, devoted, not harsh, lovers of virtue 
(dharma) as they may behave themselves in such a case, so 
should you behave yourself in such a case. 

Now, with regard to [people] spoken against, if there should 
be there Brahmans competent to judge, apt, devoted, not 
harsh, lovers of virtue as they may behave themselves with re- 
gard to such, so should you behave yourself with regard to such. 

This is the teaching. This is the admonition. This is the 
secret doctrine of the Veda (ueda-npanisad). This is the 
instruction. Thus should one worship. Thus, indeed, should 
one worship. 

TWELFTH ANUVAKA 4 
Invocation, adoration, and acknowledgment 

Propitious unto us, Mitra ! Propitious, Varuna ! 
Propitious unto us let Aryaman be ! 
Propitious unto us, Indra ! Brihaspati ! 
Propitious unto us, Vishnu the Wide-strider I 

1 Or, in their presence not a word should be breathed by you.' 

2 Or, ' according to one's plenty," BR. and MW. ; hardly with grace/ 

5 With these exhortations on giving compare the e Ode on Liberality,' RV, 10. 
117. 

4 Identical with the First Anuvaka, except for certain changes of tense which 
are appropriate here in the conclusion. 

282 



TAITTIRIYA UPAXISHAD [-^.i 

Adoration to Brahma ' Adoration to ihee, Vayu \ 
Thou, indeed, art the perceptible Brahma. Of thee, indeed, 
the perceptible Brahma, have I spoken I have spoken of the 
right. I have spoken of the true. That has favored me 
That has favored the speaker. It has favored me. It has 
favored the speaker. 

Om \ Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! 



SECOND VALLI 
(Brahmananda Valll, ' Bliss-of-Bralima Chapter 5 ) 

FIRST ANUVAKA 

The aU-eomprehensive Brahma of the world and of the 
individual ; knowledge thereof the supreme success 

Om \ He who knows Brahma, attains the highest ! 
As to that this [verse] has been declared : 

He who knows Brahma as the leal (safya), as knowledge 

(jfidna\ as the infinite (anantd]^ 
Set down in the seciet place [of the heart], and m the highest 

heaven (parame vyoman)? 
He obtains all desires, 
Together with the intelligent (vipascif] Brahma. 

The course of evolution from the primal Atman through 
the five elements to the human person 

From this Soul (Atmatt), verily, space (akasa) arose; from 
space, wind (vayii)\ from wind, fire; from fire, water; from 
water, the earth ; from the earth, herbs ; from herbs, food ; 
from food, semen ; from semen, the person (purusd)* 

The person in the sphere of food 

This, verily, is the person that consists of the essence of food. 
This, indeed, is his head; this, the right side; this, the left 

1 Deussen proposes to emend to ananda^ * bliss,' in order to have the customary 
threefold definition of Brahma as saf-cit-ananda, * being, intelligence, and bliss,' 
and in order to introduce the great, culminating thought of the chapter. 

2 A very common Vedic phrase for the abode of the gods. 

383 



2.I-] TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD 

side ; this,, the body (atma/i) ; this, the lower part, the founda- 
tion. 

As to that there is also this verse : 

SECOND ANUVAKA 

Food the supporting, yet consuming, substance of all life 3 
a phase of Brahma 

From food, \enly, creatures aie produced, 
Whatsoevei [cieatures] dwell on the eaith. 
Moreover by food, in truth, they live. 
Moreover into it also they finally pass 1 
For truly, food is the chief of beings ; 
Therefore it is called a Panacea. 2 
Verily, they obtain all food 
Who \\orbhip Brahma as food. 
For truly, food is the chief of beings ; 
Therefore it is called a Panacea. 
From food created things aie born. 
By food, when born, do they grow up. 
It both is eaten and eats things. 
Because of that it is called food. 

The person in the sphere of breath 

Verily, othei than and within that one that consists of the 
essence of food is the self that consists of breath. By that this 
is filled. This, verily, has the form of a person. According to 
that one's personal form is this one with the foini of a person. 
The in-breath (prdna) is its head ; the diffused breath (vyana), 
the right wing ; the out-breath (apana), the left wing ; space, 
the body (atman) ; the earth, the lower part, the foundation. 
As to that there is also this verse . 

THIRD ANUVAKA 
Breath, the life of all living beings ; a phase of Brahma 

The gods do breathe along with breath (prana\ 
As also men and beasts. 
For truly, breath is the life (ayus) of beings. 
Therefore it is called the Life-of-all ($arvayu\a}> 

1 These first four lines are quoted in Maitn 6. n. 

2 sarvausadham, literally * consisting of all sorts of herbs.' 

3 The last four lines recur at Maitri 6 1 2. 

284 



TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD [-2.4 

To a full life (sarvam ayus] go they 
Who worship Brahma as breath. 
For truly, breath is the life of beings ; 
Therefore it is called the Life-of-all. 

This, indeed, is its bodily self (sarira-atman), as of the 
former. 

The person in the sphere of formative faculty 
Verily, other than and within that one that consists of breath 
is a self that consists of mind (mano-maya). By that this is 
filled. This, verily, has the form of a person. According to 
that one's peisonal form is this one with the form of a person. 
The Yajur-Veda is its head ; the Rig- Veda, the right side ; the 
Sama-Veda, the left side; teaching, 1 the body (dtman) , the 
Hymns of the Atharvans and Angirases. the lower part, the 
foundation. 

As to that there is also this verse: 

FOURTH ANUVAKA 

Beyond the formative faculty an inexpressible, fearless bliss 

Wherefrom words turn back, 

Together with the mind, not having attained 

The bliss of Brahma he who knows, 

Fears not at any time at all. 

This, indeed, is its bodily self (sanra-atman), as of the 
former. 

The person in the sphere of understanding 
Verily, other than and within that one that consists of mind 
is a self that consists of understanding (vijnana-maya). By 
that this is filled. This, verily, has the form of a person. 
According to that one's personal form is this one with the form 
of a person. Faith (sraddha) is its head ; the right (rta), the 
right side ; the true ($atya)^ the left side ; contemplation (yoga), 
the body (atman) ; might (makas), the lower part, the founda- 
tion. 

As to that there is also this verse : 

1 Possibly referring to the Brahmanas, which contain { teaching' concerning the 
sacrifices. 



2 5-] TAITTIR1YA UPANISHAD 

FIFTH AXUVAKA 

Understanding, all-directing ; a saving and satisfying phase 

of Brahma 

Understanding directs the sacuhce ; 
And deeds also it directs. 
'Tis understanding that all the gods 
Do worship as Brahma, ab chief 

If one knows Brahma as understanding. 
And if he is not heedless theicto, 
He leaves his sins (paptnan) in the body, 
And attains all desires. 

This, indeed, is its bodily self, as of the former 

The person in the sphere of bliss 

Verily, other than and within that one that consists of under- 
standing is a self that consists of bliss (ananda-maya). By 
that this is filled. That one, verily, has the form of a person. 
According to that one's personal form is this one with the form 
of a person. Pleasure (priya) is its head ; delight (moda), the 
right side, great delight (pra-modd)* the left side; bliss 
(ananda), the body (atmaii) ; Brahma, the lower part, the 
foundation. 

As to that there is also this vcise : 

SIXTH ANUVAKA 

Assimilation either to the original or to the derivative 
Brahma which one knows 

Non-existent (a-sat) himself does one become. 
If he knows that Brahma is non-existent. 
If one knows that Biahma exists, 
Such a one people theieby know as existent. 

This, indeed, is its bodily self, as of the former. 

Query : Who reaches the Brahma- world of bliss ? 

Now next, the appurtenant questions (anu-prasna) : 
Does any one who knows not, 
On deceasing, go to yonder world? 
Or is it that any one who knows, 
On deceasing, attains yonder world? 
286 



TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD" [-2.7 

All plurality and antitheses of existence developed from 

an original and still immanent unity 
He desired : ' Would that I were many! Let me procreate 
myself! 3 He performed austerity. Having performed austerity, 
he created this whole world, whatevei there is here. Having 
created it, into it, indeed, he entered. Having entered it, he 
became both the actual (sat) and the yon (tya), both the 'de- 
fined (ninikta) and the undefined, both the based and the non- 
based, both the conscious (vijnana} and the unconscious, both 
the real (satya) and the false (anrta). As the real, he became 
whatever there is here. That is what they call the real. 
As to that there is also this verse : 

SEVENTH ANUVAKA 

The original self-developing non-existence, the essence of 
existence and the sole basis of fearless bliss 

In the beginning, verily, this |>orld] \\as non-existent. 
Therefrom, verily, Being (sat) was produced. 1 
That made itself (svayam afairutd] a Soul (Atman). 
Therefore it is called the well-done (su-krta)? 

Verily, what that well-done is that, verily, is the essence 
(rasa) [of existence]. For tmly, on getting the essence one 
becomes blissful. For who indeed would breathe, who would 
live, if there were not this bliss in space ! For truly, this 
(essence) causes bliss. For truly, when one finds fearlessness 
as a foundation in that which is invisible, bodiless (an-atmyd), 
undefined, non-based, then he has reached fearlessness. When, 
however, one makes a cavity, an interval therein, then he comes 
to have fear. But that indeed is the fear of one who thinks of 
himself as a knower. 3 

As to that there is also this verse : 

1 This theory is controverted at Chand 6, 2. 1-2. 

2 Compare the saying A person is a thing well done/ Ait. i. 2 3. 

3 But who really is not a knower. If the reading should be 'manvanasya in 
accordance with Sailcara, then < . . the fear of one who knows, but who is 
unthinking.' 

287 



2 <S~] TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD 

EIGHTH ANUVAKA 
All cosmic activity through fear 

Through fear of Him the Wind (Vayu) doth blow 
Through fear of Him the Sun (Surya) doth use. 
Through fear of Him both Agni (Fire) and Indra 
And Death (Mrityu) as fifth do speed along. 1 

The gradation of blisses up to the bliss of Brahma 2 

This is a consideration (mimainsa) of bliss. 

Let there be a youth, a good (sddku) youth, well read, very 
quick, very firm, very strong. Let this whole earth be full of 
wealth for him. That is one human bliss. 

A hundred human blisses are one bliss of the human Gan- 
dharvas (genii) also of a man who is versed in the scriptures 
(srctriya) and who is not smitten with desire. 

A hundred blisses of the human Gandharvas are one bliss of 
the divine Gandharvas also of a man who is versed in the 
scriptures and who is not smitten with desire. 

A hundred blisses of the divine Gandharvas are one bliss of 
the fathers in their long-enduring world also of a man who is 
versed in the scriptures and who is not smitten with desiie 

A hundred blisses of the fathers in their long-enduring world 
are one bliss of the gods who are born so by birth (ajana-jd) 
also of a man who is versed in the scriptures and who is not 
smitten with desire. 

A hundred blisses of the gods who are born so by birth are 
one bliss of the gods who are gods by work (karma-deva) , who 
go to the gods by work also of a man who is versed in the 
scriptures and who is not smitten with desire. 

A hundred blisses of the gods who are gods by work are one 
bliss of the gods also of a man who is versed in the scriptures 
and who is not smitten with desire. 

A hundred blisses of the gods are one bliss of Indra also 
of a man who is versed in the scriptures and who is not smitten 
with desire. 

1 A very similar stanza is Katha 6.3. 

2 Similar hierarchies of bliss leading up to the bliss of Brahma occur at Brih. 
4. 3 33 K. and Sat. Br. 14. 7. i. 31-39 ( = Brih. 4. 3. 31-39 M). Other gradations 
of worlds up to the world of Brahma occur at Brih. 3. 6. 1 and Kaush i . 3. 

288 



TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD [-29 

A hundred blisses of Indra are one bliss of Brihaspati 
also of a man who is vcised in the scriptures and \vho is not 
smitten with desiie. 

A hundred blisses of Brihaspati are one bliss of Prajapati 
also of a man who is versed in the scriptures and who is not 
smitten with desire. 

A hundred blisses of Prajapati are one bliss of Brahma 
also of a man who is veised in the scriptuies and who is not 
smitten with desire. 

The knower of the unity of the human person with the 

personality in the world reaches the blissful sphere 

of self-existence 

Both he who is hcie in a peison and he who is yondei in the 
sun he is one. 

He who knows this, on departing from this world, proceeds 
on to that self which consists of food, proceeds on to that self 
which consists of breath, proceeds on to that self which consists 
of mind, proceeds on to that self which consists of understand- 
ing, proceeds on to that self which consists of bliss. 1 

As to that there is also this veise 

NINTH ANUVAKA 

The knower of the bliss of Brahma is saved from all fear 
and from all moral self-reproach 

Wherefrom words turn back, 

Together with the mind, not having attained 

The bliss of Brahma he who knows, 

Fears not from anything at all. 2 

Such a one, verily, the thought does not torment : * Why have 
I not done the good (sddhu) * Why have I done the evil 
(papa) ? ' 3 He who knows this, saves (sprnute] himself ^atma- 
nam) from these [thoughts]. For truly, from both of these he 
saves himself he who knows this ! 

Such is the mystic doctrine (npanisad) 1 

1 That is, ID the self there are various selves, but the*fcue knower must advance 
to the highest self. 

2 This stanza has already occurred m 2. 4, with a verbal change in the last linr. 

3 Or, e What good have I failed to do ! What evil have I done ' * 

289 u 



3,i-] TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD 

THIRD VALLI 
(Bhrigu Valli, ' Chapter concerning Bhrigu ') 

Bhrigu's progressive learning through austerity of five 
phases of Brahma 

I. Bhngu Varuni, verily, approached his father Varuna, and 
said : * Declare Brahma, Sir ! ' x 

To him he taught that as food, as breath, as sight, as hearing, 
as mind, as speech. 

Then he said to him . { That, verily, whence beings here are 
born, that by which when born they live, that into which on 
deceasing they enter that be desirous of understanding. 
That is Brahma.' 

He performed austerity. Having performed austerity, [2] 
he understood that Brahma is food. For truly, indeed, beings 
here are born from food, when bora they live by food, on 
deceasing they enter into food. 

Having understood that, he again approached his father 
Varuna. and said : ( Declare Brahma, Sii ! ' 

Then he said to him : f Desire to understand Brahma by 
austerity. Brahma is austerity (tapas)? 

He performed austerity. Having performed austerity, [3] 
he understood that Brahma is breath (prana). For truly, 
indeed, beings here are born from breath, when born they live 
by breath, on deceasing they enter into breath. 

Having understood that, he again approached his father 
Varuna, and said : ' Declare Brahma, Sir ! ' 

Then he said to him : f Desire to understand Brahma by 
austerity. Brahma is austerity ! ' 

He performed austerity. Having performed austerity, [4] 
he understood that Brahma is mind (mafias). For truly, 
indeed, beings here are born from mind, when born they live 
by mind, on deceasing they enter into mind. 

Having understood that, he again approached his father 
Varuna, and said : * Declare Brahma, Sir ! ' 

1 Another course of instruction to Bhiigu by his father Varuna occurs at 3at. Br. 
IT. 6. T. 1-13. 

290 



TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD [-3.8 

Then he said to him : Desire to undei stand Brahma by 
austerity. Brahma is austciity.' 

He performed austerity. Having perfoimed austerity, [o] 
he understood that Brahma is understand ing (vijndtia}. ] r or 
truly, indeed, beings here are born from understanding, when 
born they live by understanding, on deceasing they enter into 
understanding. 

Having understood that, he again approached his father 
Varuna, and said : 'Declare Brahma, Sir! J 

Then he said to him: c Desire to understand Brahma by 
austerity. Brahma is austerity.' 

He performed austerity. Having perfoimed austerity, [6] 
he understood that Brahma is bliss (dnanda). For truly, 
indeed, beings here are born from bliss, when born they live 
by bliss, on deceasing they enter into bliss. 

This is the knowledge of Bhrigu Varuni, established in the 
highest heaven. He who knows this, becomes established. 
He becomes an eater of food, possessing food. He becomes 
great in offspring, in cattle, in the splendor of sacred know- 
ledge, great in fame. 

7. One should not blame food. That is the rule. 

Tlie reciprocal relations of food, supporting and supported, 
illustrated ; the importance of such knowledge 

Breath (pratia), verily, is food. The body is an eater of 
food. The body is established on breath ; breath is estab- 
lished on the body. So food is established on food. 

He who knows that food which is established on food, 
becomes established. He becomes an eater of food, possessing 
food. He becomes great in offspring, in cattle, in the splendor 
of sacred knowledge, great in fame. 

8. One should not despise food. That is the rule. 
Water, verily, is food. Light is an eater of food. Light is 

established on water ; water is established on light. So food 
is established on food. 

He who knows that food which is founded on food, becomes 
established. He becomes an eater of food, possessing food. 
He becomes great in offspring, in cattle, in the splendor of 
sacred knowledge, great in fame, 

291 u 2 



3,9-] TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD 

9. One should make for himself much food. That is the rule. 
The earth, verily, is food. Space is an eater of food. Space 

is established on the earth ; the earth is established on space 
So food is established on food 

He who knows that food which is established on food, becomes 
established. He becomes an eater of food, possessing food. 
He becomes great in offspring, in cattle, in the splendor of 
sacred knowledge, great in fame. 

A giver of food, prospered accordingly 

10. (i) One should not refuse any one at one's dwelling. 
That is the rule. 

Therefore in any way whatsoever one should obtain much 
food. Of such a one people say c Food has succeeded (aradhi) 
for him ! ' 

This food, verily, being prepared (raddJid) [for the suppliant] 
at the beginning, for him x food is prepared at the beginning. 

This food, verily, being prepared in the middle, for him food 
is prepared in the middle. This food, verily, being prepared at 
the end, for him food is prepared at the end (2) for him who 
knows this. 

Manifestations of Brahma as food 

As preservation (ksema) in speech, acquisition and preserva- 
tion (yoga-ksema] in the in-breath and the off-breath (prdna- 
apana)) work in the hands, motion in the feet, evacuation in the 
anus: these are the human recognitions [of Brahma as food]. 

Now the divine : satisfaction in rain, strength in lightning, 
(3) splendor in cattle, light in the stars, procreation immortality, 
and bliss in the generative organ, the all in space. 

The worshiper thereof appropriates the object of his worship 

One should worship It as a foundation ; one [then] becomes 
possessed of a foundation. 

One should worship It as greatness ; one becomes great. 

One should worship It as mind (manas) ; one becomes 
possessed of mmdfulness. 

(4) One should worship It as adoration; desires make 
adoration to one. 

1 That is, for the giver. 
292 



TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD [-3. 10. 6 

One should worship It as magic formula (brahma) ; one 
becomes possessed of magic formula. 

One should worship It as 'the dying around the magic 
formula ' (brahmanah payimara) l , around one die his hateful 
rivals, and those who are his unfriendly foes. 2 

The knower of the unity of the human person with the 
personality in the world attains unhampered desire 

Both he who is heie in a person and he who is yonder in the 
sun he is one. 

(5) He who knows this, on departing from this world, pro- 
ceeding on to that self which consists of food, proceeding on to 
that self which consists of breath, proceeding en to that self 
which consists of mind, proceeding on to that self which consists 
of understanding, proceeding on to that self which consists of 
bliss, goes up and down these worlds, eating what he desires, 
assuming what foim he desires. He sits singing this chant 
\saman) : 

A mystical rapture of the knower of the universal unity 

Oh, wondeiful! Oh, wonderful 1 Oh, wonderful' 
(6) I am foodl I am food' I am food! 

I am a food-eater ! I am a food-eater ! I am a food-eater ! 
I am a fame-maker (sloka-krt}\ I am a fame-maker! I am a 

fame-maker ! 

1 am the first-bom of the woild-order (rid)* 
Earlier than the gods, in the navel of immortality ! 
Who gives me away, he indeed has aided me ! 
I, who am food, eat the eater of food ! 
I have overcome the whole world! 

He who knows this, has a brilliantly shining light. 
Such is the mystic doctrine (upanisad) ! 

1 An incantation described in Ait. Br. 8. 28. A philosophical interpretation of 
L dying around Brahma ' occurs at Kaush 2. r 2. 

2 The word Ihratrvya, c foes,* is of sociological significance, because etymologi- 
cally it means ' cousin (father's brother's son),* 

3 A phrase occurring more than once in both RV. and AY., e.g. RV. 10. 61. 19 
and AV. 6 122. I. 



293 



AITAREYA UPANISHAD 

FIRST ADHYAYA 
FIRST KHANDA 

The creation of the four worlds_, of the cosmic person, 
and of cosmic powers by the primeval Self 

1. In the beginning, Atman (Self, Soul), veiily, one only, 
was here 1 no other blinking thing whatever. He bethought 
himself: * Let me now create worlds. 5 

2. He created these worlds : water (ambhas), light-rays 
(marlci), death (mar a), the waters (op). Yon is the water, 
above the heaven ; the heaven is its support. The light-rays 
are the atmosphere ; death, the earth ; what is underneath, the 
waters. 

3. He bethought himself: Here now are worlds. Let me 
now create world-guardians/ Right (eva) from the waters he 
drew forth and shaped (+Jmurch) a person. 

4. Upon him he brooded (ab/n + Vtap). 

When he had been brooded upon, his mouth was separated 
out, egg-like ; from the mouth, speech (vac) ; from speech, 
Agni (Fire). 

Nostrils were separated out; from the nostrils, breath ( prana) ; 
from breath, Vayu (Wind). 

Eyes were separated out ; from the eyes, sight (caksus)\ from 
sight, Aditya (the Sun). 

Ears were separated out ; from the ears, hearing (srotra) ; 
from hearing, the quarters of heaven. 

Skin was separated out ; from the skin, hairs ; from the hairs, 
plants and trees. 

A heart was separated out ; from the heart, mind (inanas) ; 
from mind, the moon* 

1 Instead of meaning * here ' adverbially (as very frequently in the Brahmanas 
and sometimes in the Upamshads), idam may be the neuter demonstrative with an 
ellipsis, thus : * Venly, this [universe] in the beginning was Atman (Soul), one 
only, . . . . ' This sentence stands also at the beginning of Brio. 1.4. i . 

294 



AITAREYA UPANISHAD [-2.5 

A navel uas separated out ; from the navel, the out-breath 
(apana) ; from the out-breath, death (wrtyu) 

A virile member was separated out ; from the virile member, 
semen , from the semen, water (ap). 

SECOND KHANDA 
The ingtedience of the cosmic powers in the human person 

i. These divinities, having been created, fell headlong in 
this great restless sea. 1 He visited it with hunger and thirst. 

They [i. e. the divinities] said to him : Find out for us an 
abode wherein we may be established "and may eat food.' 

a. He led up a bull to them. They said : ' Verily, this is 
not sufficient for us.' 

He led up a horse to them. They said : ' Verily, this is not 
sufficient for us.' 

3. He led up a person to them. They said : ' Oh ! well 
done ! ' Verily, a person is a thing well done. 

He said to them : ' Enter into your respective abodes/ 

4. Fire became speech, and entered the mouth. 
Wind became breath, and entered the nostrils. 
The sun became sight, and entered the eyes. 

The quarters of heaven became hearing, and entered the 
ears. 

Plants and trees became hairs, and entered the skin. 
The moon became mind, and entered the heart. 
Death became the out-breath (apana), and entered the navel. 
Waters became semen, and entered the virile member. 

5. Hunger and thirst said to him [i. e. Atman] : ' For us two 
also 3 find out [an abode]. 3 

Unto the two he said : ' I assign you two a part among 
these divinities. I make you two partakers among them. 1 
Therefore to whatever divinity an oblation is made, hunger and 
thirst become partakers in it. 

1 Skt. arnava\ etymologically *the moving/ f the stirring/ *the agitated*; 
specifically, simply * sea/ as in Chand. 8. 5. 3, 4 

2 Reading api prajanihi, instead of the (otherwise unquotable) compound 
abhiprajanihi according to Bohtlingk's emendation in his translation, p. 166". 
This change brings the form of the question into uniformity with the similar 
question in i . 

2 95 



3 .i-] AITAREYA UPANISHAD 

THIRD KHANDA 

The creation of food of fleeting material form, and the 
inability of various personal functions to obtain it 

1. He bethought himself: ' Here now are worlds and world- 
guardians. Let me create food for them/ 

2. He brooded upon the waters. From them, when they 
had been brooded upon, a material form (murti) was produced. 
Verily, that material form which was produced verily, that is 
food. 

3. Having been created, it sought to flee away. 

He sought to seize it with speech. He was not able to giasp 
it with speech. If indeed he had grasped it with speech, 
merely with uttering food one would have been satisfied. 

4. He sought to grasp it with breath. He was not able to 
grasp it with breath. If indeed he had grasped it with 
breath, merely \\ith breathing toward food one would have 
been satisfied. 

5. He sought to grasp it with sight He was not able to 
grasp it with sight. If indeed he had grasped it with sight, 
merely with seeing food one would have been satisfied. 

6. He sought to grasp it with hearing. He was not able to 
grasp it with hearing. If indeed he had grasped it with 
hearing, merely with hearing food one would have been satis- 
fied. 

7. He sought to grasp it with the skin. He was not able 
to grasp it with the skin. If indeed he had grasped it with 
the skin, merely with touching food one would have been 
satisfied. 

8. He sought to grasp it with the mind. He was not able 
to grasp it with the mind. If indeed he had grasped it with 
the mind, merely with thinking on food one would have been 
satisfied. 

9. He sought to grasp it with the virile member. He was 
not able to grasp it wit the virile member. If indeed he had 
grasped it with the virile member, merely with emitting food 
one would have been satisfied. 

Jo He sought to grasp it with the out-bieath (apana$\ 

296 



AITAREYA UPANISHAD [-3.13 

digestive bicath). He consumed 1 it. This grasper of food is 
what wind (vayit] is This one living on food (annayit)^ verily, 
is what wind is. 

The entrance of the Self into the body 

11. He [i. e. Atman] bethought himself: ( How now could 
this thing exist without me ? ' 

He bethought himself : s With which should I enter ? ' 
He bethought himself: 'If with speech theie is uttered, if 
with breath (prand) there is breathed, if with sight there is 
seen, if with hearing there is heard, if with the skin theic is 
touched, if with the mind there is thought, if with the out-breath 
(apdnct) there is breathed out, if with the vhile member theie is 
emitted, then who am I? ' 

1 2. So, cleaving asunder this very 2 hair-part (simaji)* by 
that door he entered. This is the door named 'the cleft' 
(vtdrti). That is the delighting (nandana). 

He has three dwelling-places, three conditions of sleep. 
This is a dwelling-place. This is a dwelling-place. This is 
a dwelling-place. 4 

The mystic name of the sole self-existent Self 

13. Having been born, he looked around on beings (b/iuta), 
[thinking] : c Of what here would one desire to speak as 

1 twayat t impeifect causative of */av, exactly like the annam avayat, Mie con- 
sumed food' of RV. 10 113 8, and also like AV. 4. 6 3 ; 5. 19. 2 , VS. 21. 44; 
Sat. Bi. i. 6. 3. 5 , 5. 5. 4 6. JPosbible, but unparalleled, would be the derivation 
from a + *JvT> ' he overtook.' An etymologizing on vayu 

2 Piobably accompanied with a deictic gesture 

3 Thnt is, the sagittal suture ; or perhaps less specifically ' the crown/ 

4 S.uikaia explains that the right eye is the abode during the waking state, the 
inner mind (antar-inanas] during dreaming sleep, the space of the heait (Jirdayakaba) 
during profound sleep {Mtwptt} He ofiers the alternative that the three abodes 
aie ' the body of one's father,' * the womb of one's mother, 7 and ' one's own body.* 
Sayana and Anandagiri understand the thiee abodes as ' the right eye,' * the throat, ' 
* the heart.' With whatever significance, it would seem that the three demonstra- 
tives of the text must have been accompanied by explanatory pointings to certain 
parts of the body. 

The thiee conditions of sleep (together with a fourth) are mentioned m the 
Mandukya Upamshad even as they are explained by the commentators on this 
passage. It is in contrast with the desired condition of the metaphysically awakeaed 
self that the oidmary condition of waking is regarded as ' sleep.* 

5 Or, ' What heie would desue to speak of another ?1 However, for thi& con- 

297 



3 .i 3 -J AITAREYA UPANISHAD 

anothei ? ' He saw this very peison as veriest (tatama) Brahma. 
c I have seen It (idam adarsa)l said he (iti\ 

1 4. Therefore his name is Idarh-dra ( c It-seeing '). Idarh-dra , 
verily, is his name. Him who is Idarh-dra they call f Indra ' 
cryptically, for the gods are fond of the cryptic (paroksa-priya], 
as it were ] for the gods are fond of the cryptic, as it were. 



SECOND ADHYAYA 

FOURTH KHANDA 
A self's three successive births 

1. In a person (purusa), verily, this one 2 becomes at first an 
embryo (garbka). That which is semen (retas), is the vigor 
(tejas) come together from all the limbs In the self, indeed, 
one bears a self. When he* pours this in a woman, then he 
begets it. This is one's first birth. 3 

2. It comes into self-becoming (atma-bhuya) with the woman, 

struction the neuter subject arid the masculine object do not seem quite congruous 
Or, * \\ hy (or, how) here would one desire to speak of another * ' Or again, kirn 
may be simply the interrogative particle : ' Would one here desire to speak of 
another? 1 In addition to these uncertainties of syntax, the form of the verb causes 
difficulty. Vavadisat seems to contain unmistakable elements of the intensive and 
of the desiderative conjugations of +/vad, * speak ' ; yet as it stands it is utterly 
anomalous. The Indian commentators furnish no help to a solution. >R. (vol. 6, 
column 650) proposes to emend to udvadisyat) the future of the intensive. 
Bohtlingk, in his translation, pp. 169, 170, emends to vava diset, * (to see) whethei 
anything here would point to another [than it].* And in a note there he reports 
Delbruck's conjecture, vivadisat, the participle of the desiderative, which would 
yield the translation 4 What is there here desinng to speak of anothei ^ ' Deussen 
somehow finds a reflexive : * What wishes to explain itself here as one different 
[from me] * ' 

In spite of the verbal difficulties, the meaning of the passage is faiily 
intelligible : it is a pictorial statement of a philosophical idealism (i e. that there is 
naught else than spirit) bordering on solipsism (i. e. that there is naught else than 
the individual self). 

1 This phrase occurs verbatim in Bnh. 4. 2. 2 ; Ait. Br. 3. 33 end; 7. 30 end; 
and almost verbatim m Sat. Br. 6. i i. 2, u. 

3 That is, the Atman, the subject of the entire previous part of this Upamshad 
Or ayam may denote the indefinite c one/ as probably in the last sentence of this 
paragraph. 

3 The words asya pratkamam janma may denote either ' his (i. e. the Self's) first 
bnth' or a selfs first birth (as a particular individual). 7 Either interpretation is 
possible according to pantheistic theory. 

298 



AITAREYA UPANISHAD [-4.5 

just as a limb of her own. Therefore it injures her not. She 
nourishes this self of his that has come to her. 

3. She, being a nourisher, should be nouiished. The woman 
bears him as an embryo. In the beginning, indeed, he nourishes 
the child [and] from birth onward. While 1 he nourishes the 
child from birth onward, he thus nourishes his own self, for the 
continuation of these worlds ; for thus are these worlds con- 
tinued. This is one's second birth. 

4. This self of one is put in one's place for pious deeds 
(puny a kannan). Then this other self of one, having done his 
work (krta-krtya), having reached his age, deceases So, 
deceasing hence indeed, he is born again. This is one's third 
birth. As to this it has been said by a seer , 

5. Being yet in embryo, I knew well 2 
All the bnths of these gods! 

1 Or perhaps l In that (yaf) . . . J 

2 Quoted from RV. 4 27. I. In the onginal Rig- Veda passage (as indeed in 
every other of the three occuirences. of the same compound m the Rig- Veda, I. 34. 
2b, i. 164. iSb, and 10 17. 5,1) the preposition anu seems to have served no more 
than to strengthen the force of the verb ' know.' As such, it is translated here by 
'weir (in accoi dance with Giassmann's WorUtbuch^ BR., and MW.} Yet it 
would be very possible indeed, probable that to the author of this Upanishad, 
who quotes the ancient passage as scriptural con oboration of his theory of various 
bnths, that woicl anu conveyed a larger significance than it was originally intended 
to express. In accordance with its general meaning of ' along toward ' he might 
undei stand it to intimate pregnantly that even from the embryonic stage the seer 
( fore-knew, 1 anu-vid, all the births of the gods [of the various gods be it noted 
here applied to the successive births of the individual soul, atman, from father 
to son]. As to such fine distinctions of meaning to be carefully observed in the 
prepositional compounds with verbs in the Upanishads, Professor Whitney (in his 
article on l The Upanishads and their Latest Translation' in the A mencan Journal 
of Philology, vol. 7, p, 15) has stated a noteworthy principle : ' It may be laid down 
as a rule foi the piose of the Brahmanas and Upanishads that every prefix to a veib 
has its own distinctive value as modifying the verbal idea if we cannot feel it, our 
comprehension of the sense is so far imperfect , if we cannot represent it, our 
translation is so fai defective. 1 

With this considci ation concerning the force of anu and with the glaringly 
wresting interpretation of tycno in the last line, the present instance as a whole 
serves well to call attention to the applicability (or non-applicability) of many of 
the citations in the Upanishads. Frequently passages horn the Rig-Veda and from 
the Atharva-Veda are quoted as containing, in cryptic expiessions of deep signifi- 
cance, early cori oboration of what is really a later and very different idea. This 
method of the Upanishads with respect to its prior scriptures is the same method 
as that employed by the later Hindu commentators on the Upanishads themselves 
In the course of the developments of thought this method of interpreting earlier 
ideas from a larger point of view is very serviceable ; practically and pedagogical! y 

299 



45-J AITAREYA UPANISHAD 

A bundled non citadels confined me, 

And yet, 1 a ha\\k (syena) \\ith swiftness, foith I flew' 

In embryo indeed thus lying (say ana), Vamadeva spoke in 
this wise. 

6. So he, kncwing this, having ascended aloft from this 
separation from the body (sarira-bheda), obtained all desires in 
the heavenly world (svarga lokz), and became immortal 
yea, became [immortal] ' 

THIRD ADHYAYA 

FIFTH KHANDA 
The pantheistic Self 

i. [Question.] Who is this one? 2 

[Answer :] We worship him as the Self (Atman). 

[Question .] Which one d is the Self? 

[Answer :] [He] whereby one sees, 4 or whereby one hear^/ 1 or 
whereby one smells odors, or whereby one articulates speech, 
or whereby one discriminates the sweet and the unsweet , 
[2] that which is heart (Jirdaya) and mind (manas) that is, 
consciousness (samjndna), perception (ajTiana), discrimination 
(vijnana), intelligence (prajnanci), wisdom (medhas), insight 
(drsti), steadfastness (dhrti), thought (matt), thoughtfulness 
(mantsa)> impulse (jflti), memory (smrtt), conception (samkalpa), 
purpose (kratu), life (aszt), desire (kamd), will (vasa). 

it may be almost indispensable to the expounder of a philosophy 01 to the exhoiter 
of a religion ; yet by the scholar it is to be carefully discnmmated fiom a historically 
exact exegesis of the primitive statements. 

1 Reading adAa. as in the Rig- Veda passage and in a variant of iSaiikaia But 
all editions of the text and of the commentators read adkah^ " down ' 

2 The interpretation of ayam here is doubtless the same as in the opening 
sentence of the previous Adhyaya. See note 2 on p. 298. 

All the published texts read *yam. But Mutter and Bohthngk emend \.Q yarn. 
With this reading and with anothei grouping of words the entire section might be 
rendered as forming consecutive queries, thus : 

4 [Question :] Who is he whom we worship as the Self (Atman) Which 
one is the Self? [He] wheieby one . . . or .... or .... the unsweet ' 

Then the remainder of the Adhyaya would form the answer. 

3 That is, which one of the two selves previously mentioned? the primeval, 
universal Self or the individual self? 

4 Roer and the Bombay editions have here, in addition, rftpam, ' Jorm.' 

5 Roer and the Bombay editions have here, in addition, tabdam, ' sound.' 

300 



AITAREYA UPANISHAD [-5.4 

All these, indeed, are appellations of intelligence (prajiiand). 

3. He ib Brahma ; he is Indra ; he is Prajapatt ; [he is] all 
these gods ; and these five gross elements (maha-bhutam}, 
namely earth (prt/iivi), wind (vayu), space (akasd), water 
(apas), light (jyotlinsi) ; these things and those which are 
mingled of the fine (ksudra), as it were ; origins (bija) * of 
one sort and another: those born from an egg (anda-ja), and 
those born from a womb (ja7-u~jci)^ and those born from sweat 
(sveda-ja)? and those bom from a sprout (udbhij-ja) , horses, 
cows, persons, elephants ; whatevei breathing thing there is 
here whethei moving or flying, and what is stationary. 

All this is guided by intelligence, is based on intelligence. 
The world is guided by intelligence. The basis is intelligence 
Brahma is intelligence. 

4. So he [i. e. Vamadcva], having ascended aloft from this 
world with that intelligent Self (Atman), obtained all desires in 
yon heavenly woild, and became immortal yea, became 
[immortal] ! 

Thus (iti) ' Om \ 

1 Liteially, 4 seeds.' 

2 This item may be a later addition to the other three, which are already similarly 
classified in Chanel 6. 3 i . 



301 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 1 



FIRST ADHYAYA 

Th.6 course of reincarnation, and its termination 
through metaphysical knowledge 2 

Citra and Svetaketu eoneeming the path to the conclusion 
of reincarnation 

i. Citra Gangyayani, 3 verily, being about to sacrifice, chose 
Aruni. 4 He then dispatched his son Svctaketu, saying : ' You 
perform the sacrifice.' When he had arrived, 5 he asked of 
him : e Son of Gautama, is there a conclusion [of transmigra- 
tion] in the world in which you will put me? Or is there any 
road ? Will you put me in its world ? ' 

Then he said : * I know not this. However, let me ask the 
teacher.' Then he went to his father and asked : ' Thus and so 
has he asked me. How should I answer ? ' 

Then he said : c I too know not this. Let us pursue Veda- 
study (svddhydyd) at [his] residence, and get what our betters 
give. Come ! Let us both go. J 

Then, fuel in hand, he returned to Citra Gangyayani, and 
said : 'Let me come to you as a pupil.' 

To him then he said : * Worthy of sacred knowledge (brahma) 
are you^ O Gautama, who have gone not unto conceit. Come ! 
I will cause you to understand.' 

1 Throughout the notes to this Upanishad the chaiacter A designates the recenbion 
published in the Ananda^rama Sanskrit Seiies, and B designates the recension pub- 
lished iri the Bibliotheca Indica Series 

2 Other expositions of this subject occur at Chaud. 5. 3-10 and Bnh. 6. 2. 

3 Or Gargyayanij according to another reading. 

4 That is, as officiating priest Com. 

5 So B, abhyagatam ; but A has, instead, asmam, ' when he was seated.' 

6 So A putra *sti; but B has the (less appropriate) reading putro ', ' You are 
the son of Gautama ' Is there ... * 

302 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-1.2 

The testing at the moon ; thence either return to earth, 
or further progress 

2. Then he said : ' Those who, verily, depart from this woi Id 
to the moon, in truth, they all go. During the earlier half it 
thrives on their breathing spirits (prdnd) ; with the latter half 1 
it causes them to be reproduced. This, verily, is the door of 
the heavenly woild that is, the moon. Whoever answers it. 
him it lets go fuither. But whoever answers it not, him, 
having become rain, it rains down here. Either as a worm, or as 
a moth, or as a fish, or as a bird, or as a lion, or as a wild boar, 2 
or as a snake, or as a tiger, or as a person, or as some other in 
this or that condition, he is born again here according to his 
deeds (karman), according to his knowledge. 

When he comes thither it asks him : ' Who are you? ' 

He should reply : 

' From the fai -shining, 3 O yc seasons has semen been gatheied, 
From the fifteenfold pioduced, 3 fiom the lealm of the fatheis. 3 
As such send ye me in a man as an agent. 
With the man as an agent in a mothei infuse me. 

So am I born, being born forth 4 as the twelfth or thirteenth 
succeeding month, by means of a twelve- or thirteen-fold 
father. 5 For the knowledge of this was I for the knowledge 
of the opposite of this. So bring ye my seasons on to 

1 Reading aparapa&ena. 

2 In A this item is lacking, and the order of the series is diffeient. 
J That is, the moon. Com, 

4 itpa-jayamana or perhaps 're-born,' a meaning which is used in the BhG. 
and MBh. 

fl That is, the year. Com. 

* This ' = 3z/wz<2, according to the Com. The idea is perhaps: 'A person's 
life is either unto knowledge of the tiuth, or tmto ignorance.* Deussen interprets 
more specifically, with reference to ' the two paths ' which are being expounded in 
this 'chapter, that *this' refeis to the devayana, c the path to the gods,' and 'the 
opposite of this ' to the pitryan i t ' the path to the fathers. 7 Bohtlmgk makes an 
ingenious text-emendation : sain tad vide '/*;//, prati tad vide 'fiam } instead of 
'sam tadmde 'ham, ptatttadvidt 'ham But the result, <I am conscious of this, 
I recollect this,' does not seem as, probable as the traditional reading, although 
that itself does not seem altogether correct Bohthngk's article c Bernerkungen zu 
einigen Upanishaden* contains on pp. 98-99 a rejoinder to Deussen on this same 
passage. 

33 



1.2-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

immoitality. By this truth, by this austerity I am a season, 
I am connected with the seasons. Who am I ? I am you.' 
It lets him go further. 

The course to the Brahma- world 

3. Having entered upon this Devayana('Leading-to-lhe-gods') 
path, he comes to the world of Agni (Fire), then to the world 
of Viyu (Wind), then to the world of Varuna, 1 then to the 
world of Indra, then to the world of Prajapati, then to the 
world of Brahma. This Brahma-world, verily, has the lake 
Ara the moments Yeshtiha, the river Vijara (' Ageless '), the tree 
Ilya, the city Salajya, the abode Aparajita (' Unconquered '), 
the two door-keepers Indra and Prajapati, the hall Vibhu 
('Extensive'), the thione Vicakshana ( c Far-shining'), the 
couch Amitaujas ( f Of Unmeasured Splendor '), and the beloved 
Manasi ( c Mental 1 ), and her counterpart CakshushI (' Visual'), 
both of whom, taking flowers, verily weave the worlds, and the 
Apsarases (Nymphs), Ambas ('Mothers') and Ambayavis 
( Nurses '), and the rivers Ambaya (' Little Mothers '). To it 
comes he who knows this. To him Brahma says , 6 Run ye 
to him' With my glory, verily, he has reached the rivei 
Vijara ( c Ageless '). He, verily, will not grow old. 5 

The knower's triumphal progress through the Brahma- 
world 

4. Unto him there go forth five hundred Apsarases, one 
hundred with fruits in their hands, one hundred with ointments 
in their hands, one hundred with garlands in their hands, one 
hundred with vestments in their hands, one hundred with 
powdered aromaticsin their hands. They adorn him with the 
adornment of Brahma. He, having been adorned with the 
adornment of Brahma, a knower of Brahma, unto Brahma goes 
on. He comes to the lake Ara. This he crosses with his 
mind. On coming to it, those who know only the immediate, 
sink. He comes to the moments Yeshtiha. These run away 
from him. He comes to the river Vijara ( { Ageless '). This 
he crosses with his mind alone (eva). There he shakes off his 

3 Here A adds * then to the woild of Aditya (the Sun),' 

34 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-1.5 

good deeds and his evil deeds. His dear relatives succeed to 
the good deeds ; those not dear, to the evil deeds. Then, just 
as one driving a chariot looks down upon the two chariot- 
wheels, thus he looks down upon day and night, thus upon 
good deeds and evil deeds, and upon all the pairs of opposites. 
This one, devoid of good deeds, devoid of evil deeds, a knower 
of Brahma, unto very Brahma goes on. 

Approaching unto the very throne of Brahma 

5. He comes to the tree Ilya , the fragrance of Brahma enters 
into him. 

He comes to the city Salajya , the flavor of Brahma enters 
into him. 

He comes to the abode Aparajita (' Unconquered ') , the 
brilliancy of Brahma enters into him. 

He comes to the two door-keepers, Indra and Prajapati ; 
these two run away from him. 

He comes to the hall Vibhu (' Extensive ') ; the glory of 
Brahma enters into him. 

He comes to the throne Vicakshana ( Far-shining ) ). 1 The 
Bnhad and the Rathantara Samans are its two fore feet ; the 
Syaita and the Naudhasa, the two hind feet ; the Vairupa and 
the Vairaja, the two lengthwise pieces ; the Sakvara and 
Raivata, the two cross ones. It is Intelligence (prajna), for by 
intelligence one discerns. 

He comes to the couch Amitanjas ('Of Unmeasured 
Splendor ') ; this is the breathing spirit (prdna). The past and 
the future are its two fore feet ; prosperity and refreshment, the 
two hind feet ; the Bhadraand Yajnayajmya [Samans], the two 
head pieces ; the Brihad and the Rathantara, the two length- 
wise pieces ; the verses (re) and the chants (saman), the cords 
stretched lengthwise ; the sacrificial formulas (yqjus), the cross 
ones ; the Soma-stems, the spread ; the Udgltha, the bolster 
(iipasri) ; prosperity, the pillow. Thereon Brahma sits. He 
who knows this, ascends it with one foot only (eva) at first. 

1 The combined descriptions of the throne and of the couch are very similar to 
the description of Vratya's seat in AV. 15. 3. 3-9, and also of India's throne in 
Ait. Br. 8. 12. 

305 x 



i. 5-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

Him Brahma asks, 'Who are you>' To him he should 
answer : 

Essential identity with tne infinite Real 

6. f I am a season. I am connected with the seasons. Fiorn 
space as a womb I am produced as the semen for a wife, 1 as 
the brilliance of the year, as the soul (atman) of every single 
being. You are the soul of every single being. What you are, 
this am I. J 

To him he says : ' Who am P ' 

He should say : ' The Real' 

What is that, namely the Real (satyavi) ? ' 

c Whatever is other than the sense-organs (dcva) and the 
vital breaths (prana) that is the actual (sat). But as for the 
sense-organs and the vital breaths that is the yon (tyam). 
This is expressed by this word " satyam " ( c the Real '). It is 
as extensive as this world-all. You are this world-all/ 

Thus he speaks to him then. This very thing is declared 
by a Rig[-Veda] verse : 

Apprehension of It through the Sacred "Word and through 

all the functions of a person ; the knower's universal 

possession 

7. Having the Yajus as his belly, having the Sam an as his head, 
Having the Rig as his form, yonder Imperishable 
* Is Brahma ' ' Thus is he to be discerned 
The great seei, consisting of the Sacred Word (br alma-mayo). 11 

He says to him : e Wherewith do you acquire ( */dp) my 
masculine names ? ' 

1 With the vital breath (prana, masc.),' he should answer. 
c Wherewith feminine names ? ' 3 
* With speech (vac> fern.)/ 
' Wherewith neuter ones ? ' 3 

1 So B : bkdryayat retas. A has instead bhaya(s) etad, . . produced fiom 
light ; thus [I am] the brilliance . . . ' 

2 The passage from the last sentence in the preceding section through this stanza 
is not found in some manuscripts, is not commented on by ankarananda, and 
therefore is very probably an interpolation. 

3 Such is the order in A; but in B the items about { feminine names' and 'neutei 
names * are transposed. 

306 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-2.1 

' With the mind (inanas, neut.).' 

' Wherewith odors ? ' 

1 With the breath (prana l }.' 

1 Wherewith forms ? ' 

' With the eye.' 

' Wherewith sounds ? ' 

' With the ear/ 

' Wherewith the flavoi s of food ? ' 

' With the tongue/ 

' Wherewith actions ? ' 

' With the two hands.' 

i Wherewith pleasuic and pain ? ' 

' With the body.' 

( Wherewith bliss, delight, and proci cation ' 

1 With the generative organ.' 

' Wherewith goings ? ' 

* With the two feet.' 

' Wherewith thoughts, what is to be understood, and desires? ' 

4 With intelligence (frajna)! he should say. 

To him he says: 'The [primeval] waters [and also: 
Acquisitions], 2 verily, indeed, aie my world. It is yours.' 

Whatever conquest is Brahma's, whatever attainment that 
conquest he conqueis, that attainment he attains who knows 
this yea, who knows this ! 

SECOND ADHYAYA 

The doctrine of Prana, together with certain 
ceremonies 

Identity with. Brahma ; its value in service and security to 

oneself 

i. 'The breathing spirit (prana) is Brahma 1 thus indeed 
was Kaushltaki wont to say. 

1 A variant in both A and B is ghrana, ' smell ' 

2 The Com. explains apas as meaning l the primary elements.'' But the word 
very probably has a double significance in this connection ; beside its evident mean- 
ing, it refers also (though as an artificial plural of */&f) to the preceding questions, 
* Wherewith do you acquire (V&P) - ' The usual Upanishadic conclusion of 
such a series would very appropriately be formed if the word meant, summarily, 
acquisitions.' 

307 xa 



2.I-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

Of this same breathing spirit as Brahma, verily, indeed, the 
mind (manas) is the messenger , the eye, the watchman ; the 
ear, the announcer ; speech, the handmaid. 1 

He who, verily, indeed, knows the mind as the messenger of 
this breathing spirit, [i. e ] of Brahma, becomes possessed of 
a messenger ; he who knows the eye as the watchman, becomes 
possessed of a watchman; he who knows the ear as the 
announcer, becomes possessed of an announcer ; he who 
knows speech as the handmaid, becomes possessed of a hand- 
maid. 2 

To this same breathing spirit as Brahma, verily, all these 
divinities without his begging bring offering. Likewise, indeed, 
to this same breathing spirit all beings without his begging 
bring offering. 

Of him who knows this, the secret doctrine (ttpanisad) is . 
' One should not beg.' It is as if, having begged of a village 
ffl and not having received, one were to sit down, 3 saying: 
e I would not eat anything given from here ! ' and then those 
very ones who formerly refused him invite him, saying : f Let 
us give to you ! ' Such is the virtue (dharma) of the non- 
beggar. 4 Charitable people, however, address him, saying: 
' Let us give to you 1 ' 

2. The breathing spirit (prana) is Brahma 5 thus, indeed, 
was Paingya wont to say. 

Of this same bieathing spirit as Brahma, verily, off behind 
the speech the eye is enclosed ; off behind the eye the ear is 
enclosed ; off behind the ear the mind is enclosed ; off behind 
the mind the breathing spirit is enclosed. 

To this same breathing spirit as Brahma, verily, all these 

1 In A this Item about speech ' comes directly after * mind.' 

2 This paragraph is lacking in A. 

3 Or, 'fast upon [the village].' For the practice of ' suicide by starvation* see 
the article by Prof. Hopkins in JAOS. 21. 146-159, especially p. 159, where this 
very passage is discussed. 

4 The idea would seem to be : < Such (i. e. the same) is tiue of the non-beggar 
who knows. Without his begging, however, he too receives.' But, instead of the 
ayaeatas of B, A laa&yacitas, i.e. 'of the beggar.' Then the idea would seem to 
be : { Such (i. e. as has been described) is the virtue of the beggar. He finally 
receives. He who knows, however he, too, finally leceives without begging 
solely because of his knowing.' With either reading the meaning is not altogether 
explicit. 

308 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-3.3 

divinities without his begging bring offering. Likewise indeed, 
to him all beings without his begging bring offering. 

Of him who knows this, the secret doctrine (upanisad] is : 
' One should not beg/ It is as if, having begged of a village 
and not having received, one were to sit down, saying . * I would 
not eat anything given from here ! ' and then those very ones 
who formerly refused him invite him, saying: 'Let us give to 
you!' Such is the virtue of the non-beggar. 1 Charitable 
people, however, address him, saying : c Let us give to you ! ' 

3 (2). Now next, the procuring of a special prize, 

In case one should covet a special prizeeither on the night 
of a full moon or on the night of a new moon, or during the 
bright half of the moon under an auspicious constellation at 
one of these points of time, 2 having built up a fire, having swept 
around, having sprinkled around, having purified, 3 having 
bent the right knee, with a spoon (sm^a) or with a wooden 
bowl (camasa) or with a metal cup (kain$a)f he offers these 
oblations of melted butter : 

'The divinity named Speech is a piocurer. May it procure 
this thing for me from so-and-so ! To it, hail (svaha) ! 

The divinity named Breath (prdna) is a procurer. May it 
procure this thing for me from so-and-so ! To it, hail ! 

The divinity named Eye is a procurer. May it procure this 
thing for me from so-and-so ! To it, hail ! 

The divinity named Ear is a procurer. May it procure this 
thing for me from so-and-so ! To it, hail ! 

The divinity named Mind is a procurer. May it procure this 
thing for me from so-and-so ! To it, hail ! 

The divinity named Intelligence is a procurer. May it 
procure this thing for me from so-and-so ! To it, hail ! ' 

Then having sniffed the smell of the smoke, having 
rubbed his limbs over with a smearing of the melted butter, 
silently he should go foith 5 and declare his object, or despatch 
a messenger. He obtains indeed. 



1 See note 4 on page 308. 2 This phrase is lacking in A. 

3 This word is lacking m B, 

4 The ttto last alternatives are lacking in B. 

5 From the place of the oblations to the house of the possessor of the object 
Com. 

39 



. 4-J KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

To win another's affection 

4 (3). Now next, longing inconnection with the divine 
powers 1 (daiva smard) . 

If one should desire to become beloved of a man, or of a 
woman, or of men, or of women at one of these same [afore- 
mentioned] points of time, having built up a fire, 2 he in the 
same manner offers these oblations of melted butter : 
' Your Speech I sacrifice in me, you so-and-so I Hail ! 

Your Breath I sacrifice in me, you so-and-so ! Hail ! 

Your Eye I sacrifice in me, you so-and-so ! Hail ! 

Your Ear I sacrifice in me, you so-and-so ! Hail ' 

Your Mind I sacrifice in me, you so-and-so ! Hail ! 

Your Intelligence I sacrifice in me, you so-and-so ! Hail ! ' 
Then, having sniffed the smell of the smoke, having rubbed 
his limbs over with a smearing of the melted butter, silently he 
should go forth and desire to approach and touch, or he may 
simply stand and converse from windward. He becomes 
beloved indeed. They long for him indeed. 

The perpetual sacrifice of self 

5 (4). Now next, the matter of self-restraint (samyamand) 
according to Pratardana, or the 'Inner Agnihotra 
Sacrifice, 5 as they call it. 

As long, verily, as a person is speaking, he is not able to 
breathe. Then he is sacrificing breath (prana) in speech. 

As long, verily, as a person is breathing, he is not able to 
speak. Then he is sacrificing speech (vac) in breath. 

These two are unending, immortal oblations , whether waking 
or sleeping, one is sacrificing continuously, uninterruptedly. 3 
Now, whatever other oblations there are, they are limited, for 
they consist of works (karma-mayo). Knowing this very thing, 
verily, indeed, the ancients did not sacrifice the Agnihotra 
sacrifice. 

1 Namely Speech, Breath, Eye, Ear, Mind, and Intelligence enumerated in the 
previous section. 

2 This phrase is lacking in B. 
8 This word is lacking m B. 

310 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 



Glorification of the Uktha l 

6. ' The Uktha (Recitation) is bralima (sacred word) ' thus 
indeed was Sushkabringara wont to say. 

One should leverence it as the Rig (Hymn of Praise) ; unto 
such a one indeed all beings sing praise (re] for his supremacy. 

One should reverence it as the Yajus (Sacrificial Formula); 
unto such a one indeed all beings are united (yujyante) for his 
supremacy. 

One should leverence it as the Saman (Chant) ; unto such a 
one indeed all beings bow down (samnamante) for his supremacy. 

One should reverence it as beauty (srz). 

One should reverence it as glory (yasas), 

One should reverence it as brilliancy (tejas). 

As this [i.e. the Uktha] is the most beautiful, the most 
glorious, the most brilliant among the Sastras (Invocations of 
Praise) even so is he who knows this, the most beautiful, the 
most glorious, the most brilliant among all beings. 

So the Adhvaryu priest prepares (samskaroti) this soul 
(atman) that is related to the sacrifice, 2 that consists of works. 
On it he weaves what consists of the Yajus. On what consists 
of the Yajus the Hotri priest weaves what consists of the Rig. 
On what consists of the Rig the Udgatri priest weaves what 
consists of the Saman, This is the soul of all the threefold 
knowledge. And thus he who knows this, becomes the soul 
of Indra. 3 

Daily adoration of the stua for the removal of sin 

7 (5). Now next are the all-conquering Kaushltaki's 
three adorations 

The all-conquering Kaushltaki indeed was wont to 4 worship 
the rising sun having performed the investiture with the sacred 

1 Compare the identification of the Uktha with Prdna at Brih. 5. 13. I. 

2 So B, aistikam ; A has instead, ai^takam^ c that is related to the sacrificial 
bricks.' 

3 So B, Instead of this sentence, A has . ' And this is the soul of a person 
Thus he becomes a soul who knows this ' 

4 The preceding woids of this sentence are lacking in A. That has simply '"He 
would worship . . ' 

3" 



2.7-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

thread ( yajiiopavttain)?- having sipped 2 water, thrice having 
sprinkled the water-vessel saying: 'Thou art a snatcher! 
Snatch my sin (papman) \ ' 

In the same manner [he was wont to worship the sun] when 
it was in the mid-heaven : ' Thou art a snatcher- up ! Snatch up 
my sin ! ' 

In the same manner [he was wont to worship the sun] when it 
was setting : * Thou art a snatcher-away ! Snatch away my sin ! ' 

Whatever evil (papa) he committed by day or night, it 
snatches away. 3 

Likewise also he who knows this, worships the sun in the 
same manner, 3 Whatever evil one commits by day or night, 
it snatches away. 

Eegular adoration of the new moon for prosperity 

8, Now, month by month on the night of the new moon when 
it comes around 4 one should,, in the same manner, worship the 
moon as it appears in the west ; or he casts two blades of 
green grass fl toward it, saying : 

' That heart of mine of contour fair (suszma) 
Which in the moon in heaven rests 
I ween myself aware of that I 
May I not weep for children's ill!' 6 

1 This probably is the earliest reference to the Indian religious custom of 
investing the twice-born with a sacred thread to be worn over the left shoulder. 
Max Muller (SBE. I. 285, note i). 

2 Thus A . acamya\ B, instead, has oniya, c having fetched.' 

3 The preceding sentence is lacking in A. 

4 This word, vrttayxm, is lacking in A. 

s Instead of this phrase kant&-frne vd praty-asyati, A has hanta-trnabhydm 
vdk praty-asyati . . , < with two blades of green grass speech casts toward . . ' 
6 So in IB ; but in A this stanza reads 

' That heart of thine of contour fair 
Which rests up in the moon with that, 
O queen of immortality, 
May I not weep for children's ill ' ' 

The meaning of c srt-sfmam* in the first line is uncertain, slman, the base of 
this compound, is used (according to the references in J3R.) to mean either the line 
of the hair-part or the line of a boundary, i. e. out-line. In the case-form in which 
the compound occuis in this passage it must needs, apparently, agree with ' heart ' j 
and its meaning would involve the second-mentioned meaning of the base. 
Accordingly, in this poetical passage, it is rendered < of contour fair.' This stanza 

312 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-2.9 

In advance of such a one, indeed, his progeny decease not. 
Thus in the case of one to whom a son has been born. 
Now in the case of one to whom a son has not been born. 

1 Be thou swelled forth. Let enter thee . . / 1 

' In thee let juices, powers also gather . . .' 2 

1 The stalk that the Adityas cause to swell forth . . .' 3 

Having muttered these three sacred verses (re), he says : 
' Cause not thyself to swell forth with our vital breath, piogeny, 
cattle ! He who hates us and him whom we hate cause 
thyself to swell forth with his vital breath, progeny, cattle ! 4 

Thereupon I turn myself with India's turn 5 ; I turn myself 
along with the turn of the sun.' 

Thereupon he turns himself toward the light arm. 

9 (6). Now, on the night of the full moon one should, in the 
same manner, worship the moon as it appears in the east, 
saying : 

c Thou art King Soma Thou art the Far-shining, the 
Five-mouthed, Prajapati (Lord of Creation). 

The Brahman (brahmand) is one mouth of thee. With that 
mouth thou eatest the kings. With that mouth make me an 
eater of food. 

The king (rajau) is one mouth of thee. With that mouth 

recurs latei, though in changed form, at 2.10 there, as well as here, with 
variations m A and B. The form in 2. 8 B seems to be quoted (though incom- 
pletely and with additional lines) at Par. Grihya Sutra i. u. 9 ; and the form in 
2. 10 A, similarly, at Abv. Grihya Sutia i 13. 7. In all those three other instances 
the person addressed is different, it being there a wife addressed by her husband, 
while here the moon by a woishipei. And irf the adapted form of the stanza as 
a whole this particular woid also is different : susfme, vocative singular feminine. 
Its meaning there, accoidmgly, would seem quite evidently to be c O thou (fern.) 
with fair-parted hail.* Perhaps for the sake of uniformity with these three other 
occunenccs of the same (adapted) stanza, BR. and BWb. propose to emend here 
likewise to snsime ; and Deussen is inclined to favor this. It ib a plausible, but 
not a necessaiy, emendation ; a derivative compound may possess a double mean- 
ing as well as its base, and may be accordant therewith 
1 =RV. i. 91. 16 a and 9. 31 4 a. 2 = RV. i. 91. 18 a. 

3 - AV. 7. Si. 6 a with the exception of adityas for devas\ found also in TS 
2. 4. 14. i and MS. 4. 9. 27 ; 4 12. 2. 

4 The AV. chapter, a line of which was quoted just above, contains also (7. 81. 
5) a petition similar to this one. 

fl That is, toward the east, which is the special region of Indra. A instead has 
fo ' of the gods/ here as well as in the parallel passage later, 2. 9. 

313 



2.9-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

thou eatest the people (vii). With that mouth make me an 
eater of food. 

The hawk is one mouth of thee. With that mouth thou 
eatest the birds. With that mouth make me an eater of 
food. 

Fire is one mouth of thee. With that mouth thou eatest 
the world With that mouth make me an eater of food. 

In thee is a fifth mouth. With that mouth thou eatest all 
beings. With that mouth make me an eater of food. 

Waste not thou away with our vital breath 3 progeny, cattle ! 
He who hates us and him whom we hate waste thou away 
with his vital breath, progeny, cattle ! 

Thereupon I turn myself with the turn of the gods l , I turn 
myself along with the turn of the sun. 5 

Thereupon he turns himself toward the right arm. 

A prayer in connection with wife and children 

10. Now, when about to lie down with a wife, one should 
touch her heart, and say : 

1 That which in thy heait, [dame] with fan-paired ban, 
Is placed \\ithin Prajapati 2 
Theie^ith, O Queen of immortality, 
May you not come on children's ill 1 ' * 

In advance of such a one indeed her 4 children decease 
not. 

1 Deussen understands this \vord to refer to Varuna and Indra, regents of the 
western and the eastern quarters respectively ; and therefore supposes that in this 
ceremony the worshiper makes a complete turn around from east to west to east, as 
compared with the half turn from west to east in the previous paragraph. But 
there A has * of the gods ' instead of ' of Indra,* and other specifications the same 
as here. The necessary data for determining are insufficient; the conjecture may 
be possible for B ; but not for A. 

2 This stanza is adapted from 2 8. Between the moon, which was addressed 
there, and the wife, who is addressed here and who as the bearer of progeny is 
pantheistically associated with Prajapati, the Lord of Progeny, an intermediate 
connection is made at 2. 9 through the identification of the moon with Prajapati 
For variations in the two forms of the stanza consult page 312, note 6. 

3 Instead of these last two verses according to B, A has 

I ween myself aware of it. 

May I not weep for cmlchen's ill ' ' 
* A has, instead, the masculine form of the pronoun. 

314 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-2.11 

A returning father's affectionate greeting to his son l 

ii (7). Now, when one has been away, on coming back he 
should kiss 2 his son's head and say : 

'Fiom eveiy limb of mine you come! 
Right fiom my heait you are bom foith ! 
You are myself (dfman), indeed, my son ' 3 
So live a hundred autumns long 1 

So-and-so ! 4 ' He takes his name. 

i Become a stone ! Become an ax ! 
Become unconquerable gold ! 
A bi ilhance (tejas\ son, indeed you are ' 5 
So live a hundred autumns long ! c 

So-and-so ! 7 ' He takes his name. 

Then he embraces him, 8 saying: 'Wheiewith Prajapati 
embraced his creatures for their security, therewith I embrace 
you, So-and-so ! ' He takes his name. 9 

Then he mutters in his right ear : 

i Confer on him, 10 O generous one (magkavan\ onrushing . . .' 

and in the left [ear] : 

' O Indra, grant most excellent possessions ! ' " 

1 These directions are incorporated in the Grihya Sutras: Asvalayana I. 15. 3, 
9; Paraskara I. 16. 18; Khadira 2. 3. 13, Gobhila 2. 8. 21, 22; Apastamba 
6. 15. 12. 

2 So B, abhi-jighret A. has, instead, abhi-mrset^ ' touch,' On the c sniff-kiss ' 
see the article by Prof. Hopkins, JA OS. 28. 120-134. 

3 So B . putra ndma Possibly, however, putrana?na , if so, then 

* You are myself, by name my son ' * 
A has, instead, putra ma vitha : 

' You are myself You've saved me, son ! * 

This conception accords with the later etymology of son as t savior from hell,' y!w/- 
/;-#, ManavaDharma Sastra 9. 138. 

* This word (asatt) is lacking in B. 

5 Or, A Brilliance, son, by name you are ' * 

This stanza, with dtmd instead of tejas in the third line, occurs in the 
Madhyamdzna recension of Brih. at 6. 4. 26 ( = 6at, Br. 14. 9. 4. 26) and in 
Par. Gnhya Sutia i. 16 1 8 ; with vedas instead of the tejas, it occurs, along with 
the two following Rig-Veda quotations, in Asv. Grihya Sutra I. 15. 3. 

7 This word (asau} is lacking in B. 

8 This phiase is lacking in A. 9 This sentence is lacking in B. 

10 This line = RV. 3. 36. 10 a with asme, ' us,* adapted to asma?, 'him.' 

11 -RV. 2 21. 6 a. 



2. ii-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

[and says> ] k Be not cut off 11 Be not perturbed. 2 Live 
a hundred autumns of life. Son, I kiss your head with your 
name, So-and-so!' Thrice he should kiss his head. 

1 1 make a lowing over you with the lowing of cows. 1 Thrice 
he should make a lowing over his head. 

The manifestation of the permanent Brahma in evanescent 

phenomena 
(a) Cosmical powers revertible into wind 

13 (8). Now next, the dying around of the gods (daiva 
parimara}:* 

This Brahma, verily, shines when fire blazes ; likewise this 
dies when it blazes not. Its brilliance (tejas) goes to the sun , 
its vital breath (prdna\ into the wind (vayu). 

This Brahma, verily, shines when the sun is seen ; likewise 
this dies when it is not seen. Its brilliance goes to the moon ; 
its vital breath, to the wind. 

This Brahma, verily, shines when the moon is seen ; likewise 
this dies when it is not seen. Its bnlliance goes to lightning ; 
its vital breath, to the wind. 

This Brahma, verily, shines when the lightning lightens ; 
likewise this dies when it lightens not. Its brilliance goes to 
the wind 4 ; its vital breath, to the wind. 

All these divinities, verily, having entered into wind, perish 
not when they die in the wind ; therefrom indeed they come 
forth again. 

Thus with reference to the divinities. 

(b) An individual's powers revertible into breath. 

Now with reference to oneself. 

13. This Brahma, verily, shines when one speaks with 

1 ma chittha($\ [A; ckettfia(s)'B]. Compare, in the prayer 'For some 
one's continued life' at AV. 8. I. 4, ina chittha(s} asmal lokad . . 

* Be not cut off from this world, 
Fiom the sight of Agni and of the Sun ! ' 

2 ma vyathistha(s). Occurs m BhG. n. 34. 

5 Compare a somewhat similar passage in Ait. Br. 8. 28 entitled The Dying 
around Brahma/ where also the wind is the ultimate in the i egression of these 
same five phenomena (though in inverse ordei). 

4 So A. B has the less appropriate difas, l regions of heaven.' 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-2.14 

speech , likewise this dies when one speaks not. Its brilliance 
goes to the eye ; its vital breath, to the vital breath. 

This Brahma, verily, shines when one sees with the eye ; 
likewise this dies when one bees not. Its brilliance goes to the 
ear ; its vital breath, to the vital breath. 

This Brahma, verily, shines when one hears with the ear ; 
likewise this dies when one hears not. Its brilliance goes to 
the mind ; its vital breath, to the vital breath. 

This Brahma, verily, shines when one thinks with the mind ; 
likewise this dies when one thinks not. Its brilliance goes to 
the vital breath ; its vital breath, to the vital breath. 

All these divinities, verily, having entered into the vital 
breath, perish not when they die in the vital breath ; therefrom 
indeed they come forth again. 

So verily, indeed, if upon one who knows this both moun- 
tains should roll themselves forth both the southern and 
the northern 1 desiring to lay him low, indeed they would 
not lay him low. But those who hate him and those whom he 
himself (svayani) hates these all die around him. 

The contest of the bodily powers for supremacy ; the 
ultimate goal 

14 (9). Now next, the assumption of superior excel- 
lence (72 ihsrcyasadan a)? 

All these divinities, verily, indeed, when disputing among 
themselves in the matter of self-superiority, went forth from 
this body. It lay, not breathing, dry, 3 become like a piece of 
wood. 

Then speech entered into it. It just lay, speaking with 
speech. 

Then the eye entered into it. It just lay, speaking with 
speech, seeing with the eye. 

Then the ear entered into it. It just lay, speaking with 
speech, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear. 

Then the mind entered into it. It just lay, speaking with 

1 That is, the Vindhyas and the Himalayas respectively. 

2 Other accounts of the same allegory occur m Brih. 6 i. 1-14 ; Chand, 5. I ; 
and Kaush. 3. 3. 

3 The words ' not breathing, dry ' are lacking in A. 

3*7 



2.I4-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

speech, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, thinking 
with the mind. 

Then the vital breath (prdna) entered into it. Thereupon 
indeed it arose. 

All those divinities, verily, having recognized the superior 
excellence in the vital breath, and having passed into the vital 
breath, even the intelligential self (prajnatman}, went forth 
from this body 1 all these together. They, having entered 
into the wind, 2 having the nature of space (akysdtman), went 
to heaven (svar). 

Likewise also, indeed, he who knows this, having recognized 
the superior excellence in the vital breath, 3 having passed into 
the vital breath, even the intelligential self, of all beings, 4 goes 
foith from this body along with all these. He, having entered 
into the wind, 2 having the nature of space, goes to heaven 
He goes to that [place] where these gods are. Having reached 
that, he becomes immortal as the gods are immoital he who 
knows this. 3 

A dying father's bequest of his various powers to his son 5 

15(10). Now next, the Father-and-son Ceremony, or 
the Transmission, as they call it. 

A father, when about to decease, summons his son. Having 
strewn the house with new grass, having built up the fire, 
having set down near it a vessel of water together with a dish, 
the father, wrapped around with a fresh garment, remains 
lying. 6 The son, 7 having come, lies down on top, touching 

1 A has, Instead, ?okad, * world ' 

2 So B . vayu-pramsta ; but A has, instead, vayu-ptatiitha, s established on the 
wind.' 

3 The previous phrase is lacking in A. 

* The words e of all beings ' are lacking in B. 

5 Another account of a 'father-to-son transmission* is found m Bnh. i. 

5 * 7- 2 - 

6 So B : pita sete. But A has, instead, svayam fyete* According to this read- 
ing, what was in the other reading a main verb is lost ; and the sentences must be 
reconstructed : e A father . . . summons his son, having strewn . . . , having built 
, . . , having set down . . . dish, wrapped . . . garment, himself in white The 
son, ... * 

7 If the elision is of a locative, putre> instead of a nominative, j&w/jw, then with- 
out a grammatical impossibility (though with less probability as being an excep- 
tional usage) the sentence might mean : ' Upon the son when he comes (or, Upon 
the son's coming) he lies ... * 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-2.15 

organs with organs. Or he may, even, transmit to him seated 
face to face. 1 Then he delivers over to him [thus] : 

Father: ' My speech in you I would place ! ' 

Son : ' Your speech in me I take, 5 

Father . My breath (prana*) in you I would place ! * 

Son : c Your breath in me I take. 3 

Father : ' My eye in you I would place ! ' 

Son : Your eye in me I take.' 

Father : c My ear in you I would place ! ' 

Son: c Your ear in me I take.' 

Father : My tastes in you I would place ! ' 

Son. 'Your tastes in me I take.' 

Father : My deeds (karman) in you I would place ! ' 

Son : * Your deeds in me I take ' 

Father : ' My pleasure and pain in you I would place ! ' 

Son : " Your pleasure and pain in me I take.' 

Father : My bliss, delight, and procreation in you I would 
place ! ' 

Son : ' Your bliss, delight, and procreation in me I take/ 

Father : ' My goings in you I would place ' ' 

Son : ' Your goings in me I take/ 

Father : * My mind 3 in you I would place ! ' 

Son : ' Your mind in me I take.' 

Father : ' My intelligence (frajna) 4 in you I would place ! ' 
Son : c Your intelligence 4 in me I take.' 
If 5 however, he should be unable to speak much, let the 
father say summarily: 'My vital breaths (prdna) in you 
I would place ! ' [and] the son [reply] ' Your vital breaths in 
me I take.' 5 

Then, turning to the right, he goes forth toward the east. 
The father calls out after him : * May gloiy (yasas), sacred 
luster (brahma-varcasa}? and fame delight in you ! ' 

1 So B ; but A has, instead, ' ... sit in front of him/ 

2 This word here designates c breath ' as ' the function of smell, 1 rather than as 
c the breath of life, 1 

3 This item of the series is lacking m A ; but see next note. 

4 So IB ; A has, instead, dhwo mjnatavyam Mmdn, 'thoughts, what is to be 
understood, and desires 'items which occiu in a partially similar series in I 7. 

5 This whole sentence is lacking in A, 

6 This word, pran, is lacking in B. 

7 Here A has, in addition, *food to eat.' 

3*9 



2.15-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

Then the other looks over his left shoulder. Having hid 
[his face] with his hand, or having covered [it] with the edge 
of his garment, he says : ( Heavenly (svarga) worlds and desires 
do you obtain ! 3 

If he should become well, the father should dwell under the 
lordship of his son, or he should wander around as a religious 
mendicant. 1 If, however, he should decease 3 so let them 
furnish 2 him as he ought to be furnished as he ought to be 
furnished. 



THIRD ADHYAYA 
Doctrine of Prana (the Breathing Spirit) 

Knowledge of Indra, the greatest possible boon to men 

i. Pratardana Daivodasi by fighting and virility arrived at 
the beloved abode of Indra. 

To him then Indra said : Pratardana, choose a boon 
(vara) I ' 3 

Then said Pratardana c Do you yourself choose for me the 
one which you deem most beneficent to mankind/ 

To him then Indra said: ' A superior (vard), verily, chooses 
not for an inferior (avara). Do you yourself choose/ 

c No boon (a-vara), verily, then, is it to me ! J said Pratar- 
dana. 

But Indra departed not from the truth, for Indra is truth. 

To him then Indra said : * Understand me, myself. This 
indeed I deem most beneficent to man namely, that one should 
understand , me. I slew the three-headed son of Tvashtri. 4 



2 That is, with obsequies. Understood thus, the subject of the verb is indefinite ; 
and the object is the deceased father.' Possibly (though less probably, it would 
seem), * the p'dtias of the father ' are intended as the subject ; and the son is 
intended as the object Deussen's inteipretation. The reading of A gives yet 
another meaning ' According as he [i. e. the father] furnishes him [i. e. the son], 
so ought he to be furnished so ought he to be furnished.* 

3 A has, instead, * a boon I would give you ' * 

4 This exploit of Indra's is referred to at RV. 10. 8. 8, 9 ; io. 99. 6 ; Sat. Br. 
i. 2. 3. 2; 12. 7. i. i. Further accounts of this conflict between Indra and 
ViivarOpa, as the son of Tvashtri is called, occur at Tait. Samhita 2. 5 i. i ff. ; 
Sat. Br. i. 6. 3-^2; 5- 5- 4-2,3; and Kathaka 1 2. io (cited in Webei's IndiscHe 
$tudien> 3. 464). 

320 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD. [-3 a 

I delivered the Arunmukhas, ascetics, to the \\ild dogs. 1 
Transgressing many compacts, I transfixed the people of 
Prahlada 2 in the sky, the Paulomas 3 in the atmosphere, the 
Kalakanjas 4 on earth. 5 Of me, such a one as I was then 
(tasya me tatra\ not a single hair was injured ' 

So he who understands me by no deed whatsoever of his 
is his world injured, not by stealing, not by killing an embryo, 
not by the murder of his mother, not by the muider of his 
father; if he has done any 6 evil (papa), the dark color departs 
not 7 from his face. 8 ' 



His identity with, life and immortality 

2. Then he said: 'I am the breathing spiiit ( 
intelligential self (prajnatman). As such (tarn ), reverence me 
as life (ayus), as immortality. Life is the breathing spirit. 
The breathing spirit, verily, is life. The ' breathing spirit, 
indeed, is immortality. 10 For, as long as the breathing spirit 
remains in this body, so long is there life. For indeed, with 
the breathing spirit in this 11 world one obtains immortality, 
with intelligence, true conception (samkcdpa). 

So he who reverences me as life, as immortality, reaches the 
full term of life in this world ; he obtains immortality, inde- 
structibility (aksiti) in the heavenly world (svarga-loka)! 

1 The foregoing exploits of Indra aie mentioned at Ait. Br. 7. 28 

2 Oi, Piahrdda, a chief of the Asuras. 

3 A troop of demons 4 A tribe of Asm as 

5 Weber has an extensive discussion concerning the meaning of the foregoing 
names and the identity oi the personages, together with numerous relevant literary 
refeiences, m \usImhscheStudten, i. 410-418. 

G This word, cana, is lacking in B. 

7 That is, ' he does not become pale.' 

8 Professor Deussen's note on this sentence (Sechzig Upamshads, p 44, note i) 
is an acute and concise interpretation oi the geneial Upamshadictheon : * Whoevei 
has attained the knowledge of the Atrnan an 1 his unity with it, and thereby has 
been delivered from the illusion of individual existence, his good and evil deeds 
come to nought ; they are no longer his deeds, simply because he is no longer an 
individual.' 

9 So A But B has, instead, prajnatmanam , accordingly the sentences must be 
reconstructed thus: 'I am the bieathmg spirit (pdna). Reverence me as the 
intelligential self, as life, . . .* 

10 This sentence is lacking in B. 

11 So B ; but A has, instead, ' yonder ' 

3 2I Y 



3.2-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

The unity of an individual's functions or special pranas 

Now on this point some say: 'The vital bieaths (prana), 
verily, go into a unity, for ' so they say (iti) ' [otherwise] 
no one would be able at once to cause to know a name with 
speech, a form with the eye, a sound with the ear, a thought 
with the mind. As a unity, verily, the vital breaths, every 
single one, cause to know all things here. 
All the vital breaths speak along with speech when it speaks. 
All the vital breaths see along with the eye when it sees. 
All the vital breaths hear along with the eai when it hears. 
All the vital breaths think along with the mind when it thinks. 
All the vital breaths breathe along with breath (prdna) when 
it breathes/ 

1 That is indeed so,' said Indra. c There is, however,' he con- 
tinued (iti), ( a superior excellence among the vital breaths 

The really vitalizing and unifying ' vital breath,' the 
breathing spirit or conscious self 

3 One lives with speech gone, foi we see the dumb , 
one lives with eye gone, for we see the blind ; 
one lives with ear gone, for we see the deaf, 
one lives with mind gone, for we see the childish , 
one lives with arms cut off, one lives with legs cut off, 

for thus we see. 

But now it is the breathing spirit (prdna), even the intclli- 

gential self (prajnatman), that seizes hold of and animates 

(ut-thd) this body. This, therefore, one should reverence as 

the Uktha. 1 

This is the All-obtaining (sarvapti) 2 in the breathing spirit 
(prdnd)? 

As for the breathing spirit verily, that is the mtelligcntial 

1 The Recitation of Praise ' m the ritual. The same identification occurs also at 
Brzh. 5. 13 i. 

2 That is, ' it is in (the individual) conscious spirit that all facts aie obtained ' 
This compact expression might possibly be understood to summame the earhei 
practical teaching that 'in Prana a knower thereof obtains all things ' ; and also 
pregnantly the teaching (both earlier and later in this Upanishad) that ' m the 
conscious Self all things do obtain [both ontologically and ethically-' obtain ' 
being used in its intransitive meaning].' 

3 This sentence is lacking in B. 

322 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-3.3 

self ' As for the intelligential self verily, that is the breathing 
spirit For truly, these two dwell in this body ; together the 
two depart/ 

This is the view [drsti] thereof, this the understanding 
(vijnana) : 

When a person is so asleep that he sees no dream whatever, 
then he becomes unitary in this breathing spirit. Then 
speech together with all names goes to it ; 
the eye together with all forms goes to it ; 
the ear together with all sounds goes to it ; 
the mind together with all thoughts goes to it. 
When he awakens as from a blazing fire sparks would 
disperse in all directions, even so from this self (atman) the 
vital breaths (frdna) disperse to their respective stations; 
from the vital breaths the sense-powers (deva) ; from the 
sense-powers, the worlds. 

This selfsame breathing spirit as the intelligential self seizes 
hold of and animates (ut-tha) this body. This therefore one 
should reverence as the Uktha. 

This is the All-obtaining in the breathing spirit. 
As for the breathing spirit verily, that is the intelligential 
self As for the intelligential self verily, that is the breathing 
spirit. 1 

This is the proof (siddhi) thereof, this the understanding : 
When a sick person about to die comes to such weakness 
that he comes to a stupor (sammoAa), then they say of him : 
c His thought (cttfa) has departed. He hears not. He sees 
not. He speaks not with speech. He thinks not. 3 Then he 
becomes unitary in this breathing spirit (frdna). Then 
speech together with all names goes to it ; 
the eye together with all forms goes to it ; 
the ear together with all sounds goes to it ; 
the mind together with all thoughts goes to it. 2 

1 The preceding thiee paragraphs (winch have alieady occurred in this section) 
arc lacking in A. 

2 A has here m addition : < When he awakens as fiom a blazing fiie sparks 
would disperse in all directions, even s>o from this self the -vital breaths disperse to 
their respective stations ; from the vital breaths, the sense-powers ; from the sense- 
powers, the worlds/ But in the present context this sentence seems to be an inapt 
refrain from the previous paragraph. 

323 Y 2 



3-3-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

(4) When he departs from this body, he departs together 
with all these. 

The All-obtaining ' in Prana through the vital breaths 

4. Speech pours 1 all names in it 2 ; with speech it obtains 
all names. 

Breath (prdna) pours all odors in it ; with breath it obtains 

all odors. 

The eye pours all forms in it ; with the ey<* it obtains all 

forms. 

The ear pours all sounds in it ; with the ear it obtains all 

sounds. 

The mind pours all thoughts in it ; with the mind it obtains 
all thoughts. 

This is the All-obtaining (sarvapti)* in the breathing 

spirit. 

As for the breathing spirit (prdna} verily, that is the 
intelligence (prajna) ; as for the intelligence verily, that is 
the breathing spirit, 4 for together these two dwell in this body, 
together the two depart. 

The correlation of the individual's functions with the 
facts of existence 

Now then, we will explain how all beings (#///?/<?) become 
one with this intelligence 

5. Speech is one portion thereof taken out. Name is its 
externally correlated (parastatprati-w-hita) existential clement 
(bhiita-matra). 

Breath (pram) is one portion thereof taken out. Odor is 
its externally correlated existential element. 

The eye is one portion thereof taken out. Form (rnpci) is 
its externally correlated existential element. 

The ear is one portion thereof taken out. Sound is its 
externally correlated existential element. 

The tongue is one portion thereof taken out. Taste is its 
externally correlated existential clement. 

1 So A abhimsrjate. 2 So B : as mm 

3 On this word see p. 322, n. 2, above 

4 The previous sentence is lacking in B 

324 



KAUSH1TAKI UPANISHAD [-3.6 

The two hands are one portion thereof taken out. Work 
(karman] is their externally correlated existential element. 

The body is one portion thereof taken out. Pleasure and 
pain are its externally correlated existential element. 

The generative organ is one poition thereof taken out. 
Bliss, delight, and procreation are its externally correlated 
existential element. 

The two feet are one portion thereof taken out. Goings are 
their externally correlated existential element 

The mind (manas 1 } is one portion thereof taken out. 
Thoughts 2 and desires are its externally correlated existential 
element. 

The supremacy of consciousness in all the functions 
and facts of existence 

6. With intelligence (prajna) having mounted on speech, 
with speech one obtains all names. 

With intelligence having mounted on breath (prand)^ with 
breath one obtains all odors. 

With intelligence having mounted on the eye, with the eye 
one obtains all forms. 

With intelligence having mounted on the ear, with the ear 
one obtains all sounds. 

With intelligence having mounted on the tongue, with the 
tongue one obtains all tastes. 

With intelligence having mounted on the two hands, with the 
two hands one obtains all works. 

With intelligence having mounted on the body, with the 
body one obtains pleasure and pain. 

With intelligence having mounted on the geneiative organ, 
with the generative organ one obtains bliss, delight, and 
procreation. 

With intelligence having mounted on the two feet, with the 
two feet one obtains all goings. 

With intelligence having mounted on the mind (manas)* 
with the mind one obtains all thoughts. 4 



1 A has here, instead, ' intelligence (pr 

2 A has here, in addition, c what is to be understood (vijndtavyam}.' 

3 A has here, instead, dhi, c thought/ 

4 A has here, in addition, ' what is to be undeistood and desired.' 



3.7-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

The indispensableness of consciousness for all facts 
and experience 

7 For truly, apart from intelligence (frajud) speech would 
not make cognizant (pra+ Vjud) of any name whatsoever. 
'My mind was elsewhere/ cne says, f I did not cognize that 
name.' 

For truly, apart from intelligence breath would not make 
cognizant of any odor whatsoever. * My mind was elsewhere,' 
3ne says ; ' I did not cognize that odor/ 

For truly, apart from intelligence the eye would not make 
cognizant of any form whatsoever. ' My mind was elsewhere,' 
one says ; c I did not cognize that form,' 

For truly, apart from intelligence the ear would not make 
cognizant of any sound whatsoever. ' My mind was elsewhere/ 
one says ; ' I did not cognize that sound/ 

For truly, apart from intelligence the tongue would not 
make cognizant of any taste whatsoevei. ' My mind was else- 
where,' one says ; I did not cognize that taste/ 

For truly, apart from intelligence the two hands would not 
make cognizant of any action whatsoever. ' My (vie) mind was 
elsewhere/ one says (aha) ; { I (aham) did not cognize (prdjndsi- 
sam) 1 that action/ 

For truly, apart from intelligence the body would not make 
cognizant of any pleasure or pain whatsoever. c My mind was 
elsewhere/ one says ; c I did not cognize that pleasuie or pain/ 

For truly, apart from intelligence the generative organ would 
not make cognizant of any bliss, delight, and procreation what- 
soever. 'My mind was elsewhere/ one says ; ' I did not cog- 
nize that bliss, delight, and procreation.' 

For truly, apart from intelligence the two feet would not 
make cognizant of any going whatsoever. f My mind was else- 
where/ one says ; ' I did not cognize that going/ 

For truly, apart from intelligence no thought (dhl] whatsoever 
would be effected ; nothing cognizable would be cognized. 

1 These singular forms of A stem preferable to the dual forms of the readings in 
B; similarly in the third sentence following, about 'feet.' Accordingly, the 
speaker in all these direct quotations is to be understood ab indefinite rather than as 
the particular organ mentioned. 

326 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-3.8 

The subject of all knowledge, the paramount object 
of knowledge 

8. Speech is not what one should desire to understand. One 
should know the speaker. 

Smell is not what one should desire to understand. One 
should know the smeller. 

Form is not what one should desire to understand. One 
should know the seer. 1 

Sound is not what one should desire to understand. One 
should know the hearer. 

Taste is not what one should desire to understand. One 
should know the discerner of taste. 

The deed is not what one should desire to understand. One 
should know the doer. 

Pleasure and pain are not what one should desire to under- 
stand. One should know the discerner of pleasure and pain. 

Bliss, delight, and procreation are not what one should desire 
to understand. One should know the discerner of bliss, delight, 
and procreation. 

Going is not what one should desire to understand. One 
should know the goer. 

Mind (manas) is not what one should desire to understand. 
One should know the thinker (mantr). 

The absolute correlativity of knowing and being 

These ten existential elements (bhuta-matra), verily, are 
with reference to intelligence (ad/ii-prajna). The ten intelli- 
gential elements (prajiia-matra) are with reference to existence 
(adhi-bhuta ) For truly, if there were no elements of being 
there would be no elements of intelligence. Verily, if there 
were no elements of intelligence, there would be no elements 
of being. For tuily, from either alone no appearance (rupa) 
whatsoever would be effected. 

Their unity in the conscious self 

And this is not a diversity. But as of a chariot the felly 
is fixed on the spokes and the spokes are fixed on the hub, 

1 So B ; but A has, instead, the knower of form/ 
337 



3 .cV] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

even so these elements of being (bhuta-mdtra) are fixed on the 
elements of intelligence (prajnd-mdtra), and the elements of 
intelligence are fixed on the breathing spirit (prana). 

This bame breathing spirit, in truth, is the intelligcntial self 
(prajriatmati) ; [it is] bhss, ageless, immortal. 

A person's ethical irresponsibility, his very self being 
identical with the world-all 

He does not become greater (bhuyas) with good action, nor 
indeed lesser (kaniyas) with bad action. 

This one, truly, indeed, causes him whom he wishes to lead 
up from these worlds, to perform good action. This one, 
also, indeed, causes him whom he wishes to lead downward, to 
perform bad action. 

He is the world-protector (loka-pald) He is the world- 
sovereign (lokadhipati}. He is the lord of all. 1 

4 He is my self (atman] ' this one should know. He is my 
self this one should know. 



FOURTH ADHYAYA 

A progressive definition of Brahma 2 

Balaki's offer of instruction concerning Brahma 

i. Now then, verily, there was Gargya Balaki, famed as 
learned in the scriptures (anucand). He dwelt among the 
Uslnaras, among the Satvans and the Matsyas, 3 among the 
Kurus and the Pancalas, among the Kasis and the Videhas. 

He, then, coming to Ajatas'atru, [king] of Kasi, 4 said : 
* Let me declare Brahma to you.' 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' A thousand [cows] we give 
to you ! At such a word as this, verily, indeed, people would 
run together, crying, " A Janaka ! 5 A Janaka ! " ' 

1 So A : sarvesa ; bat B has, instead, loke^ < world-lord ' 
- Another narration of the same dialogue occurs at Bnh. 2 r. 

3 Adopting the reading satvan-matsyem in agreement with BR. s v , Weber 
(Jndischc Stztdien^ I. 419), and Deussen. 

4 The modern Benares. 

5 A king famed for his great knowledge. 

328 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-4.4 

Clue-words of the subsequent conversation 

2. 1 In the sun the Great, 

in the moon Food, 

in lightning Truth, 

in thunder Sound, 

in wind Indra Vaikuntha, 

in space the Plenum, 

in fire the Vanquisher, 

in water Brilliance (tejas). 

Thus with leference to the divinities (adhi-daivata). 
Now with reference to the self (adky-atma). 

In the mirror the Counterpart, 

in the shadow the Double, 

in the echo Life (asu), 

in sound Death, 

in sleep Yama [Lord of the dead], 

in the body Prajapati [Lord of Creation], 

in the right eye Speech, 

in the left eye Truth. 

Balaki's and Ajatasatru's progressive determination 

of Brahma 
(a) In various cosmic phenomena 

3. Then said Balaki : < Him who is this person in the sun 
him indeed I reveience.' 

To him then Ajatasatru said : Make me not to converge on 
him ! As the Gieat, the White-robed, the Pre-eminent (ati- 
stha), the Head of all beings thus, verily, I reverence him/ 

He then who reverences him thus, becomes pre-eminent, the 
head of all beings. 

4. Then said Balaki : * Him who is this person in the moon 
him indeed I reverence.' 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' Make me not to converse on 
him! As King Soma, 2 as the soul (dtman) of Food thus, 
verily, I reverence him/ 

He then who reverences him thus, becomes the soul of food. 

1 Tins entire paiagraph is lacking in some manuscripts. It js merely a list of 
clue-words summarizing the following conversation 

2 This phrase is lacking m B. 

329 



4 .5~] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

5. Then said Balaki : l Him who is this person in the light- 
ninghim indeed I reverence/ 

To him then Ajatasatru said . ' Make me not to converse 
on him ! As the soul of Truth l thus, verily, I reverence him.' 

He then who reverences him thus, becomes the soul of 
truth. 1 

6. Then said Balaki : ' H im who is this person in t h u n d e r 
him indeed I reverence.' 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' Make me not to converse 
on him ! As the soul of Sound thus, verily, I reverence him/ 

He then who reverences him thus, becomes the soul of 
sound. 

7 (8 -). Then said Balaki . ' Him who is this person in 
wind him indeed I reverence/ 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' Make me not to converse on 
him ' As Indra Vaikuntha, the unconquered heio thus, verily, 
I reverence him/ 

He then who reverences him thus, becomes indeed trium- 
phant, unconquerable, a conqueror of adversaries. 

8 (7 2 ). Then said Balaki * Him who is this person in 
space him indeed I reverence/ 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' Make me not to converse on 
him ! As the Plenum (purna), the non-active (a-pravartin] 
Brahma thus, verily, I reverence him/ 

He then who reverences him thus, becomes filled (puryatc) 
with offspring, cattle, ' 6 splendor (yasas), the luster of sanctity 
(brahma-varcasa)) and the heavenly world (svarga-lokd) ; he 
reaches the full term of life. 

9. Then said Balaki : c Him who is this person in fire him 
indeed I reverence/ 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' Make me not to converse on 
him ! As the Vanquisher thus, verily, I reverence him/ 

He then who reverences him thus, becomes verily a 
vanquisher amid others. 4 

1 A lias here, instead, * of brilliance.' 

2 A inverts the order of sections fiom B. 

3 Instead of the following portion of this paragiaph, A has 'Neither he nor 
his offspring moves on (pra-vartate) before the time/ 

4 So B: va* anyesu; but A has, instead, eva 'nv esa, ' . . . , such a one in 
consequence becomes a vanquisher indeed.' 

33 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-4.13 

10 Then said Balaki : ' Him who is this person in water 
him indeed I reverence/ 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' Make me not to converse 
on him' As the soul (atman) of Brilliance 1 thus, verily, I 
reverence him.' 

He then who icverences him thus, becomes the soul of 
brilliance. 1 

Thus with reference to the divinities, 



(b) In the self 

Now with icference to the self. 

u. Then said Balaki 'Him who i^ this peison in the 
mirror him indeed I reverence.' 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' Make me not to converse on 
him ' As the Counterpait thus, verily, I reverence him.' 

He then who reverences him thus a very counterpart of 
him is born in his offspring, not an unlikeness. 

3 2. Then said Balaki : ' Him who is this person in the 
shadow 2 him indeed I reverence. 1 

To him then Ajatasatru said . ' Make me not to converse on 
him ! As the inseparable Double thus, verily, I reverence 
him.' 

He then who reverences him thus, obtains from his double" 
he becomes possessed of his double. 4 

13. Then said Balaki: 'Him who is this peison in the echo 5 
him indeed I reverence.' 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' Make me not to converse on 
him ! As Life (asu) b thus, vciily, I reverence him.' 

He then who reverences him thus, 7 passes not into un- 
consciousness (sammoka) before the time. 

So B . lejasas , but A has, instead, ' of name ' 

2 Instead of this word, A has ' the echo/ 

J That is, his wife. * In offspring. Com. 

5 Instead of this phrase, A has . * The sound that followb a peison that 
indeed . . . ' 

G Strictly ' the bieath of life ' , but A has, instead, djru, ' life/ htnctly the 
duration of life.' In either recension the conception of hie seems to imply an 
active response to, and correspondence with, environment. 

7 A has here, in addition, ' neither he noi Ins offspring,' 

33 1 



4 14-] KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

14. Then s,aid Balaki: * Him who is this person in 
sound l him indeed I reveience' 

To him then Ajatasatru said : k Make me not to converse 
on him ! As Death thus, verily, I reverence him/ 

He then who reverences him thus, 2 deceases not before the 
time. 

15 (16 J ), Then baid Balaki . ' The person here who, asleep, 4 
moves about in dream him indeed I reverence ' 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' Make me not to converse on 
him ! As King Yam a thus, venly, I reverence him. 3 

He then who reverences him thus everything here ib 
subdued ( \/}'am) to his supremacy 

16 (15 J ). Then bald Balaki. 'Him who is trnS person in 
the body him indeed I icverencc/ 

To him then Ajatasatru said : l Make me not to converse 
on him! As Prajapati (Lord of Creation) thus, verily, I 
reveience him.' 

He then who reverences him thus, becomes procreated 
(prajayatc) with offspring, cattle, 5 splendor, the luster of 
sanctity, the heavenly world ; he reaches the full term of life 
(ay if). 

17. Then said Balaki: fc Him who ib this person in the 
right eye him indeed I reverence.' 

To him then Ajatasatru said : c Make me not to converse on 
him ! As the soul (dtman) of Speech, 6 the soul of fire, the soul 
of light thus, verily, I reverence him.' 

He then who icverences him thus, becomes the soul of all 
these. 

18. Then said Balaki- 'Him who is this person in the left 
eye him indeed I reverence. 1 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' Make me not to converse on 
him ! As the soul of Truth, the soul of lightning, the soul of 
brightness thus, verily, I reverence him.' 

1 Instead of this phrase, A has : ' Him who is this shadow-person ' 

A has here, in addition, 'neither he nor his offspring.' 

A inverts the order from B. 

A has heie, instead, ' This intelligent self wheieby a peison here, asleep . . ' 

The following part of this sentence is lacking in A. 

A has here, instead, ' name/ 

332 



KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD [-4.19 

He then who reverences him thus, becomes the soul of all 
these. 

The universal creator in the covert of the heart 

19. Thereupon Balaki was silent. To him then Ajatasatru 
said : ' So much only, Balaki ? ' 

c So much only/ said Balaki 

To him then Ajatasatru said: '' In vain, verily, indeed, did 
you make me to converse, saying, c< Let me declaie Biahma to 
you/' He, verily, O Balaki, who is the maker of these persons 
[whom you have mentioned in succession], of whom, verily, 
this is the work he, verily, should be known ' 

Thereupon Balaki, fuel in hand, 1 approached, ^a>mg. 
' Receive me as a pupil ' 

To him then Ajatasatru said . c This I deem 2 an appeal ancc 
(rupa) contrary to nature 3 that a Kshatriya should receive 
a Brahman as pupil. But come ' I will cause you to under- 
stand.' Then, taking him by the hand, he went forth The 
two then came upon a person asleep Him then Ajatasatru 
addressed : ' O great, white-robed King Soma ' ' But he just 
lay silent. 4 Thereupon he threw at him with a stick. There- 
upon he arose. 

To him then Ajatasatru said { Where in this case, O Balaki, 
has this person lain ? What has become of him here ? Whence 
has he returned here ? ' 

Thereupon Balaki understood not. 

To him then Ajatasatru said : ' Where iu this case, O Balaki, 
this person has lam, what has become of him here, whence 
he has returned here as I asked (iti) - is, the arteries of a 
person 5 called hita (* the Beneficent J ). Fiom the heart they 
spread forth to the pericardium. Now, they are as minute as 
a hair subdivided a thousandfold. They consist of a minute 
essence, reddish-brown, white, black, yellow, and red. In 
these one remains while, asleep, he sees no cheam whatsoever. 

1 The sign of suppliant pupilship 

2 So B manye ; but A has, instead, yw 1 , ' would be ' 

3 prati-loma, literally e against the ban ' 

4 This last word is lacking in B, 

5 A has, instead, * of the heart ' 

333 



4 . soj KAUSHITAKI UPANISHAD 

The ultimate unity in the self creative, pervasive, 
supreme, universal 

20, Then he becomes unitary in this Pi ana. 

Then speech together with all names goes to it , 

the eye together with all forms goes to it ; 

the ear together with all sounds goes to it , 

the mind (manas) together with all thoughts goes to it 

When he awakens as from a blazing fire sparks would dis- 
perse in all directions, even so from this self (dtmaii) the vital 
breaths (prdna] disperse to their respective stations ; from the 
vital breaths, the sense-powers (deva) ; from the senbe-powers, 
the worlds. 

This selfsame breathing spirit (prana}, even theintelligential 
self (prajndtman), has entered this bodily self (sarlra-atman} 
up to the hair and finger-nail tips 1 (20) Just as a razor might 
be hidden in a razor-case, or fire 2 in a fire-receptacle, even thus 
this intelligential self has entered this bodily self up to the hair 
and the finger-nail tips. Upon that self these selves depend, as 
upon a chief his own [men]. Just as a chief enjoys his own 
[men], or as his own [men] are of service to a chief, even thus 
this intelligential self enjoys these selves ; even thus these selves 
are of service to that self. 

Verily, as long as Indra understood not this self, so long the 
Asuras (demons) overcame him. When he understood, then, 
striking down and conquering the Asuras, he compassed 
(fari+ VV) the supremacy (sraisthya]^ independent sovereignty 
(svdrajya), and overlordship (adhipatya) of all gods and of 
all beings. 

Likewise also, he who knows this., striking off all evihs 
(papman\ compasses the supremacy, independent sovereignty, 
and overlordship of all beings he who knows this, yea, he 
who knows this ! 

1 In A the previous sentence Is lacking, and 20 begins at this point. 

2 For a discussion of the exact meaning of this phrase consult the foot-note to 
the parallel passage in Bnh. 1.47* 



334 



KENA UPANISHAD * 

(FIRST KHANDA) 
Query : The real agent in the individual ? 

[Question :] 

i . By whom impelled soars foi th the mind projected ? 
Bv whom enjoined goes forth the earliest breathing? 
By whom impelled this speech do people utter ? 
The eye, the ear what god, pray, them enjometh ? 

The all-conditioning, yet inscrutable agent, Brahma 

[Answer :] 

2. That which is the hearing of the ear, the thought of the mind, 
The voice of speech, as also the breathing of the bieath, 
And the sight of the eye ! 2 Past these escaping, the wise, 
On departing fiom this woild, become imrnoital. 

3 There the eye goes not ; 

Speech goes not, noi the mind. 
We know not, we understand not 
How one would teach It. 

Othei, indeed, is It than the known, 

And moreover above the unknown. 

Thus have we heard of the ancients (purva) 

Who to us have explained It. 3 

1 This name of the Upanishad is taken from its first woid kena t *by whom.* 
It is also known as the Talavakara, the name of the Brahmana of the Sanaa- Veda 
to which the Upanishad m one of its recensions belongs. 

2 The first two and a half lines of this second stanza seem to form a direct answer 
to the query of the first stanza. But their metrical structure is irregular, that 
.vould be improved by the omission of sa u, as also.* And more seriously 
the grammatical structure of the phrases is apparently impossible; one phrase is 
certainly in the nominative, one certainly in the accusative, the other three might 
be constiued as either. Moreover, in each of the five phrases it is the same word 
that is repeated (as in a similar passage at Brih. 4 4. 18) ; accoidmgly, a strictly 
literal icndering of them would be, ' the ear of the eai, the mind of the mind, the 
speech of speech, the breath of breath, the eye of the eye/ However, very 
frequently in the Upanishads these words for the five ' vital breaths ' are used 
either for the abstract function or for the concrete instrument of the function. Here, 
more evidently than m many places, the connotation seems to be double. But at 
Chand. 8. 12. 4 and Ait. 2. 4 the distinction between the function and its sense 
organ is clearly conceived. 

3 3 g and h recur, with slight variation, as Isa 10 c and d, and Tsa 13 c and d. 

335 



4 -] KENA UPANISHAD 

4. That which is unexpressed with speech (rac, \oice), 
That \\ith which speech is expressed 

That indeed know as Brahma, 

Not this that people woiship as this. 

5. That which one thinks not with thought (manas, mind), 

[or, That which thinks not with a mind,] 1 
That with which they say thought (wanas, mind) is 

thought 

That indeed know as Brahma, 
Not this that people worship as this. 

6. That which one sees not with si^ht (tab its, eje), 

[or, That which sees not with an eye,] ' 
That with which one sees sights (cak\um\iY 
That indeed know as Brahma, 
Not this that people woiship as this 

7. That which one heais not with hearing (srotra, rai), 

[or, That which hears not with an ear,] 1 
That with which heating heie is heaid 
That indeed know as Biahma, 
Not this that people worship as this. 

8. That which one breathes (pramii) not with bieatlnng 

(prana, breath), 

[or, That which breathes not with bieath,] 1 
That with which breathing (prdna) is conducted (/>/#;#- 

yate) 

That indeed know as Brahma, 
Not this that people worship as this. 

(SECOND KHANDA) 
The paradox of Its inscrutability 

9(1), [Teacher.] If you think ' I know well, 1 only vciy 
slightly now do you know! a form of Brahma! what 
thereof is yourself, and what thereof is among the gods ' So 
then it is to be pondered upon (mimdihsyam) indeed by you. 

[Pupil:] I think it Is known.' 1 

1 Both renderings of the verse are peimissible, and both are in harmony with the 
theory which, is being expounded, 

2 Or, * That with which one sees the eyes ' 

3 What has been translated as two sentences might also be constmed as one 
sentence, still a part of the teacher's reproof to the undiscerning pupil f So then 
I think that what is " known" by you is [still] to be pondered upon indeed,' 

336 



KENA UPANISHAD [-15 

10 (2). I think not ' I know well ' ; 

Yet I know not ' I know not ' ! 
He of us who knows It, knows It; 
Yet he knows not I know not. 5 

ir (3), [Teacher:] 

It is conceived of by him by whom It is not conceived of. 
He by whom It is conceived of, knows It not, 
It is not understood by those who [say they] understand It. 
It is understood by those who [say they] understand It not. 

The value of knowledge of It 

12 (4). When known by an awakening, It is conceived of; 

Truly it is immortality one finds. 

With the Soul (Atman) one finds power 1 ; 

With knowledge one finds the immoital. 

13 (5). If one have known [It] here, then there is truth. 

If one have known [It] not here, great is the destruction 

(vznasti}? 

Discerning [It] in eveiy single being, the wise, 
On departing from this world, become immortal. 



(THIRD KHANDA) 3 
Allegory of the Vedic gods' ignorance of Brahma 

14 (i). Now, Brahma won a victory for the gods. Now, in 
the victory of this Brahma the gods were exulting. They 
bethought themselves : ' Ours indeed is this victory ! 4 Ours 
indeed is this greatness ! ' 

15 (2). Now, It understood this of them. It appeared to 
them. They did not understand It. * What wonderful being 
(yak so) is this ? 5 they said. 

1 Perhaps c power [to know] ; and with the knowledge [thus gained] one 



2 With a slight variation this line is found also at Brih. 4. 4. 14 b. 

8 The Kena Upanishad consists of two quite distinct parts. The prose portion, 
14-34, is evidently the simpler and earlier. The portion 1-13 (all in verse, 
except 9) contains much more elaborated doctrine and would seem to be later in 
date of composition. 

4 An account of the victory of the gods over the demons (Asuras) occurs at Brih. 
i. 3- i-7- 

337 z 



1 6-] KENA UPANISHAD 

16 (3). They said to Agni(Fire): c Jatavedas, 1 find out this 
what this wonderful being is. 5 

< So be it/ 

17 (4). He ran unto It. 

Unto him It spoke : ( Who are you ? ' 

1 Verily, I am Agni/ said he. ' Verily, I am Jatavedas.' l 

1 8 (5). In such as you what power is there ? ' 

' Indeed, I might burn everything here, whatever there is 
here in the earth ! : 

19 (6). It put down a straw before him. ' Burn that ! ' 

He went forth at it with all speed. He was not able to burn 
it. Thereupon indeed he returned, saying : ' I have not been 
able to find out this what this wonderful being is.' 

20 (7) Then they said to Vayu (Wind) * Vayu, find out 
this what this wonderful being is.' 

' So be it.' 

21 (8). He ran unto It. 

Unto him It spoke : ' Who are you ? ' 

'Verily, I am Vayu/ he said. * Verily, I am Matarisvan.' 

22 (9). e In such as you what power is there ? ' 

c Indeed, I might carry off everything here, whatever there is 
here in the earth.' 

23 (10). It put down a straw before him. ' Carry that off' ' 
He went at it with all speed. He was not able to carry it 

off. Thereupon indeed he returned, saying : ' I have not been 
able to find out this what this wonderful being is.' 

24 (u). Then they said to Indra: ' Maghavan (* Liberal'), 
find out this what this wonderful being is.' 

' So be it.' 

He ran unto It. It disappeared from him. 

25 (12). In that very space he came upon a woman exceed- 
ingly beautiful, Uma, 2 daughter of the Snowy Mountain 
(Himavat). 

To her he said : 'What is this wonderful being? ' 

1 Meaning either ' All-knower' or c All-possessor.' 

2 Com. allegorizes her as * Knowledge,' who dispels Indra's ignorance. In 
later mythology Uma is an epithet, along with Durga, Kali, and Parvati, for the 
wife of Siva ; and she is represented as living with him in the Himalayas. Weber, 
Indische Stitdim, 2. 186-190, has an extended discussion of the identity of this- 

338 



KENA UPANISHAD [-32 

(FOURTH KHANDA) 
Knowledge of Brahma, the ground of superiority 

2,6 (i). ' It is Brahma/ she said. ' In that victory of Brahma, 
verily, exult ye. 3 

Thereupon indeed he knew it was Brahma. 

37 (2). Therefore, verily, these gods, namely Agni, Vayu, and 
Indra, are above the other gods, as it were : for these touched 
It nearest, for these and [especially] he [i. e. Indra] first knew 
It was Brahma. 

28 (3). Therefore, verily, Indra is above the other gods, as 
it were; for he touched It nearest, for he first knew It was 
Brahma. 

Brahma in cosmic and in individual phenomena 

29 (4). Of It there is this teaching. 

That in the lightning which flashes forth, which makes one 
blink, and say ' Ah ' ' that * Ah ! ' refers to divinity. 

30 (5). Now with regard to oneself 

That which comes, as it were, to the mind, by which one 
repeatedly 1 remembers that conception (samkalpd) [is It] ! 

Brahma, the great object of desire 

31 (6). It is called Tad-vana (' It-is-the-desire '). 2 As ' It- 
is-the-desire ' (Tad-vana) It should be worshiped. For him 
who knows it thus, all beings together yearn. 

Concluding practical instruction and benefits 

32 (7). e Sir, tell me the mystic doctrine (upanisad)\ \ 

* The mystic doctrine has been declared to you. Verily, we 
have told you the mystic doctrine of Brahma (brahml 
upanisad}? 

personage and of the divinities in this passage in their significance for later 
mythological and sectarian developments. 

1 Deussen translates the word abhlksnam differently, and consequently interprets 
this section and the preceding very differently. 

2 A mystical designation. Compare a similar compound at Chand. 3. 14. i, taj- 

339 Z 3 



33 -] KENA UPANISHAD 

33 (8). Austerity (tapas)^ restraint (dama)^ and work (karman) 
are the foundation of it (i.e. the mystic doctrine). The Vedas 
are all its limbs. Truth is its abode. 

34 (9). He, verily, who knows it [i. e. the mystic doctrine] 
thus, striking off evil (fapman), becomes established in the 
most excellent, 1 endless, heavenly world yea, he becomes 
established ! 

1 So the Com. interprets fyeye. Max Mailer and Deussen would emend to 
a?yeye : * unconquerable J 



340 



KATHA UPANISHAD 

FIRST VALLI 1 
Prologue : Naciketas devoted to Death 

i. Now verily, with zeal did Vajasravasa give his whole 
possession [as a religious gift]. He had a son, Naciketas by 
name. 

3. Into him, boy as he was, while the sacrificial gifts were 
being led up, faith (sraddha) entered. He thought to himself: 

3. 'Their water diunk, their grass eaten, 
Then milk milked, barren ! 
Joyless (a-nanda) certainly aie those woilds 2 
He goes to, who gives such [cows] ' ' 

4. Then he said to his father : ; Papa, to whom will you give 
me ? ' 3 a second time a third time. 

To him then he said : ' To Death I give you ! ' 

IN"aciketas in the house of Death 
[Naciketas reflects .] 

5 Of many I go as the first. 

Of many I go as an intermediate. 

What, pray, has Yama (Death) to be done 

That he will do with me today ? 

1 The narrative ami dialogue at the opening of this Upanishad seem to be taken 
with some variation, but with some identical language from the earlier 
Taittiriya Biahrnana, 3. u 8. 1-6. The old tradition of Naciketas in the realm of 
Death being in a position to return to eaith with knowledge of the secret of life 
aftei death^is here used to furnish a dramatic setting for the exposition wluch forms 
the body of the Upanishad. 

2 This line is found at Brih. 4. 4. n a K verbatim. ; with vaiiant in the first word, 
at Ka 3 a and Brih. 4. 4 1 1 a M. 

3 That is, Naciketas voluntaiily offers himself in order to fulfil the vow which 
his father was paying so grudgingly. Thereupon the father, m anger at the veiled 
reproof, exclaims : * Oh ! go to Hades ' * 

341 



i. 6-] KATHA UPANISHAD 

6. Look forward, how [fared] the foimer ones. 
Look backward; so [^ill] the after ones. 
Like grain a mortal upens 1 

Like grain he is born hither (a-jayate) again! 

Warning on the neglect of a Brahman guest 
[Voice: 1 ] 

7. As fire, enters 

A Brahman (brahmana) guest into houses. 

They make this the quieting thereof 2 : 

Fetch watei, Vaivasvata ! 3 

S. Hope and expectation, intercourse and pleasantness/ 
Sacrifices and meritorious deeds, 5 sons and cattle, all 
This he snatches away from the man of little understanding 
In whose home a Brahman remains without eating. 

Three boons offered to Naciketas 

[Death (Yama), returning from a three days' absence and 
finding that Naciketas has not received the hospitality which 
Is due to a Brahman, says :] 
9. Since for three nights thou hast abode in my house 

Without eating, O Brahman (brahman), a guest to be reverenced, 
Reverence be to thee, O Biahman ' Well-being (svasti) be 

to me ' 
Therefore in return choose three boons ! 

IN"aciketas's first wish : return to an appeased father on earth 

[Naciketas :] 

10. With intent appeased, well-minded, with passion departed, 
That Gautama toward me may be, Death ; 
That cheerfully he may greet me, when from thee dismissed 
This of the three as boon the first I choose ! 

1 As in the Taittiriya Brahmana narrative 

2 tantim tasya ; both words probably with a double significance, 'extinguish- 
ment of fire' and k appeasement of the Brahman ' by bringing water. 

3 A Vedic epithet of Yama (Death). 

* tunrtam, according to a strict etymology, might mean good fellowship/ 
5 If derived from */zs (instead of from vW), istapurte might possibly (though 
less probably) mean * wishes and fulfilment ' 

342 



KATHA UPANISHAD [-i.i5 

[Death :] 

11. Cheeiful as formerly will he be 
Auddalaki Arum, from me dismissed. 1 

Happily will he sleep o' nights, with passion departed, 
When he has seen thee from the mouth of Death released. 

USaciketas's second wish : an understanding of the Naeiketas 
sacrificial fire that leads to heaven 

[Naciketas :] 

12. In the heavenly world is no fear whatsoever. 

Not there art thou. Not fiom old age does one fear. 
Over both 2 having crossed hunger, and thirst too 
Gone beyond sorrow, one rejoices in the heaven-world. 

13. Thyself, O Death, understandest the heavenly fire. 
Declaie it to me who have faith (sraddadhana). 
Heaven-world people partake of immortality. 
This I choose with boon the second. 

[Death:] 

14. To thee I do declare, and do thou learn it of me 
Understanding about the heavenly fire, Naciketas ! 

The attainment of the infinite world, likewise too its establish- 
ment- 
Know thou that as set down in the secret place [of the heart]* 

[Narrative :] 

15. He told him of that fiie as the beginning of the world, 
What bricks, and how many, and how [built]. 

And he too lepeated that, as it was told, 
Then, pleased with him, Death said again 

1 6. Delighting, the great soul (makatman) said to him: 

1 As it stands, prasrstah is nominative and must agree with, the subject., 
' Auddalaki Arum.' But in such, a connection it is hardly applicable ; and in the 
previous stanza it was used with reference to Naciketas. To relieve the difficulty 
Bohtlmgk (in his translation of the Katha, Aitareya, and Prasna Upanishads, 
JBertchte uber die Verhandlungen der Komghch Sachstscken Gesdlschaft der 
Wissenschaften zu Leipzig^ philologisch-historische Classe, 1890, pp. 127197), 
p. 132, emends to prasrste^ i.e. * toward one from me dismissed' , and Whitney 
(in his * Translation of the Katha Upamshad* in the Transactions of the American 
Philological Association^ 21. 88-112), p. 94, emends to prasrstath, and translates: 
' be cheerful [toward thee], sent forth by me/ Sankara solves the difficulty 
by giving the word a sense, * authorized,' which is quite different from what it 
evidently has in the previous stanza. 2 That is, both death and old age. 

343 



i.i6-] KATHA UPANISHAD 

[Death resumes .] 

A fuither boon I give thee heie today. 
By thy name indeed shall this fire be [known]. 
This multifold garland (srhka], too, accept. 
17. Having kindled a triple Naciketas-fire, having attained union 

with the three, 1 

Performing the triple work, 2 one crosses over birth and death. 
By knowing the knower of what is born from Biahma, 8 the 

god to be praised, 4 
[And] by revering 6 [him], one goes for ever to this [peace 



i8. 7 Having kindled a triple Naciketas-fire, having known this triad, 
He who knowing thus, builds up the Naciketas-fire 
He, having cast off in advance the bonds of death, 
With sorrow overpassed, rejoices in the heaven-world. 

19. This, O Naciketas, is thy heavenly fire, 
Which thou didst choose with the second boon 
As thine, indeed, will folks proclaim this fire, 
The third boon, Naciketas, choose ! 

Ifaciketas's third wish : knowledge concerning the effect 

of dying 
[Naciketas :] 

20. This doubt that there is in regard to a man deceased 
'He exists, 5 say some; 'He exists not/ say others 

This would I know, instructed by thee ! 
Of the boons this is boon the third. 
[Death :] 

21. Even the gods had doubt as to this of yore 1 

For truly, it is not easily to be understood. Subtile is this 

matter (dharma). 

Another boon, O Naciketas, choose ! 
Press me not! Give up this one for me! 

1 ankara explains these as ' father, mother, and teacher.' 

2 Namely, < sacrifice, study of the scriptures, and alms-giving.' 

3 brakma-ja~jna perhaps is a synonym Qijdta-vedas, ' the All-knower,' a common 
epithet of Agm (Fire, here specialized as the Naciketas sacrifice-fire). 

* tdya, a very common Vedic epithet of Agm (Fire). 

5 nicayya may carry a double meaning here, i.e. also 'by building [it, i. e. the 
Naciketas-fire].' 

6 Half of the third line and the fourth line recur at 3 vet. 4, II. 

7 Stanzas 16-18 are not quite apt here. They may be an irrelevant interpolation 
as previous translators have suggested. 

344 



KATHA UPANISHAD [-1.39 

TMs knowledge preferable to the greatest earthly pleasures 
[Naciketas :] 

22. Even the gods had doubt, indeed, as to this, 

And thou, Death, sajest that it is not easily to be understood. 
And another declaiei of it the like of thee is not to be obtained. 
No other boon the equal of it is there at all. 

[Death -.] 

23. Choose centenarian sons and grandsons, 
Many cattle, elephants, gold, and horses 
Choose a great abode of earth. 

And thyself live as many autumns as thou desirest. 

24. This, if thou thmkest an equal boon, 
Choose wealth and long life ' 

A great one on earth, Naciketas, be thou. 
The enjoyer of thy desires I make thee. 
25 Whatever desires aie haid to get in mortal world 
For all desires at pleasure make request. 
These lovely maidens with chariots, with lyres 
Such [maidens], indeed, aie not obtainable by men 
By these, fiom me besto\\ed, be waited on! 
O Naciketas, question me not regarding dying (mar ana) \ 

[Naciketas :] 

26. Ephemeral things! That which is a mortal's, O End-maker, 
Even the vigor (tejas) of all the powers, they wear away. 
Even a whole life is slight indeed. 

Thine be the vehicles (vaha)\ Thine be the dance and song! 

27. Not with wealth is a man to be satisfied. 
Shall we take wealth, if we have seen thee ? 
Shall we live so long as thou shalt rule? 

This, in truth, is the boon to be chosen by me. 

28. When one has come into the presence of undecaying immortals, 
What decaying mortal here below that understands, 

That meditates upon the pleasures of beauty and delight. 
Would delight in a life over-long ? 

29. This thing whereon they doubt, Death: 

What there is in the great passing-on tell us that! 
This boon, that has enteied into the hidden 
No other than that does Naciketas choose. 

345 



3.1-j KATHA UPANISHAD 

SECOND VALLI 

The failure of pleasure and of ignorance ; the wisdom of 

the better knowledge 
[Death ] 
T. The better (sreyas) is one thing, and the pleasanter (preyas) 

quite another. 

Both these, of diffeient aim, bind a person. 
Of these t\so, well is it for him who takes the better; 
He fails of his aim who chooses the pleasanter. 

2. Both the better and the pleasanter come to a man. 
Going all around the two, the ^ise man discriminates. 

The wise man chooses the better, indeed, rather than the 

pleasanter. 
The stupid man, from gettmg-and-keepmg (yoga-ksema), chooses 

the pleasanter. 

3. Thou indeed, upon the pleasant and pleasantly appeanng 

desires 

Meditating, hast let them go, O Naciketas. 
Thou art not one who has taken that garland * of wealth 
In which many men sink down. 

4. Widely opposite and asunder are these two : 

Ignorance (avidya) and what is known as ' knowledge * (mdya). 
I think Naciketas desirous of obtaining knowledge! 
Many desires rend thee not. 2 

5. Those abiding in the midst of ignorance, 
Self-wise, thinking themselves learned, 
Running hither and thither, go around deluded, 
Like blind men led by one who is himself blind. 3 

Heedlessness the cause of rebirth 

6. The passing-on* is not clear to him who is childish, 
Heedless, deluded with the delusion of wealth. 
Thinking 'This is the world! Theie is no other! 7 
Again and again he comes under my control. 

1 The \vord srnka occurs nowhere else in the language so far as has been 
reported than in I. 16 and here. Its meaning is obscuie and only conjectural. 
Sankara glosses it differently in the two places, here as * way.' 

2 This stanza recurs with unimportant variants in Maitn 7. 9. 

3 With a variation, this stanza recurs, in Mund. i 2. 8 ; similarly in Maitri 7. 9. 
* That is, death, the great transition, mentioned at I 29. 

346 



KATHA UPANISHAD [-2.11 

The need for a competent teacher of the soul 

7. He -\\rio by many is not obtainable even to hear of, 
He whom many, even when hearing, know not 
Wonderful is the declarer, proficient the obtainer of Him! 
Wondeiful the knower, proficiently taught! 

8. Not, when proclaimed by an inferior man, is He l 

To be -ft ell undei stood, [though] being manifoldly considered. 2 
Unless declaied by another, 3 there is no going thither; 
Foi He is inconceivably more subtile than what is of subtile 
measure. 

9. Not by reasoning (tarka) is this thought (mati) to be attained. 
Proclaimed by another, indeed, it is for easy understanding, 

deaiest friend (prestka}\ 

This which thou hast attained ] Ah, thou ait of true stead- 
fastness ! 

May there be for us a questioner (prasta) the like of thee, 
O Naciketas ! 

Steadfast renunciation and self-meditation required 

[Naciketas :] 

10. I know that what is known as treasuie is something inconstant. 
For truly, that which is steadfast is not obtained by those 

who are un steadfast. 

Theiefoie the Naciketas-fhe has been built up by me, 
And with means which aie inconstant I have obtained that 

which is constant. 

[Death:] 

11. The obtamment of desire, the foundation of the world (jagat\ 
The endlessness of will, 4 the safe shore of fearlessness, 

1 With different grouping of words the first two lines may also mean : 
(i) 'Not by an infeuor man is He, [even] when proclaimed, 

To be well understood, [though] being often meditated upon. 1 
That is, the Atman is to be obtained only by a superior person, as is stated in 
Mund. 3 2. 4, 
Or, (2) * Not by an infenoi man is He proclaimed. 

[But] He is easily to be understood when repeatedly meditated upon.* 

2 Or perhaps, ' . . . [because] being considered manifoldly, 4 1 e. by the infenor 
man the Atman is falsely * conceived of as a plurality,' while in reality He is 
absolute unity. 

8 Either (i) by another than an inferior man, i. e. by a proficient understander, 
or (2) by another than oneself, i. e. by some teacher. 
4 Or perhaps { work.' 

347 



3.U-] KATHA UPANISHAD 

The greatness of praise, the \\ide extent, the foundation 

(having seen *), 
Thou, O Naciketas, a wise one, hast with steadfastness let 

[these] go ' 

12. Him who is haid to see, entered into the hidden, 

Set in the secret place [of the heart], dwelling in the depth, 

primeval 
By considering him as God, thiough the Yoga-study of what 

pertains to self, 
The wise man leaves joy and sonow behind. 

The absolutely unqualified Soul 

13. When a mortal has heaid this and fully compiehended, 

Has torn off ^hat is concerned with the light (dhariiiya)* and 

has taken Him as the subtile, 
Then he rejoices, for indeed he has obtained what is to be 

rejoiced in. 
I regard Naciketas a dwelling open [foi Atman 3 ]. 

14. Apart from the right (dharma] and apait from the umight 

(a-dharma\ 
Apart from both what has been done and what has not been 

done here, 

Apart from what has been and what is to be 
What thou seest as that, speak that ' 

[Naciketas being unable to mention that absolutely unquali- 
fied object, Death continues to explain :] 4 

The mystic syllable ' Om ' as an aid 

15. The word 5 which all the Vedas reheaise, 
And which all austerities pioclaim, 

1 The word d* stva is superfluous both logically and metrically. 

2 Here, in contrast with the latter half of the line, the idea of dharma may be 
philosophical : i e. ' the qualified.' In the next stanza it is certainly ethical. 

3 Compare Mtrad. 3 2 4 d_: 'Into his Brahma-abode [i. e that of a person 
qualified to receive Him] this Atman enters ' See also Chand. 8. i. i. 

* ^ankara and all translators except Deussen regard the previous section as an 
utterance by Naciketas. Instead of assigning so pregnant an inquiry to a pupil 
still being instructed, the present distribution of the parts of this dialogue interprets 
it (in agreement with Deussen) as continued exposition, rhetorically put m the form 
of an interrogation by the teacher himself. 

5 The word $ada here doubtless is pregnant with some other of its meanings 
(twenty-two in all enumerated by Apte in his Sanskrit- English Dictionary), 
particularly c way,' 'place,' ' goal,' or * abode/ 

348 



KATHA UPANISHAD [-2.20 

Desiiing which men live the life of religious studentship 

(brahmacaryd) 

That void to thee I briefly declare. 1 
That is Om ! 

16. That syllable, 2 tmly, indeed, is Brahma! 3 
That syllable indeed is the supreme ! 
Knowing that syllable, truly, indeed, 
Whatever one desires is his ' 4 

17. That is the best support. 
That is the supreme support. 
Knowing that support, 

One becomes happy in the Brahma-world. 

The eternal indestructible soul 

1 8. The wise one [i.e. the soul, the atman, the self] is not born, 

nor dies. 

This one has not come from anywhere, has not become anyone. 
Unborn, constant, eternal, primeval, this one 
Is not slain when the body is slam. 5 

19. If the slayer think to slay, 
If the slain think himself slain, 
Both these understand not. 
This one slays not, nor is slam. 6 

The Soul revealed to the unstriving elect 
20. Moie minute than the minute, greater than the great 

Is the Soul (Atman) that is set in the heart of a creature here. 
One who is without the active will (a-kraht) beholds Him, 
and becomes freed from sorrow 

1 The ideas and some of the language of this stanza recur in BhG. 8. n. 

2 The word akmrwn here may also be pregnant with, the meaning * Imperish- 
able ' (Apte gives fourteen meanings in all). Thus : 

' That, truly, indeed, is the imperishable Brahma 1 
That indeed is the supreme imperishable f 
Knowing that imperishable, truly, indeed, . . . ' 

8 The woid bmhma(n} here may contain some of its liturgical meaning, ; sacied 
word/ as well as the philosophical meaning' ' Brahma.* Thus 

c That syllable, truly, indeed, is sacred word ! ' 
or* That, truly, indeed, is imperishable sacred woid! J 

4 This stanza recurs with slight verbal variation in Maitn 6. 4. 

5 Substantially this stanza is identical with BhG. 2. 20. 
Substantially this stanza is identical with BhG. 2. 19. 

349 



2. ao- 



KATHA UPANISHAD 



When through the giace (prasdda) 1 of the Cieator (dhatf] he 
beholds the greatness of the Soul (Atman). 

His opposite characteristics 

21. Sitting, he proceeds afar, 
Lying, he goes everywhere. 

Who else than I (mad) is able to know 

The god (deva) who rejoices and rejoices not (madamada)t 

22. Him who is the bodiless among bodies, 
Stable among the unstable, 

The great, all-pervading Soul (Atman) 

On recognizing Him, the wise man sorrows not, 

The conditions of knowing Him 

23. This Soul (Atman) is not to be obtained by instruction, 
Nor by intellect, nor by much learning. 

He is to be obtained only by the one whom He chooses; 
To such a one that Soul (Atman) reveals his own peison 
(ianum svam)? 

24. Not he Tsho has not ceased from bad conduct, 

Not he who is not tranquil, not he who is not composed, 
Not he who is not of peaceful mind 
Can obtain Him by intelligence (prajna). 

1 This is an important passage, as being the first explicit statement of the 
doctune of Grace (prasada). The idea is found earlier in the celebrated Hymn of 
the Word (Vac), RV 10. 125. 5 c 3 d, and again in Mund. 3. 2. 3 c, d. This same 
stanza occurs with slight verbal variation as 3 vet 3. 20 and Mahanarayana 
Upanishad 8, 3 ( = Taittmya Aranyaka 10. 10 r). 

Inasmuch as this method of salvation 'through the grace of the Cieator' is 
directly opposed to the general Upamshadic doctrine of salvation 'through know- 
ledge/ ^ankara interprets dhdtnh prasadat as djiatu-samprasaddt, ' through the 
tranquillity of the senses/ according to the practice of the Yoga-method. Theie 
is this possibility of different interpretation of the word prasada ; for it occurs 
unquestionably in the sense of k tranquillity ' at Maitn 6 20 and 6 34 ; compare also 
the compounds jfidna-prasada, 'the peace of knowledge/ at Muncl. 3. i. 8, and 
varna-prasada, 'clearness of complexion/ at & vet. 2 13. In the Bhagavad Glta 
theie is the same double use : ' peace ' or ' tranquillity/ at 2. 64 ; 2. 65 ; 18. 37 ; 
and 'the grace of Krishna/ at 18. 56 ; 18. 58 ; 18. 62 ; 18. 73 ; and ' the grace of 
Vyasa/ at 18 75. 

The development of the doctrine of < salvation by grace' by the Vishnuites 
proceeds through the Epic, culminating in the sharp controversy against this ' Cat- 
doctrine ' by the < Monkey-doctrine ' of < salvation by works/ Compare Hopkins, 
Religions of India, pp. 500, 501 

2 This stanza =s Mnnd. 3. 2. 3. 

350 



KATHA UPANISHAD [-3.5 

The all-compreh.erLd.ing incomprehensible 

25 He for whom the priesthood (brahman} and the nobility 

(ksatrd) 

Both are as food, 
And death is as a sauce 
Who really knows where He is? 



THIRD VALLI 
The universal and the individual soul 

i. There are two that drink of lighteousness (rta) in the world 

of good deeds ; 
Both aie enteied into the seciet place [of the heart], and in 

the highest upper sphere. 

Brahma-knowers speak of them as Might' and ' shade/ 
And so do householdeis who maintain the five sacrificial fires, 

and those too who perfoim the triple Naciketas-fire. 

The :N"aciketas sacrificial fire as an aid 

2. This which is the bridge for those who sacrifice, 
And which is the highest impenshable Biahma 

Foi those who seek to cross over to the fearless farther 

shore 
The Naciketas-fire may we master! 

Parable of the individual soul in a chariot 

3. Know thou the soul (atman, self) as riding in a chariot, 
The body as the chariot 

Know thou the intellect (faddhi) as the chariot- driver, 
And the mind (manas) as the reins. 

4. The senses (mdrya), they say, are the horses; 
The objects of sense, what they range over. 
The self combined with senses and mind 
Wise men call 'the enjoyer ' (bhokfr). 

5. He who has not understanding (a-mjnana), 
Whose mind is not constantly held firm 
His senses are uncontrolled, 

Like the vicious horses of a chariot-driver. 

351 



'3.6-] KATHA UPANISHAD 

6. He, however, \\ho has understanding, 
Whose mind is constantly held firm 
His senses are under control. 

Like the good horses of a chaiiot-diiver 

Intelligent control of the soul's chariot needed 
to arrive beyond transmigration 

7. He, however, who has not understanding, 
Who is unmindful and ever impure, 
Reaches not the goal, 

But goes on to transmigration (samsara) 

8. He, however, who has undei standing, 
Who is mindful and ever paie, 
Reaches the goal 

From which he is born no more. ' 

9. He, however, ^ho has the understanding of a chariot- driver, 
A man \\ho reins in his mind 

He reaches the end of his journey, 
That highest place of Vishnu. 1 

The order of progression to the supreme Person 

10. Higher than the senses aie the objects of sense. 
Higher than the objects of sense is the mind (manas) ; 
And higher than the mind is the intellect (buddhi). 
Higher than the intellect is the Great Self (Atman). 

11. Higher than the Great is the Unmamfest (avyakfd). 
Higher than the Unmamfest is the Person* 
Higher than the Person there is nothing at all. 
That is the goal. That is the highest course. 

The subtle perception of the all-pervading Soul 

2 Though He is hidden in all things, 

That Soul (Atman, Self) shines not forth. 
But he is seen by subtle seers 
With superior, subtle intellect. 

The Yoga method of suppression 

, 13. An intelligent man should suppiess his speech and his mind. 
The latter he should suppress in the Understanding-Self 
(jnana atmaji). 

1 The last line of this stanza RV. i. 22. 20 a, and also, with a slight change, 
HV. i. 154. 5 d. * *' 

352 



KATHA UPANISHAD [-4.3 

The understanding he should suppress in the Great Self 

[= luddhi, intellect]. 
That he should suppress in the Tranquil Self (santa atman\ 

Exhortation to the way of liberation from death 

14. Arise ye! Awake ye! 

Obtain your boons 1 and understand them! 
A sharpened edge of a lazor, hard to traverse, 
A difficult path is thispoets (kavt) declare! 
25. What is soundless, touchless, formless, imperishable, 
Likewise tasteless, constant, odorless. 

Without beginning, without end, higher than the great, stable- 
By discerning That, one is liberated fiom the mouth of death. 

The immortal value of this teaching 

1 6. The Naciketas tale, 

Death's immemorial teaching 

By declaring and hearing this, a wise man 

Is magnified in the Brahma-world. 

17. If one recites this supreme secret 
In an assembly of Biahmans, 

Or at a time of the ceremony for the dead, devoutly 
That makes for immortality ! 
That makes for immortality! 



FOURTH VALLI 
The immortal Soul not to be sought through outward senses 

1. The Self-existent (svqyambhu) pierced the openings [of the 

senses] outward ; 

Therefore one looks outward, not within himself (antaratman). 
A certain wise man, while seeking immortality, 
Introspectively beheld the Soul (Atman) face to face. 

2. The childish go after outward pleasures ; 
They walk into the net of widespread death. 
But the wise, knowing immortality, 

Seek not the stable among things which are unstable here. 

1 The commentators interpret 'boons' as referring to 'teachers, 7 But the 
word may imply 'answers to your questions.' 

353 A a 



4.3-] KATHA UPANISHAD 

Yet tlie agent in all the senses, in sleeping and in waking 

3. That by which [one discerns] form, taste, smell, 
Sound ; and mutual touches 

It is with That indeed that one discerns. 
What is there left over here' 

This, verily, is That ! 

4. By recognizing as the great pervading Soul (Atman) 
That whereby one perceives both 

The sleeping state and the waking state. 
The wise man sorrows not. 

The universal Soul (Atman), identical with the individual 
and with all creation 

5. He who knows this expeiiencer 1 

As the living Soul (Atman) near at hand, 
Lord of what has been and of what is to be 
He does not shrink away from Him. 

This, verily, is That ! 

6. He who was born of old from austerity (tapas\ 
Was born of old from the waters, 

Who stands entered into the secret place [of the heart],. 
Who looked forth through beings 2 

This, verily, is That ! 

7. She 3 who arises with life (prana), 
Aditi (Infinity), maker of divinity, 

Who stands entered into the secret place [of the heart], 
"Who was born forth through beings 

This, verily, is That ! 

8. Fire (Agm), the all-knower (jataveda$\ hidden away in the 

two fire-sticks 

Like the embryo well borne by pregnant women, 
Worthy to be worshiped day by day 

By watchful men with oblations 4 
This, verily, is That ! 

1 madko-ad, literally ' honey-eater/ i. e. the empirical self. 

2 This stanza contains an ungrammatical form and impossible constructions. 
The text here, as also m 7, is probably corrupt. The refeience here is probably 
to the Sankhyan Purusha, Person. 

8 Traditionally interpreted as Praknti, Nature. 

* This stanza=SV. i. 2. 3. 7, and also, with slight variation, RV. 3. 29. 2. 

354 



KATHA UPANISHAD [-4- *5 

9. Whence the sun rises, 

And where it goes to rest 
On Him all the gods are founded; 
And no one ever goes beyond it. 1 
This, verily, is That ! 

Failure to comprehend the essential unity of being 
regarded as the cause of reincarnation 

10. Whatever is here, that is theie. 
What is there, that again is here. 
He obtains death after death 

Who seems to see a difference here. 2 

11. By the mind, indeed, is this [realization] to be attained: 
There is no difference here at all ! 3 

He goes from death to death 

Who seems to see a difference here. 

The eternal Lord abiding in one's self 

12. A Person of the measure of a thumb 
Stands in the midst of one's self (atmari), 
Lord of what has been and of what is to be. 
One does not shrink away from Him. 

This, verily, is That ! 

13. A Person of the measure of a thumb, 
Like a light without smoke, 

Lord of what has been and what is to be. 
He alone is today, and tomorrow too. 

The result of seeing multiplicity or else pure unity 

14. As water rained upon rough ground 
R.uns to waste among the hills. 

So he who sees qualities (dharma) separately, 
Runs to waste after them. 

15. As pure water poured forth into pure 
Becomes the very same, 

So becomes the soul (aimari), Gautama, 
Of the seer (muni} who has understanding. 

1 With slight variation in line c this stanza =Brih. I. 5. 23. t Lines a and b also 
*=AV. 10. 18. i6a, b, 

2 Lines c and d Br.ih. 4. 4. 19 c, d. 

Lines a and b Bfih. 4. 4. 19 a, b with a verbal variation. 

355 A * 3 



5-H KATHA UPANISHAD 

FIFTH VALLI 
The real Soul of the individual and of the world 

i. By ruling over the eleven-gated citadel 1 
Of the Unborn, the Un-crooked-minded one, 
One sorrows not. 
But \vhen liberated [from the body], he is liberated indeed. 

This, verily, is That ! 

2. The swan [i.e. sun] in the clear, the Vasu in the atmosphere, 
The priest by the altar, the guest in the house, 
In man, in broad space, in the right (rta), in the sky, 
Born in water, born m cattle, born in the right, born in rock, 
is the Right, the Gieat ' 2 

3. Upwards the out-breath (pram) he leadeth. 
The m-breath (apdna) inwards he casts. 
The dwarf \\ho is seated in the middle 3 
All the gods (deva) reverence ' 

4. When this incorporate one that stands m the body 
Is dissolved, 

And is released from the body, 
What is there left over here? 4 

This, verily, is That ! 

5. Not by the out-breath (prdna) and the in-bieath (apana) 5 
Doth any mortal whatsoever live. 

But by another do men live 

E\en That whereon both these depend. 

The appropriate embodiment of the transmigrating soul 

6. Come ! I will declare this to you : 
The hidden, eternal Brahma; 
And how, after it reaches death, 
The soul (atman) fares, Gautama ! 

3 That is, the body, with its eleven orifices two eyes, two ears, two nostnls, 
mouth, the two lower orifices, the navel, and the sagittal suture (mdrti Ait. 312). 
By the omission of the last two, the body is conceived of as a nine-gated city at 
Svet. 3. 18 and BhG. 5. 13. 

3 With the omission of the last word this stanza = RV. 4. 40. 5 ; exactly as 
here it VS. 10. 24; 12. 14; TS. 3. 2. 10. i ; gat. Br. 6. 7 3. n. 

3 That is, in the middle of the body, and the deu&s are the bodily powers (or 
* senses/ as not infrequently), according to Sankara's interpretation. 

* Line d = 4. 3 d. 5 As in 5. 3 a, b. 

356 



KATHA UPANISHAD [-5.13 

Some go into a womb 
For the embodiment of a corpoieal being. 
Others go into a stationary thing 

According to their deeds (karman), accoiding to their 
knowledge. 



One's real person, the same as tlie world-ground 

8. He who is awake in those that sleep, 

The Person who fashions desne after desire 
That indeed is the Pure. That is Brahma. 
That indeed is called the Immortal 
On it all the worlds do rest; 
And no one soever goes beyond it. 1 

This, verily, is That ! 

The unitary world-soul, immanent yet transcendent 

9. As the one file has entered the world 

And becomes corresponding in form to every form, 

So the one Inner Soul (Atman) of all things 

Is corresponding in form to eveiy form, and yet is outside. 

10. As the one wind has entered the world 

And becomes corresponding in form to every form, 

So the one Inner Soul of all things 

Is corresponding in form to every form, and yet is outside, 

11. As the sun, the eye of the whole woild, 

Is not sullied by the external faults of the eyes, 

So the one Inner Soul of all things 

Is not sullied by the evil in the woild, being external to it. 

The indescribable bliss of recognizing the world-soul 
in one's own soul 

12. The Inner Soul (antaratman) of all things, the One Controller, 
Who makes his one form manifold 

The wise who perceive Him as standing in oneself, 
They, and no others, have eternal happiness ! 

13. Him who is the constant among the inconstant, the intelligent 

among intelligences, 
The One among many, who giants desires 

1 The last four lines recur again as (5 i c-f 

357 



5.33-] KATHA UPANISHAD 

The wise who perceive Him as standing in oneself, 
They, and no others, have eternal peace ! 

14. 'This is it!' thus they recognize 
The highest, indescribable happiness. 
How, now, shall I understand 4 this ' ? 
Does it shine [of itself] or does it shine in reflection ? 

The self-luminous light of the world 

15. The sun shines not there, nor the moon and stars s 

These lightnings shine not, much less this (earthly) me ' 
After Him, as He shines, doth eveiy thing shine, 
This whole world is illumined with His light 1 



SIXTH VALLI 
The world-tree rooted in Brahma 

i. Its root is above, its branches below 
This eternal fig-tree! 2 

That (root) indeed is the Pure. That is Brahma. 
That indeed is called the Immortal. 
On it all the woilds do rest, 
And no one soe\er goes beyond it. 3 

This, verily, is That ! 

The great fear 

2 This whole world, whatever theie is, 

Was created from and moves in Life (prana). 
The great fear, the upraised thunderbolt- 
They who know That, become immortal. 

3. From fear of Him fire (Agni) doth burn. 
From fear the sun (Surya) gives forth heat. 
From fear both Indra and Wind (Vayu), 
And Death (Mntyu) as fifth, do speed along 4 

1 This stanza = Mrmd 2. 2. 10 and Svet 6. 14. 

2 This same simile of the world as an eternal fig-tree growing out of Brahma is 
forther elaborated in BhG. 15. 1-3. 

3 These last four lines = 5. S c-f. 

4 A very similar stanza U in Tait. 2. 8. 

358 



KATHA UPANISHAD [-6.10 

Degrees of perception of the Soul (Atman). 

4. If one has been able to perceive [Him] here on earth 
Before the dissolution of the body, 
According to that [knowledge] he becomes fitted 
For embodiment in the world-creations. 1 
5. As in a mirror, so is it seen in the body (atman)] 
As in a dream, so in the world of the fathers ; 
As if in water, so in the world of the Gandharvas (genii) ; 
As if in light and shade, so in the world of Brahma. 

The gradation up to the supersensible Person 

6. The separate nature of the senses, 
And that their arising and setting 

Is of things that come into being apart [from himself], 
The wise man recognizes, and sorrows not. 

7. Higher than the senses (zndrtya) is the mind (manas) ; 
Above the mind is the true being (saffva). 

Over the true being is the Great Self [i. e. luddhi, intellect] j 
Above the Great is the Unmanifest (avyakta). 

8. Higher than the Unmanifest, however, is the Person 

(Purusha), 

All-pervading and without any mark (a-hnga) whatever. 
Knowing which, a man is liberated 
And goes to immortality. 
9. His form is not to be beheld. 

No one soever sees Him with the eye. 2 

He is framed by the heart, by the thought, by the mind. 

They who know That become immortal.^ 

The method of Yoga, suppressive of the lower activity 

10. When cease the five 

[Sense-]knowledges, together with the mind (rnana$\ 

1 The reading svargesu instead of sargesu would yield the more suitable meaning 
* in the heavenly worlds/ At best, the stanza contradicts the general theory that 
pei ception of the Atman produces release from reincarnation immediately after 
death. Consequently 6ankara supplies an ellipsis which changes the meaning 
entirely, and Max Muller hesitatingly inserts a * not' in the first line. The present 
translation interprets the meaning that the degree of perception of the Atman in 
the present world determines one's reincarnate status. 

2 These two lines recur at vet. 4. 20 a, b. 

8 These two lines recur at 3vet. 3. 13 c, d and 4. 170, d, 

359 



&io~] KATHA UPANISHAD 

And the intellect (buddhi) stirs not 
That, they say, is the highest course. 1 

11. This they consider as Yoga 2 

The fiim holding back of the senses. 
Then one becomes undistracted. 
Yoga, truly, is the origin and the end, 4 

The Soul incomprehensible except as existent 

12. Not by speech, not by mind, 

Not by sight can He be appiehended. 
How can He be comprehended 
Otherwise than by one's saying ' He is ' ? 5 

13. He can indeed be comprehended by the thoughi 'He is' 

(asti) 
And by [admitting] the leal nature of both [his compre- 

hensibility and his incompiehensibihty]. 6 
When he has been comprehended by the thought c He is * 
His real nature manifests itself. 

A renunciation of all desires and attachments 
the condition of immortality 

14. When are liberated all 

The desires that lodge in one's heait, 
Then a mortal becomes immortal! 
Therein he reaches Brahma ! 7 

15. When are cut all 

The knots of the heart here on eaith, 

1 Quoted in Maitn 6. 30. 

2 Literally 'yoking'; both a 'yoking,' i e. subduing, of the senses; and also 
a ' yoking,' i. e. a 'joining ' or ' union,' with the Supieme Spirit. 

8 apramatta, a technical Yoga term. 

4 Perhaps, of c the world * * beings and experiences here too, as in Hand. 6, 
where the phrase occurs. That is 'the world ' becomes created for the person 
whence emerges from the Yoga state, and passes away when he enters into it. 
Or perhaps the translation should be ( an arising and a passing away ' : i. e. is 
transitory according to Sankara. 

^ The same thought of the incomprehensibility of the ultimate occuis at 
Kena 3 a, b, and Mund. 3. i. 8 a, b. 

6 That is, both the aiHrmable, He is' and the absolutely mm-affizmable < No i 
No I' ntii, neti of Bnh. 2. 3. 6; both < being' (sad) and < non-being' (asad} of 
Mtmd. 3. 2. id and Prasna 2. 5 d. Ankara interprets 'both' as refernno- to 
the ' conditioned* and the ' unconditioned * Brahma. 

7 This stanza is found also at Brih. 4. 4 7 a. 

360 



KATHA UPANISHAD [-6.18 

Then a mortal becomes immortal ! 
Thus far is the instruction. 

The passage of tlie soul from the body to immortality 
or elsewhere 

1 6. There are a hundred and one arteries of the heart. 
One of these passes up to the crown of the head. 
Going up by it, one goes to immortality. 

The others aie for departing in various directions. 1 

17. A Person of the measure of a thumb is the inner soul 

(antaratmati)) 

Ever seated in the heart of creatures. 
Him one should draw out from one's o\\n body 
Like an arrow-shaft out fiom a reed, with firmness. 
Him one should know as the Pure, the Irnmoital 
Yea, Him one should know as the Pure, the Immortal 

This teaching, the means of attaining Brahma and 
immortality 

1 8. Then Naciketas, having received this knowledge 
Declared by Death, and the entire lule of Yoga, 

Attained Brahma and became fieefiom passion, free from death; 
And so may any other who knows this in regard to the Soul 
(Atman). 

1 This stanza is found also at Chand. S. 6. 6. Cf. also Kansh. 4. 19 and Brih. 
4- 2. 3- 



361 



I^AUPANISHAD 1 

Becognition of the unity underlying the diversity 
of the world 

1. By the Lord (isa) enveloped must this all be 
Whatever moving thing there is in the moving world. 
With this renounced, thou mayest enjoy. 

Covet not the wealth of any one at all. 

Kon-attaehment of deeds on the person of a renouncer 

2. Even while doing deeds here, 

One may desne to live a hundred yeais. 
Thus on thee not otherwise than this is it 
The deed (karman) adheres not on the man. 

The forbidding future for slayers of the Self 

3. Devilish (asurya*} are those worlds called, 3 
With blind darkness (tamas) covered o'er! 
Unto them, on deceasing, go 

Whatever folk are slayers 4 of the Self. 5 

The all-surpassing, paradoxical world-being 

4. Unmoving, the One (ekam) is swifter than the mind. 

The sense-powers (deva) reached not It, speeding on befoie. 
Past others running, This goes standing. 
In It Matansvan places action. 6 

1 So called from its first word ; or sometimes ' Kavasyam ' from its first two 
ivords , or sometimes the ' Vajasaneyi-Samhita Upamshad ' from the name of the 
ecension of the White Yajur-Veda of which this Upamshad forms the final, the 
brtieth, chapter. 

2 Compare the persons called ' devilish,' dsura, at Chand. 8. 8. 5. A variant 
eadmg here (accordant with a literalism interpieted in the following line) is 
\-$urya^ < sunless.' 

3 The word nama here might mean ' certainly * instead of * called ' 

* This Idea is in sharp contrast with the doctrine of Katha 2. 19 d (and BhG. 
. 19), where it is stated that ' he [i.e the Self] slays not, is not slain.' The word 
'imorhan here, of course, is metaphorical, like ' smother,' * stifle/ ' completely 
uppress.' 

5 The whole stanza is a variation of Brih. 4. 4. n. 

6 So Com. But apas may refer, cosmogonically, to ' the [primeval] waters/ 

362, 



ISA UPANISHAD [-10 

5. It moves. It moves not. 
It is far, and It is near. 
It is within all this, 

And It is outside of all this. 1 

6. Now, he who on all beings 

Looks as jubt (eva) in the Self (Atman), 
And on the Self as in all beings 2 
He does not shrink away from Him. 3 

7. In whom all beings 

Have become just (eva) the Self of the discerner 
Then what delusion (mohd), what sorrow (soka) is there. 
Of him who perceives the unity ! 

Characteristics of tlie world-ruler 

8. He has environed. The bright, the bodiless, the scatheless, 
The sinewless, the pure (suddha), unpierced by evil (a-papa- 

mddha) \ 

Wise (kam\ intelligent (manmn], encompassing (panlhu\ self- 
existent (svqyambhu), 

Appropriately he distributed objects (arthd) through the eternal 
years. 

Transcending, while involving, the antithesis of knowing 

9. Into blind daikness enter they 
That worship ignorance , 

Into darkness greater than that, as it were, they 
That delight in knowledge. 4 
10. Other, indeed, they say, than knowledge! 
Other, they say, than non-knowledge 1 5 
Thus we have heard fiom the wise (dhira) 
Who to us have explained It, 6 

1 The very same ideas as in this stanza, though not all the same words, recur at 
BhG. 13. 1 5 a, b, d 

2 This universal piesence is claimed by Knshna foi himself at BhG. 6. 30 a, b. 

3 The indefinite word tatas may mean i fiom these beings/ or 'from this Self,' 
or 'from this time on,' or pregnantly all these. The whole line recurs at 
Brih 4. 4. 15 d , Katha 4. 5 d , 4 12 d. 

4 This stanza is identical with Brih. 4. 4. 10 

5 The point here made is that both knowledge and lack of knowledge are 
inadequate for apprehending the Ultimate. 

6 A somewhat more concrete, and peihaps earlier, form of this stanza occurs as 
Kena 3 e-h. 



H-] ISA UTANISHAD 

11. Knowledge and non-knowledge 

He who this pair conjointly (saha) knous, 
With non-knowledge passing ovei death, 
With knowledge wins the immoital. 1 

The inadequacy of any antithesis of being 

12. Into blind darkness enter they 

Who worship non-becoming (a-samlhfifi] , 

Into darkness greater than that, as it veie, they 

Who delight m becoming (sambhuti) 

13. Other, indeed they say than origin (sambkava)\ 
Other they say than non-origin (a-samlkava] \ 
Thus have we heard from the wise 

Who to us have explained It. 

Becoming and destruction a fundamental duality 

14. Becoming (sambhuti) and destruction (w,iasa) 

He \\ho this pan conjointly (saha) knows. 
With destruction passing over death, 

With becoming wins the immoital. 

A dying person's prayer 

15. With a golden vessel 2 

The Real's face is covered o'er. 

That do thou, Pushan, uncover 

For one whose law is the Real 8 to see. 4 

1 6. Nourisher (pusan), the sole Seer (ekarsi), O Con- 
troller (yama), Sun (surya), offspiing of Prajapati, spread 
forth thy rays ! Gather thy brilliance (tejas) ' 5 What is thy 

1 Tins stanza occurs again in Maitn 7 9. 

2 The sun. 

For the petitioner (who calls himself ' satyu-Marma ') to see through- or 
For Him whose law is Truth (or, true) to be seen,' [as, e.g., fo: Savitr'i 

4 10 ' 3 4 S ; Ia '39- 3 ; or the Unkno-vvn Creator, RV. 10. 12 1. 9 , VS. 10 10* 
or Agni, RV. r . r]; or , . For that [aeuter] wh[ch ^ R / ; > 

[or, essence ; or, law] to be seen.' 
* These lines occur with slight variations at Maitn 6 35 and Enh ie i 

According to th.s translatzon the idea is entuely honorific of the effulgence of 
the am. Or, with a different grouping of words, the meaning might poslblv be 
he p*tu . Spread apart thy rays [that I m , y enter througf the^un'Is v I a 
see throngh-accordmg to the prevwss peaUon) into the Real ; then] gather [thy 
rays together again, as normal]. The bnll.ance wtoch is thy faire t torn 
At best the passage is of obscure mystical sjgmficance. ' " ' 

3 6 4 



ISA UPANISHAD [-18 

fairest form that of thee I see. He who is yonder, yonder 
Person (purusa} I myself am he ' 

17. [My] breath (vayu) to the Immortal wind (anila)^ 
This body then ends in ashes ! Om \ 

Purpose (krafu 2 ), remember 1 The deed (Ma) remember! 
O Purpose, remember ! The deed remember ' 

General prayer of petition and adoration 

r 8. O Agm, by a goodly path to prosperity (rai) lead us, 
Thou god who knowest all the ways ! 
Keep far from us crooked-going sin (enas) \ 3 
Most ample expression of adoiation to thee would we render!* 

1 This formula re cms at Bnh 5. 15. The idea that at death the several parts 
of microcosmic man revert to the coiresponding elements of the macrocosm is 
expressed seveial times in Sanskrit liteiature With the specific mention here, 
compare ' his spirit (atmari) to the wind (viita) ' in the Cremation Hymn, RV. 10, 
1 6. 3 a ; ' with his breath (prana) to wind (vSyu),' 3at Br. to. 3. 3. 8 , 'his breath 
(prana) to wind (vata), 3 Bnh. 3. 2 13; and even of the sacrificial animal, i its 
breath (piano) to wmd(zwAz) } ' Ait. Br. 2. 6. 

2 Compare the statement m Chand. 3. 14. I, k Now, verily, a person consists of 
purpose (kratu-maya)? 

3 Other prayers for freedom from sin (enas, compare also agas) are at RV. r. 24. 
pd, 3 7- Iod > 7- 86.3 a, 4d; 7 88. 6 c , 7. 89 sc,d, 7. 93. jc, d; 8 67(56). 
17; 10. 35, 3 a, c, 10 37. 12 , AV.6.97 2d, 6. 115 1,2,3; 6.116.2,356.117; 
6. 118; 6. 119, 6. 120. 

4 This stanza is identical with RV. I. 189. i and the second line also with AV. 
4- 39'i b - 



MUNDAKA UPANISHAD 

FIRST MUNDAKA 
Preparation for tlie knowledge of Brahma 

FIRST KHANDA 

The line of tradition of this knowledge from 
Brahma himself 

i Brahma arose as the first of the gods 
The maker of all, the protector of the world. 
He told the knowledge of Brahma (brakma-vidya), the founda- 
tion of all knowledge, 
To Atharva[n], his eldest son. 

2. What Brahma taught to Atharvan, 

Even that knowledge of Brahma, Atharvan told m ancient 
time to Angir. 

He told it to Bharadvaja Satyavaha; 

Bharadvaja, to Angiras both the highei and the lower [know- 
ledge]. 

Saunaka's quest for the clue to an understanding 
of the world 

3. Saunaka, verily, Indeed, a great householder, approached 
Angiras according to rule, and asked : ' Through understand- 
ing of what, pray, does all this world become understood, Sir?' 3 



Two kinds of knowledge : the traditions of religion, and 
the knowledge of the eternal 

4- To him then he said : ' There are two knowledges to be 
known as indeed the knowers of Brahma are wont to say 2 : 
a higher (para) and also a lower (apara). 

1 The very same knowledge which Yajnavalkya declared to Maitreyi, Bph. 2. 4. 

2 Cf. Maitri 6. 22. 

366 



MUNDAKA UPANISHAD [-1.2.1 

5. Of these, the lower is the Rig- Veda, the Yajur- Veda, the 
Sama-Veda, the Atharva-Veda, 

Pronunciation (szksa\ Ritual (kalpa), Grammar (vyakarana\ 
Definition (mrukta), Metrics (chandas), and Astrology 
1 



Now, the higher is that whereby that Imperishable (aksara) 
is apprehended. 

The imperishable source of all things 

6. That which is invisible, ungraspable, without family, without 

caste (a-varnd) 

Without sight or hearing is It, without hand or foot, 
Eternal, all -pervading, omnipresent, exceedingly subtile; 
That is the Imperishable, which the wise perceive as the 

source of beings. 

7. As a spider emits and draws in [its thread], 
As heibs arise on the earth, 

As the hairs of the head and body from a living person, 
So from the Imperishable arises everything here. 

8. By austerity (tapas) Brahma becomes built up. 
From that, food is produced; 

From food life-breath, mind, truth, 
The worlds, immortality too in works. 

9. He who is all-knowing, all-wise, 
Whose austerity consists of knowledge 
From Him are produced the Brahma here, 
[Namely] name and form, 2 and food. 

SECOND KHAMDA 

All the ceremonies of religion scrupulously to be practised 
I. This is the truth : 

The works which the sages (kavi) saw in the sacred sayings 

(mantra, i.e. Vedic hymns) 

Are manifoldly spread forth in the triad [of the Vedas]. 
Follow them (acaraiha) constantly, ye lovers of truth (satya- 

kdma) ! 
This is your path to the world of good deeds. 

1 The six subsidiary Vedangas, ' Limbs-of-the- Vedas,' later elaborated as 
explanatory of the Vedas. 

2 A Sanskrit idiom for the modern term f individuality." 

3 6 7 



i. a. a-] MUNDAKA UPANISHAD 

2. When the flame flickers, 

After the oblation fire has been kindled, 
Then, between the two portions of melted butter, his oblations 
One should throw an offering made with faith (sraddha). 

3. If one's Agnihotra sacrifice is not followed by the sacri- 
fice of the new moon and of the full moon, by the four-months 
sacrifice, by the harvest sacrifice, if it is unattended by guests, 
or not offered at all, or without the ceremony to all the gods, 
or not according to rule, it destroys his seven worlds 

4. The Black (kali), and the Tenible, and the Swift-as-Thought, 
The Very-red, and the Very-smoky-colored, 

The Scintillating, and the All-formed, 1 divine one, 
Are the seven so-called flickering tongues [of flame]. 2 

Hewards of ceremonial observances 

5. If one performs sacrifices when these are shining, 
Offering the oblations at the proper time, too, 
These (flames) as rays of the sun lead him 

To where is resident the one lord (pati ) of the gods. 

6. Saying to him " Come 1 Come ! " the splendid offerings 
Carry the sacrificer with the rays of the sun, 
Addressing pleasant speech, praising, and saying : 

"This is your meiitorious (puny a) Biahma- world, gamed by 
good works" 

Sacrificial forms ineffective against rebirth 

7. Unsafe boats, however, are these sacrificial forms, 
The eighteen, 3 in which is expressed the lo\vei work. 
The fools who approve that as the better, 

Go again to old age and death/ 

The consequences of ignorance 

8. Those abiding in the midst of ignorance, 
Self- wise, thinking themselves learned. 
Hard smitten, go around deluded, 

Like blind men led by one who is himself blind. 4 

1 A variant reading is mh>a-rua, 4 All-gleaming.' 

2 Cf. 'the seven-rayed Fire' in RV. r. 146. i. Seven was an early sacrosanct 
number, 

3 That is, the four Vedas, each including Samhita, Brahmana, and Sutra, and in 
addition the six Vedangas which are enumerated at Mnnd. I. I. 5. 

* With slight variation - Katha 2. 5. and Maitn 7. 9. 



MUNDAKA UPANISHAD [-1.4.13 

9. Manifoldly living in ignorance, 

They think to themselves, childishly : " We have accomplished 

our aim ! " 
Since doers of deeds (karmin) do not under stand, because of 

passion (rdga), 
Therefore, when their worlds are exhausted, they sink down 

wretched. 

10. Thinking sacrifice and merit is the chiefest thing, 
Naught better do they know deluded I 
Having had enjoyment on the top of the heaven won by good 

works, 
They re-enter this world, 01 a lower. 



But unstriving 3 retiring knowers, without sacrifice, reach, 
the eternal Person 

a i. They who practise austerity (fapas) and faith (sraddha) in the 

forest, 

The peaceful (sdnfd) knowers who live on alms, 
Depart passionless (vi-rdga) through the door of the sun, 
To where is that immortal Person (Purusha), e'en the im- 
perishable Spirit (Atman). 

This knowledge of Brahma to be sought properly from 
a qualified teacher 

12. Having sciutimzed the woilds that are built up by work, a 

Brahman 
Should arrive at indifference. The [world] that was not made * 

is not [won] by what is done* 

For the sake of this knowledge let him go, fuel in hand, 2 
To a spiritual teacher (guru) who is learned in the scriptures 

and established on Brahma. 

13. Such a knowing [teacher], unto one who has approached 

properly, 

Whose thought is tranquilized, who has reached peace, 
Teaches in its very truth that knowledge of Biahma 
Whereby one knows the Imperishable, the Person, the True. 

1 Cf. ' the uncreated Brahma-world,' Ckand. 8. 13. 

2 The token of pupilship. 

369 B b 



a.i.i-] MUNDAKA UPANISHAD 

SECOND MUNDAKA 
The Doctrine of Brahma- A tman 

FIRST KHANDA 

The Imperishable, the source and the goal of all beings 
I. This is the truth: 

As, from a well-blazing fire, sparks 

By the thousand issue forth of like form, 

So from the Imperishable, my friend, beings manifold 

Are produced, and thither also go. 

The supreme Person 

2. Heavenly (dzvya\ formless (a-murtta) is the Peison (Purusha). 
He is without and within, unborn, 

Bieathless (a-prand), mindless (a-mana$\ pure (subhra), 
Higher than the high Imperishable. 

The source of the human person and of the cosmic elements 

3. From Him is produced breath (prana), 
Mind (manas\ and all the senses (mdriya), 
Space (kha), wind, light, water, 

And earth, the supporter of all. 

The macrocosmic Person 

4. Fire is His head; His eyes, the moon and sun; 

The regions of space. His ears ; His voice, the revealed Vedas ; 
Wind, His breath (prdna) ; His heart, the whole world. Out of 

His feet, 
The earth. Truly, He is the Inner Soul (Atman) of all. 

The source of the world and of the individual 

5. From Him [proceeds] fire, whose fuel is the sun; 
From the moon (Soma), rain; herbs, on the earth. 
The male pours seed in the female. 

Many creatures are produced from the Person (Pumsha). 

The source of all religious rites 

6. From Him the Rig Verses, the Saman Chant, the sacrificial 

formulas (yaju$\ the initiation rite (dzksa), 
37 



MUNDAKA UPANISHAD [-2.1.10 

And all the sacrifices, ceremonies, and sacrificial gifts (daknna\ 

The year too, and the sacrificer, the worlds 

Where the moon (Soma) shines brightly, and where the sun. 1 

The source of all forms of existence 

7. From Him, too, gods are manifoldly produced, 
The celestials (Sadhyas), men, cattle, birds, 

The in-breath and the out-breath (pranapanau], nee and 

barley, austerity (tapas), 
Faith (sraddha), truth, chastity, and the law (vidht). 

The source of the activity of the senses 

8. From Him come forth the seven life-breaths (prdna)? 
The seven flames, their fuel, the seven oblations, 
These seven worlds, wherein do move 

The life-breaths that dwell m the secret place [of the heart], 
placed seven and seven. 

The source of the world the Inner Soul of things 

9. Fiom Him 5 the seas and the mountains all. 
Fiom Him roll rivers of every kind. 

And from Him all herbs, the essence, too, 

Whereby that Inner Soul (antaratman) dwells in beings. 

The pantheistic Person found in the heart 

10. The Person (Purusha) himself is eveiything here: 

Work (karmari) and austerity (tapas] and Brahma, beyond 

death. 

He who knows That, set in the secret place [of the heart] 
He here on earth, my friend, rends asunder the knot of ignorance. 



1 That is, the world of the fathers, and the world of the gods, respectively ; 
described in Chand 5. 10. 

2 ankara explains these seven prdna as the seven organs of sense in the head 
(i e. two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, and the mouth). They are compared to 
seven different sacrificial oblations. The enlightenments produced by their activity 
are the flames of the sacrifice ; the objects which, supply their action, the fuel. 
Each sense moves in an appropriate world of its own ; but they are all co-ordinated 
by the mind (manas] y which is located in the heart. These same seven flames are 
probably referred to in PraSna 3. 5, end. Compare the seven flames of the regular 
sacrifices named at Mund. i. 2. 4. 

371 B b 3 



3..i-] MUNDAKA UPANISHAD 

SECOND KHANDA 

The pantheistic Brahma 

i Manifest, [yet] hidden ; called ' Moving-in-secret ; ; 
The great abode! Therein is placed that 
Which moves and breathes and winks. 
What that is, know as Being (sad) and Non-being (a-sad), 
As the object of desire, highei than understanding, 
As what is the best of creatures ! 

2. That which is flaming, which is subtler than the subtle, 
On which the worlds aie set, and their inhabitants 

That is the imperishable Biahma. 

It is life (prdna\ and It is speech and mind. 

That is the real. It is immortal. 

It is [a mark] to be penetrated. Penetrate It, my friend! 

A. target to be penetrated by meditation on 6 Om * 

3. Taking as a bow the great weapon of the Upanishad, 
One should put upon it an arrow sharpened by meditation. 
Stretching it with a thought directed to the essence of That, 
Penetrate 1 that Imperishable as the mark, my friend. 

4. The mystic syllable Om (pranava) is the bow. The arrow 

is the soul (aimari). 

Brahma is said to be the maik (laksya). 
By the undistracted man is It to be penetrated. 
One should come to be in It, as the anow [in the mark], 

The immortal Soul, the one warp of the world and 
of the individual 

5. He on whom the sky, the earth, and the atmosphere 

Are woven, and the mind, together with all the life-breaths 

(prana\ 

Him alone know as the one Soul (Atman). Other 
Words dismiss. He is the bridge to immoitahty. 

1 With a double meaning, doubtless, in accordance with the great thought of 
metaphysical knowledge which is here being expounded. Besides being derivable 
from */vyadh, 'to penetrate 3 } mddhi means aUo ' know/ 

372 



MUNDAKA UPANISHAD [-2.2.11 

The great Soul to be found in the heart 

6. Where the aiteries are brought together 
Like the spokes in the hub of a wheel 
Therein he moves about, 

Becoming manifold. 

Om IThus meditate upon the Soul (Atman). 
Success to you in crossing to the farther shore beyond darkness! 

7. He who is all-knowing, all-wise, 
Whose is this greatness on the earth 
He is in the divine Brahma city 1 

And in the heaven established ' The Soul (Atman) I 
Consisting of mind, leader of the life-breaths and of the 

body, 

He is established on food, controlling 2 the heart. 
By this knowledge the wise perceive 
The blissful Immortal that gleams forth. 

Deliverance gained through vision of Him 

8. The knot of the heart is loosened, 
All doubts are cut off, 

And one's deeds (karman) cease 

When He is seen both the higher and the lower. 

The self-luminous light of the world 

9. In the highest golden sheath 

Is Brahma, without stain, without parts. 

Brilliant is It, the light of lights 

That which knowers of the Soul (Atman) do know ! 

10. The sun shines not there, nor the moon and stars; 
These lightnings shine not, much less this [earthly] fire I 
After Him, as He shines, doth everything shine. 

This whole world is illumined with His light. 3 

The omnipresent Brahma 

11. Brahma, indeed, is this immortal. Brahma before, 
Brahma behind, to right and to left. 

Stretched forth below and above, 

Brahma, indeed, is this whole world, this widest extent 

1 That is, l m the body/ as in Chand. 8. I. r. 

2 From sam-ni-*/dha>i with the same meaning as in Praina 3. 4. 
8 This stanza -Katha 5. 15 and Svet. 6. 14. 

373 



3.I.I-] MUNDAKA UPANISHAD 

THIRD MUNDAKA 
The Way to Brahma 

FIRST KHANDA 
Becognition of the G-reat Companion, the supreme salvation 

1. Two birds, fast bound companions. 
Clasp close the self-same tree. 

Of these two, the one eats sweet fruit; 
The other looks on without eating. 1 

2. On the self-same tree a person, sunken, 
Grieves for his impotence, deluded ; 

When he sees the other, the Lord (/), contented, 
And his greatness, he becomes freed from sonow. 2 

3. When a seer sees the brilliant 

Maker, Lord, Person, the Brahma-source, 

Then, being a knower, shaking off good and evil, 3 

Stainless, he attains supreme identity (sdmya) [with Him], 

Delight in the Soul, the life of all things 

4. Truly, it is Life (Prana) that shines foith in all things! 
Understanding this, one becomes a knower. There is no 

superior speaker. 
Having delight in the Soul (Atman), having pleasure in the 

Soul, 4 doing the rites, 
Such a one is the best of Brahma-knowers. 

The pure Soul obtainable by true methods 

5. This Soul (Atman) is obtainable by truth, by austerity (tapas), 
By proper knowledge (jndna\ by the student's life of chastity 

(brahmacarya) constantly [practised]. 
Within the body, consisting of light, puie is He 
Whom the ascetics (jwti), with imperfections done away, 

behold. 

1 This stanza is quoted from RV. I. 164. 20 ; repeated at Svet. 4. 6. Compare 
also Katha 3. r. 

2 Repeated at 5 vet. 4. 7. 

3 The first three lines of this stanza are quoted at Maitri 6. 18. 
* AsinChand. 7. 25.2. 

374 



MUNDAKA UPANISHAD [-3.*.* 

6. Truth alone conquers, not falsehood. 

By truth is laid out the path leading to the gods (devqyana) 
By which the sages whose desire is satisfied ascend 
To where is the highest repository of truth. 

The universal inner Soul 

7. Vast, heavenly, of unthinkable form, 

And more minute than the minute, It shines forth. 
It is farther than the far, yet here near at hand, 
Set down in the secret place [of the heart], even here among 
those who behold [It]. 

Obtainable by contemplation, purified from sense 

8. Not by sight is It grasped, not even by speech, 

Not by any other sense-organs (deva), austerity, or work. 

By the peace of knowledge (jndna-prasada), one's nature 

purified 
In that way, however, by meditating, one does behold Him 

who is without parts. 

9. That subtile Soul (Atman) is to be known by thought (cetas) 
Wherein the senses (prdnd) fivefoldly have entered. 

The whole of men's thinking is interwoven with the senses. 
When that is purified, the Soul (Atman) shines forth. 

The acquiring power of thought 

10. Whatever world a man of purified nature makes clear in mind, 
And whatever desires he desires for himself 
That world he wins, those desires too. 

Therefore he who is desirous of welfare should praise the 
knower of the Soul (Atman). 

SECOND KHANDA 
Desires as the cause of rebirth 

1. He knows that Supreme Brahma-abode, 
Founded on which the whole world shines radiantly. 

They who, being without desire, worship the Person (Purusha) 
And are wise, pass beyond the seed (sukra) [of rebirth] here. 

2. He who in fancy forms desires, 

Because of his desues is bom [again] here and there. 

But of him whose desire is satisfied, who is a perfected soul 

(krtatman)) 
All desires even here on earth vanish away. 

375 



3- 3-] MUNDAKA UPANISHAD 

The Sotil (Atman) known only by revelation to His own elect 

3. This Soul (Atman) is not to be obtained by instruction, 
Nor by intellect, nor by much learning. 

He is to be obtained only by the one whom He chooses ; 
To such a one that Soul (Atman) reveals His own person 
(ianum svdm). 1 

Certain indispensable conditions, pre-eminently knowledge 

4. This Soul (Atman) is not to be obtained by one destitute of 

fortitude, 
Nor through heedlessness, nor through a false notion of 

austerity (tapai). 

But he who strives by these means, provided he knows 
Into his Brahma-abode this Soul (Atman) enters. 

In tranquil union with the Soul of all is liberation from 
death and from all distinctions of individuality 

5. Attaining Him, the seers (rsi) who are satisfied with knowledge, 
Who are perfected souls (krtatman\ fiom passion free (vita- 

rdga), tranquil 

Attaining Him who is the universally omnipresent, those wise, 
Devout souls (yuktatman) into the All itself do enter. 

6. They who have ascertained the meaning of the Vedanta- 

knowledge, 
Ascetics (yati) with natures purified through the application of 

renunciation (samnyasa-yoga) 
They in the Brahma-worlds at the end of time 
Are all liberated beyond death. 

7. Gone are the fifteen parts 2 according to their station, 

Even all the sense-organs (deva) in their corresponding 
divinities ! 

One's deeds (karman) and the self that consists of understand- 
ing (vijndna-maya d/man} 

All become unified in the supreme Imperishable. 

8. As the flowing rivers in the ocean 
Disappear, quitting name and form, 3 

So the knower, being liberated from name and form, 
Goes unto the heavenly Person, higher than the high. 

1 This stanza rectirs at Katha 2. 23. 

2 That is, of the microcosm back into the macrocosm. Cf. Prasna 6, 5. 

3 The Sanskrit idiom for f individuality/ 

37*5 



MUNDAKA UPANISHAD [-3.2.11 

The rewards and the requisite conditions of this knowledge 

of Brahma 

9. He, verily, who knows that supreme Brahma, becomes 
very Brahma. 1 In his family no one ignorant of Brahma 
arises. He crosses over sorrow. He crosses over sin (papman\ 
Liberated from the knots of the heart, he becomes immortal. 

10. This very [doctrine] has been declared in the verse : 
They who do the rites, who are learned in the Vedas, who 

are intent on Brahma, 
They who, possessing faith (sraddhayan\ make oblation of 

themselves, even of the one seer 2 

To them indeed one may declare this knowledge of Brahma, 
When, however, the Mundaka-vo\v 3 has been performed by 

them according to rule.' 

11. This is the truth. The seer (rsi) Angiras declared it in 
ancient time. One who has not performed the vow does not 
read this. 

Adoration to the highest seers ' 
Adoration to the highest seers ' 

1 In the title to his Latin translation, ' Qnpnekhat/ Anquetil Duperron set this 
sentence evidently as the summary of the contents of the Upanishads ' Qmsqms 
Deum intelligit, Deus fit,' ' whoever knows God, becomes God.' 

2 Identified with Prana, 'Life,' in Prasna 2. ir. The reference, then, is 
probably to the mystical Pranagmhotra sacrifice, in which 6 breath ' is symbolically 
sacrificed for an Agmhotra ceremony. 

8 3ankara explains this as c carrying fire on the head a well-known* Vedic vow 
among followers of the Atharva-Veda.' But it is more likely to be e shaving the 
head/ as Buddhist monks did later. This preliminary requisite to the study of 
the Upanishad doubtless gave it the title * The Shaveling Upanishad/ or * The 
Upanishad of the Tonsured/ 



377 



PRASNA UPANISHAD 1 

FIRST PRASNA 
Six questioners seek the highest Brahma from a teacher 

I. Sukesan Bharadvaja, and Saibya Satyakama, and 
Sauryayanin Gargya, and Kau^alya Asvalayana, and Bhargava 
Vaidarbhi, and Kabandhin Katyayana these, indeed, were 
devoted to Brahma, intent upon Brahma, in search of the 
highest Brahma. Thinking ' He, verily, will tell it all,' with 
fuel in hand 2 they approached the honorable Pippalada. 

2,. To them then that seer (rsi) said: 'Dwell with me 
(samvatsyatha) a year (samvatsara) more, with austerity (tap as), 
chastity (brahmacarya), and faith (sraddha). Then ask what 
questions you will. If we know, we will tell you all.' 

Question : Concerning the source of creatures ou earth. 

3. Then Kabandhin Katyayana came up and asked : e Sir, 
whence, verily, are creatures here born ? ' 

The Lord of Creation created matter and life 
for dual parentage of creatures 

4. To him then he said : < The Lord of Creation (Prajapati), 
verily, was desirous of creatures (offspring, praja). He 
performed austerity. Having performed austerity, he produces 
a pair, matter (rayi, fern.) and life (prana, masc.), thinking 
" These two will make creatures for me in manifold ways " 

The sun and moon, such a pair 

5- The sun, verily, is life ; matter, indeed, is the moon. 

Matter identified with every form of existence 

Matter, verily, is everything here, both what is formed and 
what is formless. Therefore material form (murti) indeed is 

matter. 

1 That is, Question Upamshad. 

- The ancient token with which a person presented himself as a pupil unto 
a teacher whose instruction he desired. 

378 



PRASNA UPANISHAD [-1.10 

The sun, identified with the life of creatures 

6. Now the sun, when it rises, enters the eastern quarter. 
Thereby it collects the living beings (prana) of the east in 
its rays. When it illumines the southern, the western, the 
northern, the lower, the upper, the intervening quarters, when 
it illumines everything thereby it collects all living beings 
in its rays. 

7. That fire rises as the universal all-formed life. This very 
[doctrine] has been declared in the verse : 

8. [. . . Him] who has all foims, the golden one, all-knowing, 1 
The final goal, the only light, heat-giving. 

The thousand-iayed, the hundredfold revolving, 
Yon sun aiises as the life of creatures. 2 



The year identified with the Lord of Creation ; the two 
paths : of reincarnation and of non-reincarnation 

9 The year, verily, is Lord of Creation (Prajapati). This 
has two paths, the Southern and the Northern. 3 

Now, those, verily, indeed, who worship, thinking " Sacrifice 
and merit are our work (krta) ' " they win only the lunar world. 
They, indeed, return hither again. 4 Therefore those seers (rsi) 
who are desirous of offspring go the Southern course. This 
matter (rayi) verily it is, that leads to the fathers (pitryana). 

10. But they who seek the Soul (Atman) by austerity, 
chastity, faith, and knowledge they by the Northern course 
win the sun. That, verily, is the support of life-breaths. That 
is the immortal 3 the fearless. That is the final goal. From that 
they do not return as they say (itt). That is the stopping [of 
rebirth]. As to that there is this verse (sloka) : 

1 Or, according to a different exegesis, the word jatavedasam may mean 4 all- 
finding ' 

2 This stanza occurs again in Maitri 6. 8, as the conclusion of a section which 
expounds the unity of Prana (life) and Aditya (the sun). 

5 Elaborated in Bnh. 6. 2. 15-16 ; Chand. 4. 15. 5 ; Chand. 5. 10 ; andBhG. 8. 
24-26 as the half-year of the sun's southward couise and as the half-year of the 
sun's northward course, respectively. 

4 This belief in rebirth occurs alieady in AV. 12, 2. 52 b. 

379 



i. ii-] PRASNA UPANISHAD 

Two old Vedic interpretations of tlie year 

ii. They speak of a father, five-footed, twelve-formed, 1 
Rich in moisture, as in the higher half of heaven. 
But others here speak of a sage 2 in the lower half, 
Set in a sevens heeled, six-spoked 3 [chariot]. 4 

The twofold month, identified with the Lord of Creation ; 
to be properly observed in sacrifice 

13. The month, verily, is the Lord of Creation (Prajapati), 
Its dark half, indeed, is matter ; its bright half, life. Therefore 
these seers (rsi) perform sacrifice in the bright half; other 
people, in the other half. 

Day and night, identified with the Lord of Creation ; 
to be properly observed in procreation 

13. Day and night, verily, aie the Lord of Creation (Praja- 
pati). Of this, day indeed is life; the night, matter. Verily, 
they waste their life who join in sexual enjoyment by day ; it 
is chastity that they join in sexual enjoyment by night. 

Food, the direct source of creatures 

' 14. Food, verily, is Lord of Creation (Prajapati). From this, 
verily, is semen. From this creatures here are born. 

Concluding assurance 

15. Now, they who practise this rule of Prajapati 5 produce 
a pair. 6 

They indeed possess that Brahma-world, 

Who possess austerity (tapas] and chastity (l>rakmacarya\ 

In whom the truth is established. 

1 6. To them belongs yon stainless Biahma-woild, 

In whom there is no crookedness and falsehood, nor trickery 
(may a).' 

1 Both 3ankara here and Sayana on the Rig- Veda passage explain this as ' the 
year,' * with five seasons,' and ' with twelve months ' 

2 Or * one far-shining,' mcaksana. 

3 c With seven steeds, and six seasons.' Com. 

4 This stanza = RV. i 164. 12. 

5 As stated above in 13. 

* That is, offspring, like Prajapati himself according to 4. 



PRASNA UPANISHAD [-2.6 

SECOND PRASNA 
Concerning the several personal powers and their chiefest 

c. Then Bhaigava Vaidarbhi asked him [i.e. Pippalada] : 

[a] ' Sir, how many powers (deva) support a creature? 

[b] How many illumine this [body] ? 

[c] Which one again is the chiefest of them ? ' 

[a] and [b] The supporting and illumining powers 

2. To him then he said : * Space (akdsa), verily, is such 
a power (deva} wind, fire, water, earth, speech, mind, sight, 
and hearing, too. 1 These, having illumined it, declare : " We 
uphold and support this trunk (band) \ " ' 

[c] Life, the essential and chiefest 

3. To them Life (prdna, the life-breath), the chiefest, said; 
" Fall not into delusion 1 I indeed, dividing myself (atmanam) 
fivefold, support and sustain this body!" 

4. They were incredulous. He, from pride, as it were, rises 
up aloft. Now when he rises up, then all the others also rise 
up ; and when he settles down, they all settle down with him. 

Now, as all the bees rise up after the king bee when he 
rises up, and all settle down when he settles down, even so 
speech, mind, sight, and hearing. They, being satisfied, praise 
Life (prana^ the life-breath). 

The universal Life 

5. As fiie (Agni), he warms. He is the sun (Surya). 

He is the bountiful 2 rain (Parjanya). He is the wind (Vayu). 
He is the earth, matter (rayi\ God (deva), 
Being (sat) and Non-being (asaf), and what is immortal 

6. Like the spokes on the hub of a wheel, 
Everything is established on Life (prand) . 
The Rig verses, the Yajus formulas, the Saman chants, 
The sacrifice, the nobility (ksafra) and the priesthood 
(brahman] \ 

1 That is, the five cosmic elements, and with prana (life-breath) the five personal 
functions. 

2 The reference may be to i Indra/ for whom, magkavan is a very common 
Vedic epithet. 



2 7-] PRASNA UPANISHAD 

7. As the Lord of Creation (Prajapan), thou movest in the 

womb. 

Tis thou thyself that art born again 
To thee, Life, creatures heie bring tubute l 
Thou, who dwellest with living beings ! 

8. Thou art the chief bearer [of oblations] to the gods ! 
Thou art the first offering to the fatheis f 

Thou art the true practice of the seers, 
Descendants of Atharvan and Angiras ' 

9. Indra art thou, O Life, with thy brilliance ! 
Rudra art thou as a protector I 

Thou movest in the atmosphere 

As the sun (Surya), thou Loid of lights ' 

10. When thou rainest upon them, 

Then these creatures of thine, Life, 
Are blissful, thinking : 
" There will be food for all desire ! " 

n. A Vratya 2 art thou, Life, the only seer, 
An eater, the real lord of all j 
We are the givers of thy food ! 
Thou art the father of the wind (Matansvan). 

12. That form of thine which abides in speech, 
Which abides in hearing, which abides in sight, 
And which is extended in the mind, 

Make propitious ! Go not away ! 

13. This whole world is in the contiol of Life 
E'en what is established in the third heaven ' 
As a mother her son, do thou piotect [usp 

Grant to us prosperity (srf) and wisdom (prajna) \ ' 



1 This line is a reminiscence of AV. u. 4. 19 a, b } a hymn to Prana, of which 
there are other reminiscences in this Prasna Upamshad 

Sankai a explains this word as meaning ' uninitiated ' because of his being the 
first bom, and there being no one else to initiate him , theiefore 'pure by nature.' 
This is a noteworthy characterization ; for, later a Vratya is either a despised, non- 
Brahmamcal low-caste man, 01 else a man who has lost ca&te through the non- 
observance of proper ceremonies ' Yet compare the glorification of the Viatya in 
AV. i*. 



382 



PRASNA UPANISHAD [-3.5 

THIRD PRASNA 
Six questions concerning a person's life 

i Then Kausalya Asvalayana asked him [i. e. Pippalada] : 

[a] c Whence, Sir, is this life (prana) born ? 

[b] How does it come into this body 71 

[c] And how does it distribute itself (atmanam), and 
establish itself? 

[d] Through what does it depart ? 

[e] How does it relate itself to the external ? 

[f] How with reference to the self? ' 

2. To him then he said: c You are asking questions 
excessively, Eut you are pre-eminently a Brahman l methinks 
(iti). Therefore I tell you. 

[a] The source of a person's life 

3. This life (prana) is born from the Spirit (Atman, Self). 

[b] Its embodiment 

As in the case of a peison there is this shadow extended, so- 
ft is in this case. By the action of the mind [in one's previous 
existence 2 ] it comes into this body. 

[c] Its establishment and distribution in the body 

4. As an overloid commands his overseers, saying : " Super- 
intend such and such villages/ 5 even so this life (prana} 
controls the other life-breaths one by one. 

5. The out-breath (apana) is in the organs of excretion and 
generation. The life-breath (prana) as such (svayam) estab- 
lishes itself in the eye and ear, together with the mouth and 
nose. While in the middle is the equalizing breath (samana\ 

1 Or, ' most devoted to Brahma,' brahmistha. 

2 Such seems to be the implication of the important preceding word manokrtena t 
in accordance with the theory of rebirth which is assumed later in this same 
Upanishad. That is a person's life in this body is the sure and appropriate 
result of his thoughts in a pievious existence, even as a shadow is the similitude 
unavoidably cast from a person's body. A different, but not contradictory, inter- 
pretation is possible from the reading mano l krtena> ' without action of the mind r 
(which Deussen proposes) * i. e. that a person's life in this body is an involuntary 
shadow cast from the great Self, 

383 



3 .5~] PRASNA UPANISHAD 

for it is this [breath] that equalizes [in distribution] whatever 
has been offered as food x From this arise the seven flames. 2 

6. In the heart, truly, is the self (atman}. Here there are 
those hundred and one arteries. 3 To each one of these belong 
a hundred smaller arteiies. To each of these belong seventy- 
two thousand 4 branching arteries (fata). Within them moves 
the diffused breath (vydna)* 

[d] Its departure 

7. Now, rising upward through one of these [arteries], 5 the 
up-breath (udand) leads in consequence of good [work] (puny a) 
to the good world ; in consequence of evil (papa), to the evil 
world 3 in consequence of both, to the world of men. 

[e and f] Its cosmic and personal relations 

8. The sun, verily, rises externally as life 7 ; for it is that 
which helps the life-breath in the eye. The divinity which is 
in the earth supports a person's out-breath (apana). What 
is between [the sun and the eaith], namely space (akasd), is 
the equalizing breath (samdna). The wind (Vayu) is the 
diffused breath (vydna). 

9. Heat (fejas), verily, is the up-breath (udditci). Therefore 
one whose heat has ceased goes to rebirth, with his senses 
(indriya) sunk in mind (manas). 

One's thinking determines life and destiny 

10. Whatever is one's thinking (cittd), therewith he enters 
into life (prdnd). His life joined with his heat, together with 
the self (dfrnan)) leads to whatever world has been fashioned [in 
thought]. 8 

1 Or possibly, as rendered by Deussen, * ... it is this [bieath] that brings to 
sameness [i. e. assimilates, digests] this offered food/ But cf. Prasna 4. 4. 

2 Compare MnncL 2. i. 8, 

3 Mentioned in Chand. 8. 6, 6. 

4 Mentioned m Bnh. 2. i. 19, 

5 Called the susumna. Cf. Maitn 6* 21. 

5 The idea exponnded is that the five bodily life functions are correlated with 
five cosmic powers. 

7 As already identified in I. 5. 

8 The destiny-making power of thought, especially as instanced in a person's 
last thoughts, is similarly expressed in BhG. 8. 6. 

384 



PRASNA UPANISHAD [-4. 3 

Becapitulation 

ii. The knower who knows life (prand) thus his offspring 
truly is not lost ; he becomes immortal. As to this there is 
this verse (sloka) : 

12. The source, the entrance, the location, 
The fivefold extension, 

And the relation to self (adhyatmd) of the life (prana) 
By knowing these one obtains immortality ! 
By knowing these one obtains immoitahty 1 

FOURTH PRASNA 
Concerning sleep and the ultimate basis of things 

I. Then Sauryayanin Gargya asked him [i.e. Pippalada] : 

[a] ' Sir, what are they that sleep in a person here ? 

[b] What are they that remain awake in him ? 

[c] Which is the god (deva) that sees the dreams ? 

[d] Whose is the happiness ? 

[e] In whom, pray, are all things established ? J 

[a] All sense-functions unified in the mind during sleep 

2. To him then he said : e O Gargya, as the rays of the 
setting sun all become one in that orb of brilliance and go forth 
again and again when it rises, even so, verily, everything here 
becomes one in mind (manas\ the highest god. 

Therefore in that condition (tar hi) the person hears not, sees 
not, smells not, tastes not, touches not, speaks not, takes not, 
enjoys not, emits not, moves not about. " He sleeps ! " they 
say. 

[b] The five life-functions, like sacrificial fires, slumber not 

3. Life's fires, in truth, remain awake in this city. 

The out-breath (apana) is the Garhapatya (Householder's) 
fire. The diffused breath (vyana) is the Anvaharyapacana 
(Southern Sacrificial) fire. The in-breath (prana) is the 
Ahavamya (Oblation) fire, from "being taken" (pranayana), 
since it is taken (pranlyate) from the Garhapatya fire. 1 

1 Life itself being- conceived of as a sacrifice, these three life-breaths are 
symbolically identified with the three fires which are used in the Vedic sacrificial 
rites. Compare the identification of the saciicer T s priest, wife, and son with these 
same three altar fires at Ait. Br. 8. 24. 

385 cc 



4 . 4 -] PRASNA UPANISHAD 

4. The equalizing breath (samand) is so called because it 
<f equalizes " (samam nayati) the two oblations : the in-breath- 
ing and the out-breathing (itcchvasa-niksvasa). The mind, 
verily, indeed, is the sacrificer. The fruit of the sacrifice is the 
up-breath (uddna). It leads the sacrificer to Brahma day by 
day. 

[c] The universal mind, the beholder of dreams 

5. There, in sleep, that god experiences greatness. What- 
ever object has been seen, he sees again ; whatever has been 
heard, he hears again. That which has been severally experi- 
enced in different places and regions, he severally experiences 
again and again. Both what has been seen and what has not 
been seen, both what has been heard and what has not been 
heard, both what has been experienced and what has not been 
experienced, both the real (sat) and the unieal (a-sat) he sees 
all. He sees it, himself being all. 

[d] The brilliant happiness of dreamless sleep, 

in the mind's non-action 

6. When he is overcome with brilliance (tejas\ then that god 
sees no dreams ; then here in this body arises this happiness 
(sukha). 

[e] The Supreme Soul the ultimate basis of the manifold 
world and of the individual 

7. As birds resort to a tree for a_resting-place, even so, 
O friend, it is to the supreme Soul (Atman) that everything 
here resorts * : 

8. Earth and the elements (matra] of earth, water and the 
elements of water, heat (tejas) and the elements of heat, wind 
and the elements of wind, space and the elements of space, 
sight and what can be seen, hearing and what can be heard, 
smell and what can be smelled, taste and what can be tasted, 
the skin and what can be touched, speech and what can be 
spoken, the hands and what can be taken, the organ of genera- 

1 The following is a noteworthy Sankhya enumeration, including the five 
cosmic elements, the ten organs (indnya), and manas, buddfo, ahamkdra, citta. 
together with light and life. Cf. p. 391, note 4. 

386 



PRASNA UPANISHAD [-5.2 

tion and what can be enjoyed, the anus and what can be 
excreted, the feet and what can be walked, mind (manas) and 
what can be perceived, intellect (buddhi) and what can be con- 
ceived, egoism (ahamkdra) and what can be connected with 
"me," thought (citta) and what can be thought, brilliance 
(tejas) and what can be illumined, life-breath (prana} and what 
can be supported. 

9. Truly, this seer, toucher, hearer, smeller, taster, thinker 
(mantf), conceiver (boddhr\ doer, the conscious self (mjnan- 
atman}^ the person his resort is in the supreme imperishable 
Soul (Atman, Self). 

Knowing, and reaching, the world-ground 

10. Verily, O friend ! he who recognizes that shadowless, 
bodiless, bloodless, pure Imperishable, arrives at the Imperish- 
able itself. He, knowing all, becomes the All. On this there 
is the verse (sloka) : 

ii. O friend! he who recognizes as the Imperishable 

That whereon the conscious self, \\ith all its powers (dwa)> 
And the life-breaths (prana) and the elements (bhuta} do 

rest 
He, knowing all, into the All has entered/ 

FIFTH PRASNA 
Concerning the value of meditation on * Om ' 

1. Then Saibya Satyakama asked him [i.e. Pippalada]: 
' Verily, Sir, if some one among men here should meditate 
on the syllable Om until the end of his life, which world, 
verily, does he win thereby? 3 

Partial or complete comprehension of * Om ' and of Brahma 
affords temporary or final cessation of rebirth 

2. To him then he said : * Verily, O Satyakama, that which 
is the syllable Om is both the higher and the lower Brahma 1 

1 Compare Mund. i. i. 4 for the two kinds of sacred knowledge-. So here 
probably brahma may be used in the sense of * sacred knowledge * as well as in 
a strictly metaphysical sense referring to the mr-guna^ Tin-qualified,' and the sa- 
t qualified,' Brahma respectively. 

387 C c a 



5.2-] PRASNA UPANISHAD 

Therefore with this support, in truth, a knower reaches one 
or the other. 

3. If he meditates on one element [namely a\, having been 
instructed by that alone he quickly comes into the earth [after 
death]. The Rig verses lead him to the world of men. 
There, united with austerity, chastity, and faith, he experiences 
greatness. 

4. Now, if he is united in mind with two elements [namely 
a + */], he is led by the Yajus formulas to the intermediate space, 
to the world of the moon. Having experienced greatness in 
the world of the moon, he returns hither again. 

5. Again, he who meditates on the highest Person (Purusha) 
with the three elements of the syllable Om [namely a + u + m], 
is united with brilliance (tejas] in the sun. As a snake is freed 
from its skin, even so, verily, is he freed from sin (papman). 
He is led by the Saman chants to the world of Brahma. He 
beholds the Person that dwells in the body and that is higher 
than the highest living complex. As to this there are these 
two verses (sloka) : 

6. The three elements are deadly when employed 
One after the other, separately. 

In actions external, internal, or intei mediate 

When they are properly employed, the knower tiembles not. 

7. With the Rig verses, to this \vorld ; with the Saman chants, 

to the intermediate space ; 

With the Yajus formulas, to that which sages (kavi) recognize ; 
With the syllable Om in truth as a support, the knower reaches 

That 
Which is peaceful, unaging, immortal, fearless, and supreme 1 ' 



SIXTH PRASNA 
Concerning the Person with sixteen parts * 

I. Then Sukekn Bharadvaja asked him [i.e. Pippalada] : 
'Sir, Hiranyanabha, a prince of the Kos*alas, came to me and 

1 In VS. 8. 36 Prajapati, c Lord of Creation, 1 is addressed as soQalin, with six- 
teen parts.' In Brih. i. 5. 14 the year is identified with Prajapati and explained 

388 



PRASNA UPANISHAD [-6.5 

asked this question : " Bharadvaja, do you know the Person 
with the sixteen parts ? " I said to the youth : " I know him 
not. If I had known him, would I not have told you? Verily, 
he dries up even to the roots, who speaks untruth. Therefore 
it is not proper that I should speak untruth." In silence he 
mounted his chariot and departed. 

I ask it of you : u Where is that Person ? " ' 

2. To him he then said : ' Even here within the body, 
O friend, is that Person in whom they say the sixteen parts 
arise. 

3. He [ie. the Person] thought to himself: "In whose 
departure shall I be departing? In whose resting firm, verily, 
shall I be resting firm ? " 

4. He created life (prdna) ; from life, faith (sraddhd], space 
(kha), wind, light, water, earth, sense-faculty (indnyd), mind, 
food ; from food,, virility, austerity, sacred sayings (mantra)^ 
sacrifice, the worlds ; and in the worlds, name [i, e. the 
individual]. 

5. As these flowing rivers that tend toward the ocean, on 
reaching the ocean, disappear, their name and form (ndma-rupa) 
are destroyed, and it is called simply " the ocean '*' even so of 
this spectator these sixteen parts that tend toward the Person, 
on reaching the Person^ disappear, their name and form are 
destroyed, and it is called simply ''the Person." That one 
continues without parts, immortal ! As to that there is this 
verse : 



as having sixteen parts because its component half-months each consist of fifteen 
days and a turning-point. According to Brih. i. 5. 15 the human person who 
understands this lact becomes similarly characterized. A practical proof of 
a person's sixteenfoldness is adduced at Chand. 6. 7, and an etymological proof at 
6at. Br 10. 4. i 17. 

These old conceptions, namely that the * Lord of Creation y is sixteenfold and that 
a human pefbon also is sixteenfold, are here philosophically interpreted in accor- 
dance with the general pantheism of the Upamshads. 

Analysis : 2, 3, the cosmic Person is immanent in the human person, which 
is His most distinctive manifestation ; 4, the human person is the culmination 
and recapitulation of the sixteenfold evolution of the thought of the creative 
Person ; <* 5, the sixteenfold human person tends to return to, and merge into, the 
immortal Person, and therein to lose his finite individuality ; 6, an appreciation 
of the unitary basis of the manifold world as being a knowable Person, removes 
the fear of death. 

389 



6.6-] PRASNA UPANISHAD 

6. Whereon the parts rest firm 

Like the spokes on the hub of a wheel 
Him I know as the Peison to be known! 
So let death disturb you not ! ' 

Conclusion of fhe instruction 

7. To them then he [i.e. Pippalada] said: ' Thus far, in 
tiuth, I know that supreme Brahma. There is naught higher 
than It.' 

cS. They praised him and said : ' You truly are our father 
you who lead us across to the shore beyond ignorance/ 

Adoration to the supreme seers ! 

Adoration to the supreme seers ! 



39 



MANDUKYA UPANISHAD 

The mystic symbolism of the word * Om ' t 
(a) identified with the fourfold, pantheistic time-Brahma 

1. Om 1 This syllable 1 is this whole world. 
Its further explanation is 

The past, the present, the future everything is just the 
word Om. 

And whatever else that transcends threefold time 2 that, too, 
is just the word Om. 

2. For truly, everything here is Brahma ; this self (dtman) is 
Brahma. This same self has four fourths. 

(b) representing in its phonetic elements the four 
states of the Self 

3. The waking state (jagarita-stkana), outwardly cognitive, 
having seven limbs, 3 having nineteen mouths, 4 enjoying the 
gross (sthula-bhnj)) the Common-to-all-men (vaisvanara), is 
the first fourth. 

4. The dreaming state (svapna-sthana), inwardly cognitive, 
having seven limbs, having nineteen mouths, enjoying the 
exquisite (pramrnkta-bhuj)^ the Brilliant (taijasa), is the second 
fourth. 



1 Inasmuch as aksaram means also f imperishable,' the word may in this con- 
nection be used with a double significance, namely, * This imperishable syllable . . / 

2 A similar phrase occurs at 6vet. 6. 5 b. 

3 ankara refers to the enumeration of the several parts of the universal 
(vazfoanara) Self at Chand. 5. 18. 2 ; there, however, the hbt is longer than seven. 
The exact significance of the number here is uncertain. 

4 Sankara explains this to mean : the five organs of sense {buddhindriyd]^ namely 
those ot hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell, the five organs of action (barmen-* 
drtya), namely those of speech, handling, locomotion, generation, and excretion, 
the five vital breaths ($rdna} 3 the sensonum (manas\ the intellect (b 
egoism (ahamkdra), and thinking (cittd], 

391 



5 -] MANDUKYA UPANISHAD 

5. If one asleep desires no desire whatsoever, sees no dream 
whatsoever 1 that is deep sleep (sitszipta). 

The deep-sleep state (susnpta-sthana}, unified (eki-bhuta)? 
just (eva) a cognition-mass (prajnana-ghand)? consisting of 
bliss (ananda-maya}f enjoying bliss (ananda-bhuj) , whose 
mouth is thought (cetas-), the Cognitional (prajfia), is the 
thiid fourth. 

6. This is the lord of all (sarvesvara)? This is the all- 
knowing (sarva-jna)* This is the inner controller (antar- 
yamin}? This is the source (yom) B of all, for this is the 
origin and the end (prabhavapyayau) 9 of beings. 

7. Not inwardly cognitive (antah-frajita), not outwardly 
cognitive (bahih-prajna), not both-wise cognitive (ubhayatah- 
prajiia), not a cognition-mass (prajnana-ghana\ not cognitive 
(frajna), not non-cognitive (a-prajna), unseen (a-drsta), with 
which there can be no dealing \a-vy avaharya\ ungraspable (a- 
grahya)^ having no distinctive mark (a-laksana), non-thinkable 
(a-ctntya)> that cannot be designated (a-vyapadcsyd), the essence 
of the assurance of which is the state of being one with the 
Self 10 (ekatmya-pratyaya-sara], the cessation of development 
(prapancopasama\ tranquil (santa\ benign (hva)> without a 
second (a-dvaita) [such] they think is the fourth. 11 He is 
the Self (Atman). He should be discerned. 

8. This is the Self with regard to the word Om, with 
regard to its elements. The elements (matra) are the fourths ; 

1 The part of the sentence up to this point has occmred already in Bnh. 4. 3. 19. 

2 A detailed description of the condition of being * unified ' occurs at Bnh. 
4 4- 2. 

3 This compound has already occuned in Bnh. 4. 5. 13. 

4 A description of the self 'consisting of bliss' occurs in Tait. 2. 5. It is 
declared to be the acme of attainment over every other form of self at Tait. 2. S. i 
and 3. 10. 5. 

5 A phrase in Bnh. 4 4. 22. 6 A phrase in Mtind. I, i. 9 ; 2. 2. 7. 
7 The subject of discourse m Bnh. 3. 7. 8 Literally, * womb.' 

9 A phrase in Katha 6. n. 

10 Or, according to the reading ekatma-, ' the oneness of the Self or ' one's own 
self/ 

31 The designation here used for the 'fourth,' or super-conscious, state is 
mturtha, the usual and regular form of the ordinal nurneial adjective, In Bnh. 
(at 5. 14. 3, 4, 6, 7) it is named t^^r^ya> and m Maitn (at 6. 19 ; 7. n. 7) turya 
variant forms of the same ordinal. All later philosophical treatises have the form 
a^ which came to be the accepted technical term, 

392 



MANDUKYA UPANISHAD [-12 

the fourths, the elements: the letter a, the letter , the 
letter m. 1 

9. The waking state, the Common-to-all-men, is the letter a, 
the first element, from apt* ('obtaining') or from ddimatvd 
(' being first '). 

He obtains, verily, indeed, all desires, he becomes first he 
who knows this. 

10. The sleeping state, the Brilliant, is the letter */, the 
second element, from ntkarsa ('exaltation') or from ubhayatva 
(' intermediateness '). 

He exalts, verily, indeed, the continuity of knowledge ; 
and he becomes equal 2 (samdna) ; no one ignorant of Brahma 
is born in the family of him who knows this. 

u. The deep- sleep state, the Cogmtional, is the letter m, 
the third element, from mitz (' erecting ') or from aplti ' 
(' immerging *). 

He, verily, indeed, erects (minotz) this whole world, 4 and he 
becomes its immerging he who knows this. 

12. The fourth is without an element, with which there can 
be no dealing, the cessation of development, benign, without a 
second. 

Thus Om is the Self (Atman) indeed. 

He who knows this, with his self enters the Self 5 yea, he 
who knows this! 

1 In Sanskrit the vowel o is constitutionally a diphthong, contracted from a + u 
Qm therefore may be analyzed into the elements a + u + m. 

2 Kither (i) in the sense of c equable/ i. e unaffected in the midst of the pans of 
oppo&ites (dvandva] ; or (2) m the s>ense of * equitable,' i. e. impartial, alike, 
indifferent to both friend and foe, or (3) in the sense of ' equalized/ i e. with the 
universe, which a knower understands exists only as his Self's consciousness ; or 
even (4) in the very common sense of ' same,' i. e. the same as that which he knows,. 

All these four (and more) are possible interpolations. Ihey evidence how 
vague (or, how piegnant it is urged) are some of the statements in the Upamshads, 
and how capable therefoie of various interpretations. 

Of each of sections S-io there are, similarly, several interpretations. 

3 Possibly as a synonym for anothei meaning Qimiti (derived from */?tii 3 mznati\ 
* destroying ' or * perishing. 1 

4 That is, out of his own consciousness according to the philosophic theory of 
subjective idealism expounded in the Upamshads. 

c This is a phrase which has previously occurred at VS. 32. n. 



393 



SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD 

FIRST ADHYAYA 
Conjectures concerning the First Cause 
i. Discoursers on Brahma (brakma-vadzn) say: 

What is the cause? Brahma ? * Whence are \\e born? 
Whereby do we h\e? And on \\hat are \\e established? 
Overruled by whom, in pains and pleasures, 
Do we live our various conditions, O ye theologians (brahma- 
vid)* 

2. Time (kald), or inheient natuie (sva-lhava)^ or necessity (niyah\ 

or chance (yadrccha), 
Or the elements (bhuta), or a [female] womb (jwzz),oi a [male] 

person (fiurusa] are to be considered [as the cause] ; 
Not a combination of these, because of the existence of the soul 

(aiman)^ 
The soul certainly is impotent over the cause of pleasure and 

pain. 

3. Those who have followed after meditation (dhyana) and absti ac- 

tion (yoga) 
Saw the self-power (aima-sakti) of God (dcva) hidden in his 

own qualities (gund). 

He is the One who lules over all these causes, 
Fiom 'time' to 'the soul/ 

The individual soul in manifold distress 

4 We understand him [as a wheel] with one felly, with a tuple 3 

tire, 
With sixteen end-parts, 3 fifty spokes, 4 twenty counter-spokes, 5 

1 The words kim karanam brahma might mean also * What is the cause ? Is it 
Biahma 2' or * What is the cause ? What is Brahma 1 ' or * Is the cause Brahma V 
or * Is Brahma the cause ? ' or even * What sort of a cause is Brahma ? * 

2 That is, consisting of the Three Qualities according to the Sankhya philosophy 
(see Introduction, p. 8) sattvam, rajas, and tamos purenesSj passion, and darkness.. 

3 That is, the five elements (bhiita)^ the five organs of perception (buddhindriya) 
the five organs of action (kaimenrfriyd), and the mind (manas). 

* The fifty conditions (bkava) of the Sankhya philosophy (cf, Sankh>a 
Karika 46). 

5 The ten senses (tndriya) and their ten corresponding objects. 

394 



SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD [-1.9 

With six sets of eights, 1 whose one rope 3 is manifold, 
Which has three different paths/ whose one illusion (mo/ia) 4 
has two conditioning causes. 5 

5 We understand him as a river of live sti earns 6 from five sources. 7 

impetuous and crooked, 
Whose waves are the five vital breaths, whose original source 

is fivefold perception (buddhi), 

With five whirlpools, 8 an impetuous flood of fivefold misery, 
Divided into five distresses, 9 with five branches. 

6. In this which vitalizes all things, which appears in all things, 

the Great 

In this Biahma-wheel the soul (hainsa) flutters about, 
Thinking that itself (atmanani) and the Actuator are different. 
When favored by Him, it attains immortality. 

The saving knowledge of the one inclusive Brahma 

7. This has been sung as the supreme Brahma. 

In it theie is a triad. 10 It is the firm support, the Imperishable. 
By knowing what is therein, Brahma-knowers 
Become merged in Brahma, intent thereon, liberated from the 
womb [i.e. fiom rebitth]. 

8. That which is joined together as perishable and imperishable, 
As manifest and unmanifest the Lord (0, Potentate) supports 

it all. 
Now, without the Lord the soul (atmari) is bound, because of 

being an enjoyer; 
By knowing God (deva) one is released fiom all fetters. 

9. There are two unborn ones: the knowing [Lord] and the 

unknowing [individual soul], the Omnipotent and the 
impotent. 

1 That is, (i) eight producing canses of Prakriti, namely the five elements, mind 
(tnanas\ intellect (bitddln\ and self-consciousness (ahamkara] ; (2) eight consti- 
tuents of the body (dhatn}-, (3) eight foims of superhuman power; (4) eight 
conditions (bhdva) ; (5) eight gods ; (6) eight virtues 

2 That is, desire. 

3 Namely religiousness (dharma), irreligiousness (a-dharmd}^ and knowledge 
(jnana). * 

4 That is, the illusion of self-consciousness. 

5 Namely the consequences of good and of evil deeds. 

6 The five senses. 7 The five elements. 
* The five objects of sense. 

9 According to Sankara's reading. The traditional text has ' divided fiftyfold, 
10 The world, the individual soul, and the cosmic Soul. 

395 



J. 9-] SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD 

She [i.e. Nature, Praknti], too, is unborn, who is connected 

with the enjoyer and objects of enjoyment. 
Now, the soul (dtman) is infinite, universal, inactive. 
When one finds out this triad, that is Brahma. 

10. What is perishable, is Primary Matter (pradhdna). What is 

immortal and imperishable, is Haia (tne * Bearer/ the soul). 
Over both the perishable and the soul the One God (deva} rules. 
By meditation upon Him, by union with Him, and by entering 

into His being 
More and more, there is finally cessation fiom every illusion 

(mqya-mvrtti). 

11. By knowing God (deva) there is a falling off of all fetters; 
With distresses destroyed, there is cessation of birth and death. 
By meditating upon Him there is a third stage at the dissolution 

of the body, 

Even universal lordship ; being absolute (kevala) 3 his desire is 
satisfied. 

12. That Eternal should be known as present in the $dt(atma$a?h$tha). 
Tiuly there is nothing higher than that to be known. 
When one lecogmzes the enjoyer, the object of enjoyment, and 

the umveisal Actuator, 
All has been said. This is the threefold Biahma. 

Made manifest like latent fire, by the exercise of meditation 

13. As the material form (niurti} of fire when latent in its source 

[i.e. the fire-wood] 

Is not perceived and yet there is no evanishment of its subtile 
foim (lihgd) 

But may be caught again by means of the drill in its source, 

So, verily, both [the universal and the individual Brahma] aie 
[to be found] in the body by the use of Om., 

14. By making one's own body the lower friction-stick 
And the syllable Om the upper friction-stick, 
By practising the friction of meditation (dhyana\ 
One may see the God (deva} who is hidden, as it weie. 

The all-pervading Soul 

15. As oil in sesame seeds, as butter in cream, 

As water in river-beds, and as fire in the friction-sticks, 
So is the Soul (Atman) apprehended in one's own soul, 
If one looks for Him with true austerity (tapas). 

396 



SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD [-2.5 

1 6. The Soul (Atman), which pervades all things 
As butter is contained in cream, 
Which is rooted in self-knowledge and austerity 
This is Brahrna, the highest mystic teaching (zcpamsad] ' ! 
This is Brahma, the highest mystic teaching! 



SECOND ADHYAYA 

la vocation to the god of inspiration for inspiration 
and self-control 2 

1. Savitri (the Inspirer), first controlling mind 
And thought for truth, 

Discerned the Jight of Agni (Fire) 
And bi ought it out of the earth. 5 

2. With mind controlled, we are 

In the inspiration of the god Savitri, 
For heaven and strength. 

3. With mind having controlled the powers 

That unto bright heaven through thought do go, 

May Savitri inspire them, 

That they may make a mighty light! 

4. The sages of the great wise sage 

Control their mind, and control their thoughts. 

The One who knows the rules has ai ranged the priestly 

functions. 
Mighty is the chorus-praise of the god Savitri.* 

g. I join your ancient prayer (brahma purvyam] with adorations I 
My verses go forth like suns upon their course. 
All the sons of the immortal listen, 
Even those who ascended to heavenly stations! 5 

1 Or e This is the highest mystic teaching concerning Brahma (brakmopanisad} T 

a These five stanzas ~TS. 4 I. r. 1-5 and with variation also VS. u. 1-5, 
from whick again they are cited and applied litnrgically at 3at. Br. 6. 3. i. 12-17. 

3 Or possibly dative, ' to the earth.' 

* In addition to the references cited in note 2, above, this stanza alsoRV. 5, 
8r. i ; VS. 5* 14 and 114. It is quoted in at. Br. 3. 5. 311, 12. 

5 This stanza also =RV. TO. 13,1 ; VS. n. 5* Lin es a, b, c with slight variants 
= AV. 1 8. 3. 39 b, c,d, 

397 



5.6-] SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD 

Spiritual significance of the sacrificial worship 

6. Where the fire is being kindled, 
Where the wind is applied theieto, 
Where the Soma overflows. 
There is inspiration (manas) born. 

7. With Savitri as the inspirer 

One should delight in the ancient prayer (brahma purvyam), 

If there thou make thy source, 

The former [work] besmeais thee not. 1 

Rules and results of Yoga 

8. Holding his body steady with the three [upper paits 2 ] erect, 
And causing the senses with the mind to enter into the heait, 
A wise man with the Brahma-boat should cross over 

All the fear-bringing streams. 

9, Having repressed his breathings here in the body, and having 

his movements checked, 

One should breathe thiough his nostuls with diminished breath. 
Like that chanot yoked with vicious horses, 3 
His mind the wise man should restrain undistractedly. 

10. In a clean level spot, free from pebbles, fire, and gravel, 
By the sound of water and other propinquities 
Favorable to thought, not offensive to the eye, 

In a hidden retreat protected from the wind, one should prac- 
tise Yoga. 

11. Fog, smoke, sun, fire, wind, 
Fire-Mies, lightning, a crystal, a moon 
These are the preliminary appearances, 

Which produce the manifestation of Brahma in Yoga. 

12. When the fivefold quality of Yoga has been produced, 
Arising from earth, water, fire, air, and space, 4 

No sickness, no old age, no death has he 

Who has obtained a body made out of the fire of Yoga. 

13. Lightness, healthiness, steadiness, 6 

t Clearness of countenance and pleasantness of voice, 
Sweetness of odor, and scanty excietions 
These, they say, are the first stage in the progress of Yoga. 

1 Such is the traditional interpretation of a line which, even in its original somcc 
(RV. 6. 16. iSa with a very slight alteration), is of doubtful meaning. 

2 Head, chest, and neck so prescribed at BhG. 6. 13. 

3 Described at Katha 3. 4. * That is, the five cosmic elements. 
5 Or, with another reading, alolubhatvam, ' freedom from desires.' 

398 



SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD [-3.2 

The vision of G-od 

14. Even as a mirror stained by dust 

Shines brilliantly when it has been cleansed, 

So the embodied one, on seeing the nature of the Soul 

(Atman), 
Becomes unitary, his end attained, from sorrow freed. 

15. When \\ith the nature of the self, as \\ith a lamp, 

A practiser of Yoga beholds here the nature of Brahma, 

Unborn, steadfast, from every nature free 

By knowing God (devd) one is released from all fetters ' 

The pantheistic G-od 

1 6. That God faces all the quarteis of heaven. 
Aforetime was he bom, and he it is within the womb. 
He has been born foith. He will be bom. 

He stands opposite creatures, having his face in all directions/ 

j 7. The God who is in fire, who is in water, who has entered 
into the whole world, who is in plants, who is in trees to that 
God be adoration ! yea, be adoration ! 



THIRD ADHYAYA 
The One God identified with Rndra 

The One spreader of the net, who rules with his ruling 
powers, 

Who rules all the worlds with his ruling powers, 

The one who alone stands in their arising and in their con- 
tinued existence 

They who know That, become immortal* 

For Duly, Rudra (the Tenible) is the One they stand not 

for a second 

Who rules all the worlds with his ruling powers. 
He stands opposite creatures. He, the Protector, 
After creating all beings, merges them together at the end of 

time. 

1 This stanza = VS 32. 4. 

399 



3.3-] SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD 

3. Having an eye on every side and a face on every side, 
Having an arm on every side and a foot on eveiy side, 
The One God forges 1 together with hands, with wings, 
Creating the heaven and the earth 2 

4. He who is the source and origin of the gods, 
The ruler of all, Rudra, the great seer, 

Who of old created the Golden Germ (Hiranyagaibha) 
May He endow us with clear intellect ' 3 

Prayers from the Scriptures unto Rudra for favor 4 

5. The form of thine, Rudra, which is kindly (hva), 
Unternfying, revealing no evil 

With that most benign form to us 
Appear, O dweller among the mountains ! 

6. dweller among the mountains, the arrow 
Which thou holdest in thy hand to throw 
Make kindly (hva), O mountain-protector ! 
Injure not man or beast ' 

Knowing the One Supreme Person overcomes death 

7. Higher than this 5 is Brahma. The Supreme, the Great, 
Hidden in all things, body by body, 

The One embracer of the universe 

By knowing Him as Lord (Us) men become immortal. 

8. I know this mighty Person (Purusha) 

Of the color of the sun, beyond darkness. 

Only by knowing Him does one pass ovei death. 

There is no other path for going there 6 

9. Than whom there is naught else higher, 

Than whom there is naught smaller, naught greater, 
The One stands like a tiee established in heaven. 7 
By Him, the Person, this whole woild is filled. 8 

1 Compare RV. 10. 72. 2, where Brahmanaspati forged together ' (sam-adhamaf) 
all things here. 

2 "With variants this stanza^RV. 10 81. 3; 8:17. 19; AV. 13. 2. 26; TS. 
4. 6. 2. 4 ; TA. 10. i. 3 ; MS. 2. 10. 2 

3 With variants this stanza = 4. 12 and Mahanar. 10. 19. 
* These two stanzas = VS. 16 2-3. 

5 Either higher thau this [Terrible, Vedic god Rudra],' or < higher than this 
[world].' 

6 This stanza = VS. 31. 18. 

7 Compare ' the eternal fig-tree rooted in heaven/ descnbed at Katha 6. I. 

8 This stanza = Mahanar. 10, 20, 

400 



SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD [-3.16 

10 That which is beyond this world 

Is without form and without ill. 
They who know That, become immoital; 
But others go only to sorrow. 1 

The cosmic Person with human and superhuman powers 

11. Who is the face, the head, the neck of all, 
Who dwells in the heart of all things, 

All-pei vadmg is He, and bountiful (maghavan)', 2 
Therefore omnipresent, and kindly (hva). 

12. A mighty lord (prabhu] is the Person, 

The instigator of the highest being (sattvay 
Unto the purest attainment, 
The ruler, a light imperishable ! 

13 A Person of the measure of a thumb is the inner soul (antar- 

dtman). 

Ever seated in the heart of creatuies. 
He is framed by the heart, by the thought, by the mind. 
They who know That, become immortal. 4 

14. The Pei son has a thousand heads, 
A thousand eyes, a thousand feet, 
He surrounds the eaith on all sides, 
And stands ten fingers' breadth beyond. 5 

15. The Person, in truth, this whole world is, 
Whatever has been and whatever will be ; 
Also ruler of immortality, 

[And] whatever grows up by food. 6 

1 6. It has a hand and foot on every side, 
On every side an eye and head and face, 
It has an ear everywhere in the world. 

It stands encompassing all. 7 



1 The last two lines = Brih. 4. 4. 14 c, d. 

2 The first three lines are reminiscent of RV. 10.81 3 and 10. 90. i. Cf, also 
3. 3 above 

Cf. Katha 6. 7 

4 Line a = Katha 6. 17 a. The first part of it also = Katha 4. 12 a ; 4. 13 a. 
Lines c and d = Katha 6 9 c, d. Lines b, c, d, recur as Svet. 4. 17 b, c, d. 

5 This stanza RV. 10. 90. 1 ; VS. 31. i; SV. i. 618 ; TA. 3. 12. i, AV. 19. 6. 1. 

6 This stanza = RV. 10. 90. 2 ; VS. 31. 2; SV. i. 620; AV. 19. 6. 4; TA, 
3. 12. r, with variants. 

7 This stanza = BhG. 13. 13. 

401 D d 



3 1 7-] SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD 

17. Seeming to possess the quality (guna) of all the senses, 
It is devoid of all the senses I l 

The lord (pralhu), the ruler of all, 
The great shelter of all 

18. Though in the nine-gated city 2 embodied, 

Back and forth to the external hovers the soul (hamsa\ 
The Controller of the whole world, 
Both the stationary and the moving. 

19. Without foot or hand, he is swift and a seizer ! 
He sees without eye; he hears without ear! 

He knows whatever is to be known; him there is none who 

knows ! 
Men call him the Great Primeval Person. 

20. More minute than the minute, greater than the great, 

Is the Soul (Atman) that is set in the heart of a creature here. 
One beholds Him as being without the active will, and becomes 

freed from sorrow 
When though the grace (prasddd) of the Creator he sees the 

Lord (zs) and his greatness. 3 

21. I know this undecaying, primeval 

Soul of all, present in everything through immanence, 
Of whose exemption from birth they speak 
For the expounders of Brahma (brakma-vddm} speak of Him 
as eternal. 



FOURTH ADHYAYA 
The One God of the manifold world 

i The One who, himself without color, by the manifold appli- 
cation of his power (sakti-yoga) 
Distributes many colors in his hidden purpose, 
And into whom, its end and its beginning, the whole world 

dissolves He is God (deva) [ 
May He endow us with clear intellect ! 

1 The first two lines occnr as BhG. 13. 14 a, b. 

2 That is, in the body, cf. Katha 5. i and BhG. 5. 13. 

3 This stanza^TA. 10. 10. i (=Mahanar. io. i, or in the Atharva Recension 
. 3), and also, with slight variation, Katha 2. 20. 

403 



SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD [-4.8 

The One God pantheistically identified 

2. That surely is Agni (fire). That is Aditya (the sun). 
That is Vayu (the wind), and That is the moon. 
That surely is the pure. That is Brahma. 

That is the waters. That is Prajapati (Lord of Creation). 

3. Thou art woman. Thou art man. 
Thou art the youth and the maiden too. 
Thou as an old man totterest with a staff. 

Being born, thou becomest facing in every direction. 2 
4. Thou art the dark-blue bird and the green [parrot] with red eyes. 
Thou hast the lightning as thy child. Thou art the seasons and 

the seas. , 

Having no beginning, thou dost abide with immanence, 
Wherefrom all beings are born. 

The universal and the individual soul 

5 With the one unborn female, red, white, and black/ 
Who produces many creatures like herself, 
There lies the one unboin male 4 taking his delight. 
Another unborn male 5 leaves her with whom he has had his 
delight. 

6. Two birds, fast bound companions, 
Clasp close the self-same tree. 

Of these two, the one 6 eats sweet fruit; 
The other 7 looks on without eating. 8 

7. On the self-same tree a person, sunken, 
Grieves for his impotence, deluded; 

When he sees the other, the Lord (zs), contented, 
And his greatness, he becomes freed from sorrow. 9 

The ignorant soul in the illusion of a manifold universe 

8. That syllable of the sacred hymn (re, Rig- Veda) whereon, in 

highest heaven, 
All the gods are seated 

1 This stanza -VS. 32. i. 

2 This stanza A V. TO. 8. 27. 

3 That is, Nature, Prakjiti, with three constituent Qualities (guna), namely 
Fineness (sattvd), Passion (rajas), and Darkness (tamos). 

* The cosmic Person, father of all being. 

5 The individual soul, or experiencer. 

6 That is, the individual person. 7 That is, the universal Brahma. 

8 This stanza = RV. i. 164. 20 and Mund. 3. i. i. 

9 This stanza = Mund. 3. i. 2. 

403 D d 2, 



4 ,8-] SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD 

Of what avail is the sacred hymn (re, Rig- Veda) to him who 

knows not That ? 
They, indeed, who know That, are here assembled. 1 

9. Sacred poetry (chandas), the sacrifices, the ceremonies, the 

ordinances, 

The past, the future, and what the Vedas declare 
This whole world the illusion-makei (mqyin) projects out of 

this [Brahma]. 
And in it by illusion (mayo) the other 2 is confined. 

10. Now, one should know that Nature (Prakriti) is illusion 

(mayo), 

And that the Mighty Lord (mahesvara) is the illusion- 
maker (may in). 
This whole world is pervaded 
With beings that are parts of Him 

The saving knowledge of the one, kindly, immanent 
supreme God of the universe 

TI. The One who rules over eveiy single souice, 

In whom this whole world comes together and dissolves, 
The Lord (twna), the blessing-giver, God (deva) adorable 
By revering Him one goes for ever to this peace (sanh\ 

12. He who is the source and origin of the gods, 

The ruler of all, Rudra (the Teirible), the gieat seer, 

Who beheld the Golden Geim (Hiranyagaibha) when he was 

born 
May He endow us with clear intellect ' a 

13. Who is the oveilord of the gods, 

On whom the worlds do rest, 
Who is lord of biped and quadruped here 
To what god will we give reverence with oblations ? 4 

14. More minute than the minute, in the midst of confusion 
The Creator of all, of manifold forms, 
The One embracer of the universe 5 
By knowing Him as kmdh (hva) one attains peace forever, 

1 This stanza =RV. i. 164. 39. 

2 That is, the individual soul. 

3 This stanza = 3. 4 and Mahanar. 10. 19 with vanants. 

4 The last two lines =RV. io. 121. 3 c, d. 

5 The third line = 3. 7 c and 4. 16 c. The whole stanza recurs, with modifica- 
tions, as 5, 13. 

404 



SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD [-4.21 

15. He indeed is the protector of the world in time. 
The overlord of all, hidden m all things, 

With whom the seers of Brahma and the divinities are joined 

in union. 
By knowing Him thus, one cuts the cords of death. 

16. By knowing as kindly (siva) Him who is hidden in all things, 
Exceedingly fine, like the cream that is finer than butter, 
The One embracer of the universe 

By knowing God (deva) one is released from all fetters. 

17. That God, the All-woiker, the Great Soul (mahatman), 
Ever seated in the heart of creatures, 

Is framed by the heart, by the thought, by the mind 
They who know That, become immortal. 1 

1 8. When theie is no daikness, 2 then there is no day or night, 
Nor being, nor non-being, only the Kindly One (hva) alone. 
That is the Imperishable. ' That [is the] desirable [splendor] 

of Savitri (the Sun). 33 
And from that was primeval Intelligence (jtrajna) created. 

19. Not above, not across, 

Nor in the middle has one grasped Him. 

There is no likeness of Him 

Whose name is Great Glory (mahad jtasas}* 

20. His form is not to be beheld. 

No one soever sees Him with the eye. 

They who thus know Him with heart and mind 

As abiding in the heart, become immortal. 5 

Supplications to Rudra for favor 

21. With the thought 'He is eternal!' 
A certain one in fear approaches. 
O Rudra, that face of thine which is propitious 
With that do thou protect me ever! 

1 Lines b, c, = 3. 13 b, c, d. Lines c and d also = Katha 6. 9 c, d. 

2 tamos, perhaps metaphorically as well as literally. That is , when the dark- 
ness of ignorance and illusion has been removed, then all fluctuations and dis- 
tinctions aie also overpassed. Undrfferenced bliss only remains. Compare the 
similar descriptions at Chand. 3 n. 3 and 8. 4 1-2. 

3 The first phrase of the famous Gayatri Prayer, RV. 3. 62. TO. 

* This stanza=VS. 32. 2 c, d + 32. 3 a, b ; TA. 10. 1.2, Mahanar. I. 10* 
6 This stanza = Katha 6. 9 and Mahanar. I II with slight variation. 

405 



4.aa-] SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD 

22 Injure us not in child or grandchild, noi in life' 
Injure us not in cattle! Injure us not in horses! 
Slay not our strong men in anger, Rudra 1 
With oblations ever we call upon thee. 1 



FIFTH ADHYAYA 
Brahma, the One Gk>d of the manifold world 

1. In the imperishable, infinite, supreme Brahma are two things; 
For therein are knowledge and ignorance placed hidden. 
Now, ignorance is a thing perishable, but knowledge is a 

thing immortal. 
And He who rules the ignorance and the knowledge is another, 

2. [Even] the One who rules over every single source, 
All forms and all sources; 

Who bears in his thoughts, and beholds when born, 

That red (kapila^) seer who was engendered in the beginning. 

3. That God spreads out each single net [of illusion] manifoldly^ 
And draws it together here in the world. 3 

Thus again, having created his Yatis, 4 the Lord (zsa), 

The Great Soul (maMtman), exercises universal overlordship. 

4 As the illumining sun shines upon 
All regions, above, below, and acioss, 
So that One God, glorious, adorable, 
Rules over whatever creatures are born from a womb. 

5. The source of all, who develops his own natme, 
Who brings to maturity whatever can be ripened. 
And who distributes all qualities (guna) 

Over this \\hole world mles the One. 

6. That which is hidden in the secret of the Vedas, even the 

Upanishads ' 

Brahma knows That as the souice of the sacred word (brahman]. 
The gods and seers of old who knew That, 
They, [coming to be] of Its nature, verily, have become immortal, 

1 This stanza = RV. i. 114. 8; TS. 4. 5 10. 3 ; and VS. 16. 16 with variations. 

2 The reference may be to ' the sage Kapila,' the founder of the Sankhya 
philosophy* But in the similar stanza 4. 1 2 (compare also 3, 4) the reference is 
clearly to the Demiurge Hiranyagarbha, ' The Golden Germ. 7 

3 Literally, <k this field.' 

4 * Marshals'; literally, 'Exercisers' According to RV. 10. 72. 7 they were 
Demiurges who assisted in the creation of the world. 

406 



SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD [-5 13 

The reincarnating individual soul 

7. Whoever has qualities (guna, distinctions) is the doer of deeds 

that bring recompense ; 

And of such action surely he experiences the consequence. 
Undergoing all forms, characterized by the three Qualities, 1 

treading the three paths, 2 
The individual self 8 roams about 4 according to its deeds (karman), 

8 He is of the measure of a thumb, of sun-like appearance, 
When coupled with conception (samkalpa) and egoism (ahamkard). 
But with only the qualities of intellect and of self, 
The lowei [self] appeais of the size of the point of an a\\l 

9. This living [self] is to be known as a part 
Of the hundiedth part of the point of a hair 
Subdivided a hundredfold; 

And yet it partakes of infinity. 

10. Not female, nor yet male is it; 
Nor yet is this neuter. 
Whatever body he takes to himself, 
With that he becomes connected. 

i r . By the delusions (moha) of imagination, touch, and sight, 
And by eating, drinking, and impregnation there is a birth 

and development of the self (atman). 

According unto his deeds (karman) the embodied one successively 
Assumes forms in various conditions. 

12 Coarse and fine, many in number, 

The embodied one chooses forms according to his own qualities. 
[Each] subsequent cause of his union with them is seen to be 
Because of the quality of his acts and of himself. 

Liberation through, knowledge of the One G-od 

13. Him who is without beginning and without end, in the midst 

of confusion, 

The Creator of all, of manifold form, 
The One embracer of the universe 5 
By knowing God (devd) one is released from all fetters. 6 

1 Namely, pureness (sattva), passion (rajas}, and darkness (tamos) 

2 Namely, religiousness (dkaima), irreligiousness (ad&arwa), and knowledge 
(jnana) Cf. gvet. I. 4 d. 

s Literally i ruler of the vital breaths ' (pranadkipa) 
4 In transmigration. 

D This third line = 3. 7 c; 4. 14 c, 4. 16 c. 

fc fhe fourth line of this stanza= i. 8 d ; 2 15 d , 4, 16 d ; 6 13 d, 

407 



-] SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD 

14. Him who is to be apprehended in existence, who is called 

'incoiporeal/ 
The maker of existence (bhava) and non-existence, the 

kindly one (hva), 

God (deva\ the maker of the creation and its parts 
They who know Him, have left the body behind. 



SIXTH ADHYAYA 
The One God, Creator and Lord, in and over the world 

I. Some sages discourse of inherent natuie (sva-bhavd) ; 
Others likewise, of time. 1 Deluded men! 
It is the greatness of God in the world 
By which this Brahma-wheel is caused to i evolve. 

2 He by whom this whole world is constantly enveloped 

Is intelligent, the author of time, possessor of qualities (gunin), 

omniscient. 

Ruled o'er by Him, [his] work (karmaii)* i evolves 
This which is regarded as eaith, watei, fire, air, and space 1 s 
5. He creates this woik, and rests again. 

Having entered into union (yoga) with principle (tativa) after 

principle, 

With one, with two, with three ; or with eight, 4 
With time, too, and the subtile qualities of a self 

4. He begins with works which are connected with qualities (guna\ 
And distributes all existences (bhdva)? 
In the absence of these (qualities) there is a disappearance of 

the work that has been done. 
[Yet] in the destruction of the work he continues essentially 

other [than it]. 

1 As the First Cause as in i. 2. See Introduction, p. 8. 

2 That is, the woi Id. 

8 The same list of five cosmic elements as in 2. 12 b. 

4 That is, the principles as arranged in groups by systematized Sankhya 
philosophy : the sole principlethe Person (Purusha) , dual principles the 
Unmamfest (avyaktd) and the Manifest " (z^fl&a) ; tuple principles the three 
Qualities (gtma\ i. e. Pureness (sattva), Passion (rajas), and Darkness (tamas)\ 
eight principles the five cosmic elements together with mind, intellect, and 
self-consciousness (so enumerated, e. g , at BhG 7. 4.) 

6 Compare the similar line 5. 5 c. 

40 8 



SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD [-6.15 

5. The beginning, the efficient cause of combinations, 

He is to be seen as beyond the three times (kala), 1 without 

parts (a-kala] too I 

Worship Him as the manifold, the origin of all being, 
The adorable God who abides in one's own thoughts, the 

primeval. 

6. Higher and other than the woild-tree, 2 time, and forms 
Is He from whom this expanse proceeds. 

The bringer of right (dharma), the remover of evil (papa), 

the lord of piosperity 
Know Him as in one's own self (atma-stha), as the immortal 

abode of all. 

7. Him who is the supreme Mighty Loid (mahesvara) of lords, 

The supreme Divinity of divinities, 

The supreme Ruler of rulers, paramount. 

Him let us know as the adorable God, the Lord (z$) of the world. 
S. No action or organ of his is found ; 

Theie is not seen his equal, nor a superior. 

His high power (sakfi) is revealed to be various indeed ; 

And innate is the working of his intelligence and strength. 

9. Of Him there is no ruler in the \\orld, 

Nor loid ; nor is there any mark (hnga] of Him. 

He is the Cause (kdrana), loid of the lords of sense-organs. 

Of Him theie is no progenitor, nor bid. 

jo. The one God who covers himself, 
Like a spider, with threads 
Produced from Primary Matter (pradhana), according to his 

own nature (sva&Mvafas) 
May He grant us entiance into Biahma ! 

11. The one God, hidden in all things, 
All-pervading, the Inner Soul of all things, 

The overseer of deeds (fcarmari), in all things abiding, 

The witness, the sole thinker, 8 devoid of qualities (mr-guna), 

12. The one controller of the inactive many, 
Who makes the one seed manifold 

The wise who perceive Him as standing in one's self 
They, and no others, have eternal happiness. 4 

1 That is, without past, present, or future asm Mand. i. 

2 Which is described in Katha 6 i. 

3 Reading cetta instead of the tautologous ceta, ' observer. 1 

* This stanza = Katha 5. 12 with slight variation in a and b. 
409 



6. i 3 ~] SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD 

13. Him who is the constant among the inconstant, the intelligent 

among intelligences, 

The One among many, who grants desires, 1 
That Cause, attainable by disci immation and abstraction 

(sankhya-yoga) 
By knowing God, one is released fiom all fetteis! 2 

14. The sun shines not there, nor the moon and stars; 
These lightnings shine not, much less this [earthly] fire! 
After Him, as He shines, doth eveiy thing shine. 

This whole world is illumined with his light. 3 

15. The one soul (hamsa) in the midst of this woild 

This indeed is the fire which has entered into the ocean. 
Only by knowing Him does one pass over death. 
There is no other path for going there. 4 

1 6. He who is the maker of all, the all-knower, self-sourced, 
Intelligent, the author of time, possessor of qualities, omniscient, 5 
Is the ruler of Primary Matter (pradhdna) and of the spirit 

(ksetra-jna), the lord of qualities (guna), 

The cause of transmigration (samsara) and of liberation (??iofaa), 
of continuance and of bondage. 

17. Consisting of That, immortal, existing as the Lord, 
Intelligent, omnipresent, the guardian of this world, 
Is He who constantly rules this world. 

There is no other cause found for the mlmg. 

1 8 To Him who of old creates Brahma, 

And who, verily, deliveis to him the Vedas 

To that God, who is lighted by his own intellect, 6 

Do I, being desirous of liberation, resort as a shelter 

19. To Him who is without parts, without activity, tranquil 

(fan fa), 

Irreproachable, spotless, 
The highest bridge of immortality, 
Like a fire with fuel buined. 7 



1 These first two lines = Katha 5. 13 a and b. 

2 The last line of the stanza is repeated at 5 13 d, etc. 

3 This stanza = Katha 5. 15 and Mund. 2. 2, 10. 

4 The last two lines = 3, 8. c, d and VS. 31. 18 c, d. 

5 This line = 6. 2 b. 

6 Or, ' who is the light of self-knowledge ' ; or, according to the variant reading 
atma-buddhi-prasadam, ' who through his own grace lets himself be known.' 

7 Cf. Katha 4. 1 3 b, * Like a light without smoke.' 

410 



SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD [-6.23 

20. When men shall roll up space 
As it were a piece of leather, 1 
Then will theie be an end of evil 
Apart from knowing God ! 

Epilogue 

By the efficacy of his austerity and by the giace of God (deva- 

prasada) 

The wise vetasvatara in proper manner declared Brahma 
Unto the ascetics of the most advanced stage as the supreme 

means of purification 
This which is well pleasing to the company of seers. 

The conditions for receiving this knowledge 

22. The supreme mysteiy in the Veda's End (Vedanta), 
Which has been declared in former time, 

Should not be given to one not tranquil, 

Nor again to one who is not a son or a pupil. 3 

23. To him who has the highest devotion (bhakti) for God, 
And for his spiritual teacher (guru) even as foi God, 
To him these matters which have been declared 
Become manifest [if he be] a gieat soul (maMfman) 

Yea, become manifest [if he be] a great soul ! 

1 That is, when the impossible becomes possible. 

2 Similar restrictions are imposed at Bnh. 6. 3, 12 and Maitn 6. 29. 



411 



MAITRI UPANISHAD 

FIRST PRAPATHAKA 

Meditation upon the Soul (Atman), 
the essence and the true completion of religious sacrifice 

1. That which for the ancients was [merely] a building up 
[of sacrificial fires] was, verily, a sacrifice to Brahma. 1 There- 
fore with the building of these sacrificial fires the sacrificer 
should meditate upon the Soul (Atman). So, verity, indeed, 
does the sacrifice become really complete and indeficient. 

Who is he that is to be meditated upon ? 
He who is called Life (prdnd) \ 
A tale thereof: 

The ascetic king Brihadratha, being offered a boon, 
chooses knowledge of the Soul (Atman) 

2. Verily, a king, Brihadratha by name, after having estab- 
lished his son in the kingdom, reflecting that this body is non- 
eternal, reached the state of Indifference towards the world 
(vairagycfy) and went forth into the forest. There he stood, 
performing extreme austerity, keeping his arms erect, looking 
up at the sun. 

At the end of a thousand [days] 2 there came into the 
presence of the ascetic, the honorable knower of the Soul 
(Atman), Sakayanya, like a smokeless fire, burning as it were 
with glow. ' Arise ! Arise ! Choose a boon ! ' said he to the 
king. 

He did obeisance to him and said : c Sir, I am no knower of 
the Soul (Atman), You are one who knows its true nature, we 
have heard. So, do you tell us.' 

* Such things used to occur ! Very difficult [to answer] is 

1 Or the meaning may be : f The building up of the previous [sacrificial fires, 
described in the antecedent Maitrayam Samhita,] was verily a sacrifice to Brahma/ 

2 The commentator Ramatirtha supplies c years.' 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-!. 4 

this question! Aikshvaka, choose other desires !' said Saka- 
yanya. 

With his head touching that one's feet, the king uttered 
this speech : 

Pessimistically he rejects evanescent earthly desires, 
and. craves only liberation from reincarnate existence 

3. < Sir, in this ill-smelling, unsubstantial body, which is 
a conglomerate of bone, skin, muscle, marrow, flesh, semen, 
blood, mucus, tears, rheum, feces, urine, wind, bile, and 
phlegm, what is the good of enjoyment of desires? In this 
body, which is afflicted with desire, anger, covetousness, 
delusion, fear, despondency, envy, separation from the 
desirable, union with the undesirable, hunger, thirst, senility, 
death, disease, sorrow, and the like, what is the good of enjoy- 
ment of desires ? 

4. And we see that this whole world is decaying, as these 
gnats, mosquitoes, and the like, the grass, and the trees that 
arise and perish. 

But, indeed, what of these? There are others superior, 
great warriors, some world-rulers, Sudyumna, Bhuridyumna, 
Indradyumna, Kuvalayasva, Yauvanasva, Vadhr^asva, Asvapati^ 
Sasabindu, Hariscandra, Ambarlsha, Nahusha, Saryati, Yayati* 
Anaranya, Ukshasena, and the rest; kings, too, such as 
Marutta, Bharata, and others. With a crowd of relatives 
looking on, they renounced great wealth and went forth from 
this world into that. 

But, indeed, what of these? There are others superior. 
We see the destruction of Gandharvas (demigods), Asuras 
(demons), Yakshas (sprites), Rakshasas (ogres), Bhutas (ghosts), 
spirit-bands, goblins, serpents, vampires, and the like. 

But, indeed, what of these ? Among Bother things, there 
is the drying up of great oceans, the falling away of mountain 
peaks, the deviation of the fixed pole-star, the cutting of the 
wind-cords [of the stars], the submergence of the earth, the 
retreat of the celestials from their station. 

In this sort of cycle of existence (samsara) what is the 
good of enjoyment of desires, when after a man has fed on 
them there is seen repeatedly his return here to earth ? 

413 



i. 4-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

Be pleased to deliver me. In this cycle of existence I am 
like a frog in a waterless well. Sir, you are our way of 
'escape yea, you are our way of escape ' ' 

SECOND PRAPATHAKA 
Sakayanya's instruction concerning the Soul (Atman) l 

1. Then the honorable Sakayanya, well pleased, said to 
the king ' Great king Brihadratha, banner of the family of 
Ikshvaku, speedily will you who are renowned as " Swift Wind " 
(Marut) attain your purpose and become a knowei of the 
Soul (Atman) ! 

This one, assuredly, indeed, is your own self (dtman}J 
' Which one is it, Sir? 3 
Then he said to him : 

The Soul a self-luminous, soaring being, separable 
from the body, identical with Brahma 

2. Now, he who, without stopping the respiration, goes 
aloft and who, moving about, yet unmoving, dispels dark- 
ness he is the Soul (Atman). Thus said the honorable 
Maitri. For thus has it been said 2 : " Now, that serene one who, 
rising up out of this body, reaches the highest light and appears 
with his own form he is the Soul (Atman)," said he. " That 
is the immortal, the fearless. That is Brahma." 

The unqualified Soul, the driver of the unintelligent 
bodily vehicle 

3. Now, indeed, O king, this is the Brahma-knowledge, even 
the knowledge contained in all the Upanishads, as declared to 
us by the honorable Maitri. I will narrate it to you. 

Now, the Valakhilyas are reputed as free from evil, of re- 
splendent glory, living in chastity. Now, they said to Kratu 
Prajapati 3 : " Sir, this body is like a cart without intelligence 
(a-cetana). To what supersensuous being, forsooth, belongs 
such power whereby this sort of thing is set up in the 

1 The particular course of instruction here begun continues through 6. 28. 

2 Chand, 8. 3. 4. 

3 Sakayanya's report of this conversation between the Valakhilyas and Prajapati 
continues to the end of 4. 6. 

414 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-a. 6 

possession of this sort of intelligence? Or, in other words, 
who is its driver? Sir, tell us what you know ! " 
Then he said to them : 

4. " He, assuredly, indeed, who is reputed as standing aloof, 
like those who, among qualities, abstain from intercourse with 
them He, verily, is pure, clean, void, tranquil, breathless, 
selfless, endless, undecaying, steadfast, eternal, unborn, independ- 
ent. He abides in his own greatness. By him this body is 
set up in possession of intelligence ; or, In other words, this 
very one, verily, is its driver." 

Then they said: "Sir, how by this kind of indifferent 
being is this sort of thing set up in possession of intelligence ? 
Or, in other words, how Is this one its driver ? " 

Then he said to them : 

Every intelligent person a partial mdividnation of the 
supersensuous, self-limiting Person 

5. " Verily, that subtile, ungraspable, invisible one, called the 
Person, turns in here [In the body] with a part [of himself] 
without there being any previous awareness, even as the 
awakening of a sleeper takes place without there being any 
previous awareness, 

Now, assuredly, indeed, that part of Him is what the 
intelligence- mass here in every person 'is the spirit (ksetra- 
jna, knower-of-the-body ') which has the marks of concep- 
tion, determination, and self-conceit (abhimancc), Prajapati 
(Lord of Creation) under the name of individuality. 1 

By Him, as intelligence, this body is set up in possession of 
intelligence ; or, in other words, this very one is its driver." 

Then they said : " Sir, if by this kind of indifferent being 
this kind of body Is set up in possession of intelligence, still 
how, in other words, Is this one Its driver ? " 

Then he said to them : 

The primeval Person progressively differentiated him- 
self into [a] inanimate beings, [b] the five physiological 
functions, [c] the human person, [d] a person's functions 

6. "Verily, in the beginning Prajapati stood alone. He had 

1 The Sanskrit word vi&a, the ordinary word for ' everyone/ is doubtless used 
here in its individual, as well as in its collective, reference. 

415 



a. 6-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

no enjoyment, being alone. He then, by meditating upon 
himself (atmanam), created numerous offspring. 

[a] He saw them inanimate and lifeless, like a stone^ stand- 
ing like a post. He had no enjoyment. He then thought to 
himself- ' Let me enter within, in order to animate them.' 

[b] He made himself like wind and sought to enter within. 
As one, he was unable. So he divided himself fivefold he 
who is spoken of as the Prana breath, the Apana breath, the 
Samana breath, the Udana breath, the Vyana breath. 

Now, that breath which passes up that, assuredly, is the 
Prana breath. Now, that which passes down that, assuredly, 
is the Apana breath. Now, that, verily, by which these two 
are supported that, assuredly., is the Vyana breath. Now, 
that which conducts into the Apana breath [what Is] the 
coarsest element of food and distributes (sam-a-nayatt) in each 
limb [what is] the most subtile that, assuredly, is named the 
Samana breath. It is a higher form of the Vyana breath, and 
between them is the production of the Udana breath. Now, 
that which f belches forth and swallows down what has been 
drunk and eaten ' that, assuredly, is the Udana breath. 

[e] Now, the Uparhsu vessel is over against the Antaryama 
vessel, and the Antaryama vessel over against the Uparhsu 
vessel. Between these two, God (deva) generated heat. The 
heat is a person, 1 and a person is the universal fire (Agni 
VaisVanara) It has elsewhere 2 been said : c This is the 
universal fire, namely that which is here within a person, 
by means of which the food that is eaten is cooked. It is the 
noise thereof that one hears on covering the ears thus. 3 When 
he [i. e. a person] is about to depart, one hears not this sound/ 

He, verily, having divided himself fivefold, is hidden away 
in secret He who consists of mind, whose body is life (frana), 
whose form is light, whose conception is truth, whose soul is 
space. 3 4 

1 According to the commentator, the Prana and Apana breaths are heie com- 
pared to the two vessels, Upamsu and Antaryama, which stand on eithei side of the 
central altar at the Soma sacrifice , and a person is compared to the heat produced 
between the two. 

2 Bnh 5. 9, A similar idea is found in Chand. 3. 13. 8. 

3 Deictically. 

4 Repeated from Chand. 3. 14 2. 

416 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-3. i 

[d] Verily, not having attained his purpose, He thought to 
himself from within the heart here : * Let me enjoy objects/ 
Thence, having pierced these openings, He goes forth and 
enjoys objects with five reins.' These reins of his are the 
organs of perception. His steeds are the organs of action. 
The body is the chariot The charioteer is the mind. The 
whip is made of one's character (prakrtt-maya). By Him 
forsooth driven, this body goes around and around, like the 
wheel [driven] by the potter So, this body is set up in 
possession of consciousness ; or, In other words, this very one 
is its driver. 

But the Soul itself is non-active, unqualified, abiding 

7. Verily, this Soul (Atman) poets declare wanders here 
on earth from body to body, unovercome, as it seems, by the 
bright or the dark fruits of action. He who on account of his 
unmanifestness, subtilty, imperceptibility, incomprehensibility, 
and selflessness is [apparently] unabiding and a doer in the 
unreal he^truly, is not a doer, and he is abiding. Verily, he 
is pure, steadfast and unswerving, stainless, unagitated, desire- 
less, fixed like a spectator, and self-abiding. As an enjoyer of 
righteousness, he covers himself (dtmdnam) with a veil made 
of qualities ; [but] he remains fixed yea, he remains fixed ! " 

THIRD PRAPATHAKA 

The great Soul, 
and the individual, suffering, transmigrating soul 

i. Then they said : " Sir, if thus you describe the greatness 
of this Soul (Atman), theie is still another, different one. Who 
is he, called soul (dtmaii), who, being overcome by the bright 
or the dark fruits of action (karman), enters a good or an evil 
womb, so that his course is downward or upward and he 
wanders around, overcome by the pairs of opposites (dvan- 
dvd) ? " 

The soul that is subject to elements and qualities, 
confused and self-conceited, suffers and transmigrates 

a. [Then he said :] " There is indeed another, different soul, 
called the elemental soul ' (bhutatman) he who, being over- 

417 Ee 



3 . a-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

come by the bright or the dark fruits of action, enters a good 
or an evil womb, so that his course is downward or upward 
and he wanders around, overcome by the pairs of opposites. 

The further explanation of this is 

The five subtile substances (tan-matra) l are spoken of by 
the word ' element ' (bhuta). Likewise, the five gross elements 
(mahd-bhutd) are spoken of by the word 'element/ Now, the 
combination of these is said to be ' the body' (sarlra) Now, 
he, assuredly, indeed, who is said to be in ' the body J is said to 
be 'the elemental soul. 5 Now, its immortal soul (dtman) is 
like the drop of water on the lotus leaf/ 2 

This [elemental soul], verily, is overcome by Nature's (pra- 
krti) qualities (guna). 

Now, because of being overcome, he goes on to confusedness ; 
because of confusedness, he sees not the blessed Lord (prabhu), 
the causer of action, who stands within oneself (atma-stha). 
Borne along and defiled by the stream of Qualities (gzma), 
unsteady, wavering, bewildered, full of desire, distracted, this 
one goes on to the state of self-conceit (abhimanatvd). In 
thinking ' This is I ' and ' That is mine/ he binds himself 
with his self, as does a bird with a snare. 

Consequently (ami) f being overcome by the fruits of his 
action, he enteis a good or an evil womb, so that his course is 
downward or upward and he wanders around, overcome by 
the pairs of opposites/ " 

"Which one is this ?" 

Then he said to them : 

The inner Person remains unaffected in the 

elemental soul's transformations 

3. "Now, it has elsewhere been said 3 : c Verily, he who is 
the doer is the elemental soul. The causer of action through 
the organs is the inner Person. Now, verily, as a lump of iron, 
overcome by fire and beaten by workmen, passes over into 
a different form so, assuredly, indeed, the elemental sxjul, 

1 This is probably the earliest occurrence of the word in Sanskrit literature. 
For an exposition of the doctrine, consult Garbe's Die Samkhy a- Philosophy, 
pp. 236-239. 

2 That is, it is unaffected ; for the simile see Chand. 4. 14. 3. 

3 So again in Manaya- Dharma Sastra 12. 12. 

418 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-3.5 

overcome by the inner Person and beaten by Qualities, passes 
over into a different form. The mode of that different form, 
verily, has a fourfold covering/ is fourteenfold, 2 is transformed 
in eighty-four 3 different ways, is a host of beings. These 
varieties, verily, are driven by the Person, like "the wheel by 
the potter." Now, as, when a lump of iron is being hammered, 
the fire [in it] is not overcome, so that Person is not overcome. 
This elemental soul (bhutdtman) is overcome (abhibhuta) 
because of its attachment [to Qualities]/ 

The body a loathsome conglomerate 

4. Now, it has elsewhere been said : * This body arises from 
sexual intercourse. It passes to development in hell[-darkness] 
(niraya)** Then it comes forth through the urinary opening. It 
is built up with bones ; smeared over with flesh ; covered with 
skin; filled full with feces, urine, bile, phlegm, marrow, fat, 
grease, and also with many diseases, like a treasure-house with 
wealth/ 

The overcoming and transforming effects of the dark 
and of the passionate qualities 

5. Now, it has elsewhere been said : < The characteristics of 
the Dark Quality (tamos) are delusion, fear, despondency, 
sleepiness, weariness, heedlessness, old age, sorrow, hunger, 
thirst, wretchedness, anger, atheism (nastikyd), ignorance, 
jealousy, cruelty, stupidity, shamelessness, religious neglect, 
pride, unequableness. 

The characteristics of the Passionate Quality (rajas), on the 
other hand, are inner thirst, affection, emotion, covetousness, 
maliciousness, lust, hatred, secretiveness, envy* insatiability, 
unstead fastness, fickleness, distraqtedness, ambitiousness, 
acquisitiveness, favoritism towards friends, dependence upon 

1 Referring either, as in 6, 28 and again in 6. 38, to the doctrine of the four 
sheaths (W), namely food, breath, mind, and knowledge (the same characteristics 
of f~nr different selves are mentioned in Tait. 2. 1-4), or, according to the Scholiast r 
to the four forms of animal life, characterized as born alive, bom from an egg^ 
born from moisture, bom from a germ (Ait. 5, 3). 

2 Referring to the fourteen classes of beings, Sankhya-Kanka 53, or to the four- 
teen worlds of the Vedantasara 13950 Deussen interpiets* 

3 Meaning probably merely * very many/ 

4 That is, in the womb. 

419 E e % 



3 5-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

surroundings, hatred in regard to unpleasant objects of sense, 
overfondness in regard to pleasant objects, sourness of utterance, 
gluttonousness. With these this elemental soul (bhutdtman) is 
filled full ; with these it is '* overcome" (abhibhuta). Therefore 
it undergoes different forms yea, it undergoes different 
forms ! ' 



FOURTH PRAPATHAKA 

The rule for the elemental soul's complete union 
with the Soul at death 

1. Then, indeed, assuredly, those chaste [Valakhilyas], 
exceedingly amazed, united and said : " Sir, adoration be to 
you ! Instruct us further. You are our way [of escape]. 
There is no other. 

What is the rule (vidhi) for this elemental soul, whereby, on 
quitting this body, it may come to complete union (sdyujya) 
with the Soul (Atman) ? " 

Then he said to them : 

The miserable condition of the individual Soul 

2. "Now, it has elsewhere been said: 'Like the waves in 
great rivers, there is no turning back of that which has pre- 

-viously been done. Like the ocean tide, hard to keep back is 
the approach of one's death. Like a lame man bound with 
the fetters made of the fruit of good and evil (sad-asad) ; like 
the condition of one in prison lacking independence ; like the 
condition of one in the realm of death in a condition of great 
fear ; like one intoxicated with liquor intoxicated with 
delusion (mo/ia) ; like one seized by an evil being rushing 
hither and thither ; like one bitten by a gi eat snake bitten by 
objects of sense ; like gross darkness the darkness of passion ; 
like jugglery (indrajdld) consisting of illusion (mdyd-maya) ; 
like a dream falsely apparent like the pith of a banana- 
treeunsubstantial ; like an actor in temporary dress ; like 
a painted scene falsely delighting the mind. 1 
Moreover it has been said : 

420 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-44 

Objects of sound and touch and sense 

Aie worthless objects in a man. 

Yet the elemental soul through attachment to them 

Remembeis not the highest place. 

The antidote : study of the Veda, performance of 
one's own duty, and austerity 

3. The antidote, assuredly, indeed, for this elemental soul 
(bhutatman) is this: study of the knowledge of the Veda, 
and pursuit of one's regular duty. Pursuit of one's regular 
duty, in one's own stage of the religious' life that, verily, is the 
\ ule ! Other rules are like a bunch of grass. With this, one 
tends upwards ; otherwise, downwards. That is one's regular 
duty, which is set forth' in the Vedas. Not by transgressing 
one's regular duty does one come into a stage of the religious 
life. Some one says: 'He is not in any of the stages of the 
religious life ! Verily, he is one who practises austerity ! ' That 
is not proper. [However], if one does not practise austerity, 
there is no success in the knowledge of the Soul (At man), nor 
perfection of works. For thus has it been said : 

; Tis goodness (sattva) fiom austerity (tapa$\ 
And mind from goodness, that is won ; 
And from the mind the Soul is won; 
On winning whom, no one leturns. 

Knowledge of Brahma, austerity, and meditation : 
the means of union with the Soul 

4. * Brahma is ! ' says he who knows the Brahma-knowledge, 
c This is the door to Brahma ! ' says he who becomes free of 

evil by austerity. 

c Om is the greatness of Brahma ! ' says he who, completely 
absorbed, meditates continually. 

Therefore, by knowledge (vidya), by austerity (tapas), and 
by meditation (cinta) Brahma is apprehended. 

He becomes one who goes beyond [the lower] Brahma, even 
to the state of supreme divinity above the gods ; he obtains 
a happiness undecaying, unmeasured, free from sickness 
he who, knowing this, reverences Brahma with this triad 
[i, e. knowledge, austerity, and meditation]. 

421 



4.4-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

So when this chariot-rider l is liberated from those things 
wherewith he was filled full and overcome, then he attains 
complete union (sayujya) with the Atman (Soul)." 

Worship of the various popular gods is permissible and 
rewarding, but temporary and inferior 

5. Then they said : " Sir, you are the explainer 1 You are the 
explainer 1 2 What has been said has been duly fixed in mind 
by us. Now, answer a further question. 

Agni (Fire), Vayu (Wind), and Aditya (Sun) ; time what- 
ever it is , breath, and food ; Brahma, Rudra, and Vishnu 3 
some meditate upon one, some upon another. Tell us which 
one is the best?" 

Then he said to them : 

6. "These are, assuredly, the foremost forms of the supreme, 
the immoital, the bodiless Brahma. To whichever one each 
man is attached here, in its world he rejoices indeed. For 
thus has it been said 4 : 'Verily, this whole world is Brahma/ 

Verily, these, which are its foremost forms, one should medi- 
tate upon, and praise, but then deny. For with these one 
moves higher and higher in the worlds. But in the universal 
dissolution he attains the unity of the Person yea, of the 
Person!'" 5 

FIFTH PRAPATHAKA 

Hymn to the pantheistic Soul 

i. Now, then, this is Kutsayana's Hymn of Praise. 

1 For the same metaphor of the individual soul riding- in the body as in a vehicle 
see above, 2. 3. and 2.6; also Katha 3. 3 

2 If instead of abhivadi the reading should be ativadt, as in Chand. 7. 15. 4 
and Mund. 3. i. 4, then the translation would be : You are a superior speaker ' 
You are a superior speaker ' ' 

3 Note the three triads : an old Vcdic trinity, three principles speculated about 
as philosophic causes, and the famous Brahmanic trinity. 

4 Chand. 3. 14. i. 

* This evidently is the end of the conversation, begun in 2. 3,. between the 
Valakhilyas and Prajapati, as derived by tradition from Maitri and narrated -by 
Sakayanya to King Erihadratha. The remainder of the Upanishad up to 6. 29 is 
supposedly a continuation of Sakayanya's long discourse; but without a doubt it 
consists of several supplements, as even the commentator explains with regard to 
the Sixth and Seventh Prapathakas. 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-5. a 

Thou art Brahma, and verily thou art Vishnu. 

Thou art Rudia. Thou art Prajapati. 

Thou art Agm, Varuna, and Vayu. 

Thou art Indra. Thou art the Moon. 

Thou art food. Thou art Yama. Thou art the Earth. 

Thou ait AIL Yea, thou art the unshaken one! 

For Nature's sake and for its own 

Is existence manifold in thee. 

O Lord of all, hail unto thee ! 

The Soul of all, causing all acts, 

Enjoying all, all life art thou! 

Lord (prabhil) of all pleasure and delight ! 

Hail unto thee, O Ti anquil Soul (sdntafmari) \ 
Yea, hail to thee, most hidden one, 
Unthinkable, unlimited, 
Begmningless and endless, too! 

The progressive differentiation of the Supreme Soul 

2. Verily, in the beginning this world was Darkness (tamas) 
alone. That, of course, would be in the Supreme. When 
impelled by the Supreme, that goes on to differentiation. 
That form, verily, is Passion (rajas). That Passion, in turn, 
when impelled, goes on to differentiation* That, verily, is the 
form of Purity (sattva). 

That Purity, when impelled, flowed forth as Essence (rasa). 
That part is what the intelligence-mass here in every person is 
the spirit which has the marks of conception, determination, 
and self-conceit, Prajapati (Lord of Creation) under the name 
individuality. 1 These forms of Him have previously been 
mentioned. 2 

Now then, assuredly, indeed, the part of Him which is 
characterized by Darkness (tamas) that, O ye students of 
sacred knowledge, is this Rudra. Now then, assuredly, indeed, 
the part of Him which is characterized by Passion (rajas) 
that, O ye students of sacred knowledge, is this Brahma. 
Now then, assuredly, indeed, the part of Him which is 

1 * Individuality * is the precise modern technical philosophical term for the 
indefinite word wfva, which means simply everyone. 3 

2 In 2. 5. 

423 



5. a-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

characterized by Purity (sattva) that, O ye students of 
sacred knowledge, is this Vishnu. 

Verily, that One became threefold. He developed forth 
eightfold, elevenfold, twelvefold, into an infinite number of 
parts. Because of having developed forth, He is a created 
being (bhuta) ; has entered into and moves among created 
beings ; He became the overlord of created beings. That 
is the Soul (Atman) within and without yea, within and 
\\Ithout ! 

SIXTH PRAPATHAKA 

Two correlated manifestations of the Soul : 
inwardly the breathing spirit, and outwardly the sun 

1. He [i. e. the Soul, Atman] bears himself (dtmdnam) two- 
fold : as the breathing spirit (prdna) here, and as yon sun 
(aditya), 

Likewise, two in number, verily, are these his paths : an 
inner and an outer. Both these return upon themselves with 
a day and a night. 

Yon sun, verily, is the outer Soul (Atman). The inner Soul 
(Atman) is the breathing spirit 

Hence the course of the inner Soul (Atman) is measured by 
the course of the outer Soul (Atman). 1 For thus has it been 
baid : ' Now, whoever is a knower, freed from evil, an overseer 
of his senses, pure-minded, established on That, introspective, 
is even He [i.e. the Soul, the Atman]/ 

And the course of the outer Soul (bahir-atman) is measured 
by the course of the inner Soul (antar-atman}. For thus has 
it been said : c Now, that golden Person who is within the sun, a 
who looks down upon this earth from his golden place, is even 
He who dwells within the lotus of the heart and eats food/ 

The inner Soul identified with the Soul in space, 
which is localized in the sun 

2. Now, He who dwells within the lotus of the heart and 
eats food, is the same as that solar fire which dwells in the sky, 
called Time, the invisible, which eats all things as his food. 

1 That is to say, waking and sleeping are correlated with day and night. 

2 Thus far the quotation may be found in Chand. i. 6. 6. 

424 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6.4 

What is the lotus, and of what does it consist? 

This lotus, assuredly, is the same as space. These four 
quarters of heaven and the four intermediate quaiters are the 
form of its leaves. 

These two, the breathing spirit and the sun, go forth toward 
each other. 

One should reverence them with the syllable Om [ 3-5], 
with the Mystic Utterances (vya/irti)* [ 6], and with the 
Savitrl Prayer [ 7]. 

The light of the sun, as a form of Brahma, represented 
by the mystic syllable ' Om ' 

3. There are, assuredly, two forms of Brahma: the 
formed and the formless. 2 Now, that which is the foimed is 
unreal ; that which is the formless is real, is Biahma, is light. 

That light is the same as the sun. 

Verily, that came to have Om as its soul (dtman). He 
divided himself (atmanani) threefold Om is three prosodial 
units (a + u + m). By means of these ' the whole world is 
woven, warp and woof, across Him.' 4 

For thus has it been said : * One should absorb himself, 
meditating that the sun is Om! 

4. Now it has elsewhere 5 been said: 'Now, then, the 
Udgltha is Om\ Om is the Udgltha. And so, verily, the 
Udgltha is yonder sun, and it is Om? 

For thus has it been said : ' ... the Udgltha, which is called 
Om> a leader, brilliant, sleepless, ageless, deathless, three-footed, 6 
three-syllabled, 7 also to be known as fivefold, 8 hidden in the 
secret place [of the heart]. 5 

For thus has it been said 9 : ' The three-quartered Brahma 

1 Namely, bhur, bhttvas, and svar* 

2 A repeated phrase, Bnh. 2. 3. i. 

3 A statement regarding primeval being occurring in Brih. i. 2. 3. 

4 * Across Him,' i e. reading asmmn tti instead of asmHi. The main statement 
is a stereotyped formula, used repeatedly in Bnh. 3, 6, 

5 Quoted from Chand i. 5. i. 

6 According to the commentator, referring to the three conditions of waking, 
dreaming, and pi ofouncl slumber. 

7 That is, a + u + w. 

8 Embracing the five breaths, Prana, Apana, Vyana, Samaria, Udana. 

9 RV. 10.90. 3-4. 

425 



6.4-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

has its root above. 1 Its branches are space, wind, fire, water, 
earth, and the like. This Brahma has the name of ' the Lone 
Fig-tree. J Belonging to It is the splendor which is yon sun, 
and the splendor too of the syllable Om. Therefore one should 
worship it with Om continually. He is the only enlightener 
of a man.' 

For thus has it been said : 

That syllable, indeed, is holy (punya). 
That syllable indeed is supreme. 
By knowing that syllable, indeed, 
Whatever one desires,, is his! 2 

Various triads of the forms of tlie Soul, worshiped 
by the use of the threefold ' Om ' 

5. Now, it has elsewhere been said : * This, namely a, ^t, 
and m [=0m], is the sound-form of this [Atman, Soul]. 5 

Feminine, masculine, and neuter : this is the sex-form. 

Fire, wind, and sun : this is the light-form. 

Brahma, Rudra, and Vishnu : this is the lordship-form. 

The Garhapatya sacrificial fire, the Dakshinagni sacrificial 
fire, and the Ahavanlya sacrificial fire : this is the mouth-form. 

The Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, and the Sama-Veda : this is 
the understanding-form. 

Earth (bhur), atmosphere (bhuvas), and sky (svar) : this is 
the world-form. 

Past, present, and future : this is the time-form. 

Breath, fire, and sun : this is the heat-form. 

Food, water, and moon : this is the swelling-form. 

Intellect (buddhi], mind (manas\ and egoism (akamkdra): 
this is the intelligence-form. 

The Prana breath, the Apana breath, and the Vyana breath : 
this is the breath-form. 

Hence these are praised, honored, and included by saying 
Om. For thus has it been said 3 : 'This syllable Om, verily, 
O Satyakama, is both the higher and the lower Brahma/ 

1 Cf. Katha 6. i for the eternal fig-tree with its root above and its branches 
below. 

2 This stanza is quoted from Katha 2.16 with certain verbal change* 

3 In PraSna 5. 2, 

42,6 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6.7 

Worship of the world and the Soul by the use of the 
original three world-creating Utterances 

6. Now [in the beginning], verily, this world was unuttered. 

When he [the Soul, Atman], who is the Real (satyd), who is 
Prajapati (Lord of Creation), had performed austerity, he 
littered bhur (earth), bhuvas (atmosphere), and svar (sky). 

This, indeed, is Prajapati's coarsest form, this 4 world-form. 7 
Its head is the sky (svar). The atmosphere (bhuvas) is the 
navel. The feet are the earth (bkur). The eye is the sun 
(adityd), for a person's great material world (mdtrd) depends 
upon the eye, for with the eye he surveys material things. 
Verily, the eye is the Real ; for stationed in the eye a person 
moves about among all objects. 

Therefore one should reverence bhur (earth), bhuvas (atmo- 
sphere), and svar (sky) ; for thereby Prajapati, the Soul of 
all, the eye of all, becomes reverenced, as it were. 

For thus has it been said : * Verily, this is the all-supporting 
form of Prajapati. This whole world is hidden in it, and it is 
hidden in this whole world. Therefore this [is what] one 
should worship. 1 

Worship of the Soul (Atman) in the form of the sun 
by the use of the Savitri Prayer * 

7, tat samtur varenyam 

That desirable [splendor] of Savitri 

Yonder sun, verily, is Savitri. He, verily, is to be sought 
thus by one desirous of the Soul (Atman) say the expounders 
of Brahma (brakma-vddin)* 



bhargo devasya 

May we meditate upon [that] splendor of the god I 

Savitri, verily, is God. Hence upon that which is called his 
splendor do I meditate -say the expounders of Brahma. 

* RV. 3. 62. 10. 

2 The original meaning of dhimahi is more likely to have been 'obtain, from 
*Jdha, although it is possible to derive the form from t/dhf, ' to meditate upon,' as 
here interpreted, 



6.7-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

dhiyo yo nah pracodayat 

And may he inspire our thoughts ! 

Thoughts, verily, are meditations. And may he inspire these 
for us- say the expounders of Brahma. 

Etymological significance of the names of the cosmic 
manifestations of the Soul 

Now, 'splendor ' (bharga). 

Verily, he who is hidden in yonder sun is called c splendor/ 
and the pupil in the eye, too f He is called ' bhar-ga ' because 
with the light-rays (b/id) is his course (gati). 

Or, Rudra (the Terrible) is called ' b/iarga* because he 
causes to dry up (bharjayati) say the expounders of Brahma. 

Now bha means that he illumines (bhasayati) these worlds. 
ra means that he gladdens (ranjayati) beings here, ga means 
that creatures here go (gacchanti) into him and come out of 
him. Theiefore, because of being bha-ra-ga^ he is ''bharga! 

Surya (the sun) is [so named] because of the continual 
pressing out (suyamdna))- Savitri (the sun) is [so named] 
because of its stimulating (savana). Aditya (the sun) is [so 
named] because of its taking up unto itself (adana). Pavana 
(fire) is [so named] because of its purifying (pavand). More- 
over, Apas (water) is [so named] because of its causing to 
swell (apyayana). 

The Soul (Atman) the agent in a person's various functions 

For thus has it been said 2 : e Assuredly, the Soul (Atman) of 
ones soul is called the Immoital Leader. As perceiver, thinker, 
goer, evacuator, begetter, doer, speaker, taster, smeller, seei, 
hearer and he touches the All-pervader [i.e. the Soul, the 
Atman] has entered the body/ 

The Soul (Atman), the subject in all objective knowledge ; 
but itself, as unitary, never an object of knowledge 

For thus has it been said 3 : "Now, where knowledge is of a 
dual nature, 4 there, indeed, one hears, sees, smells, tastes, and 

1 Of the Soina juice in the sacrifices to the sun. 

2 Cf. Prasna 4. 9 for a similar list. 

3 Cf Bnh. 2. 4. 14 for this same theory of knowledge. 

4 That is, implying both a subject which knows and an object which is known. 

428 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [~6 9 

also touches ; the soul knows everything. Where knowledge 
is not of a dual nature, being- devoid of action, cause, or effect, 
unspeakable, incomparable, indescribable what is that ? It is 
impossible to say ! ' 

The Soul ( itman) identical with various gods and powers 

f 8. This Soul (Atman), assuredly, indeed, Is Isana (Lord), 
Sambhu (the Beneficent), Bhava (the Existent), Rudra (the 
Terrible), Prajapati (Lord of Creation), Visvasrij (Creator 
of All), Hiranyagarbha (Golden Germ), Truth \satya), Life 
(prdna), Spirit (haihsa), Sastri (Punisher, or Commander, or 
Teacher), Vishnu (Pervader), Narayana (Son of Man), 1 Aika 
(the Shining), Savitri (Vivifier, the sun), Dhatri (Creator), 
Vidhatri (Ordainer), Samraj (Sovereign), Indra, Indu (the 
moon). He it is who gives forth heat, who is covered with 
a thousand-eyed, golden ball, like a fire [covered] with a fire. 
Him, assuredly, one should desire to know. He should be 
searched for. 

To be perceived by the meditative hermit 
Having bidden peace to all creatures, and having gone to the 
forest, then having put aside objects of sense, from out of one s 
own body one should perceive Him, 

Who has all forms, the golden one, all-knowing,* 
The final goal, the only light, heat-giving. 
The thousand-rayed, the hundredfold revolving, 
Yon sun arises as the life of creatures. 3 

The liturgy for making the eating of food an oblation 

unto the Soul in one's own breath 

9. Therefore, verily, he who knows this has both these [i. e. 
breath and the sun] as his soul (atman, self) ; he (Atman), 
meditates only in himself, he sacrifices only in himself. Such 
meditation and a mind devoted to such practise that is 
a thing praised by the wise. 

One should purify the impurity of his mind with [the 

1 The paragraph -up to this point recurs later in 7. 7. 

2 Or, according to a different exegesis, jatcev&dasam may mean f all-finding. ' 

3 This stanza PraSna I. 8. 

429 



6 9 ~] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

formula] f What has been touched by leavings.' He repeats 
the formula (mantra) : 

'Leavings and what has been touched by leavings, 
And what has been given by a bad man, or [what is impure] 

because of a still-birth 

Let the cleansing power of Vasu, Agni, and the lays of Savitri 
Purify my food and any other thing that may be evil ' ' 

First [i. e. before eating] he swathes [his breath] with water. 1 
' Hail to the Prana breath ! Hail to the Apana breath ! Hail 
to the Vyana breath ! Hail to the Samana breath ! Hail to the 
Udana breath ! ' with these five Hails he offers the oblation. 

Then, with voice restrained, he eats the remainder. 

Then, afterwards, he again swathes with water. 

So, having sipped, having made the sacrifice to the Soul, he 
should meditate upon the Soul with the two [formulas] ' As 
breath and fire ' and * Thou'rt all ' : 

'As breath and fire, the highest Soul (Atman) 
Has entered in with the five winds. 
May He, when pleased himself, please all 
The all-enjoyer ! ' 

' Thou'rt all, the Universal art! 
By thee is everything that's born supported; 
And into thee let all oblations enter! 
There creatures live, where thou art, All-immortal ! * 

So he who eats by this rule 3 indeed, comes not again into the 
condition of food. 2 

Applications of the principle of food (according to 
the Sankhya doctrine) 

jo. Now, there is something else to be known. There is 
a higher development of this Atman-sacrifice, namely as con- 
cei ns food and the eater. The further explanation of this [is 
as follows]. 

The conscious person stands in the midst of Matter (prct- 
dhana). He is an enjoyer, for he enjoys the food of Nature 
(prakrti). Even this elemental soul (bhutatman) is food for 

1 By taking a sip into the mouth. On the whole proceduie of this ritual cf. 
Chand. 5. 2. 2-5 and 5. 19-24. 

2 That is, is not reborn, and is not eaten again by others. 

43 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [_$. IO 

him; its maker is Matter. Therefore that which is to be 
enjoyed consists of the three Qualities (guna), and the enjoyer 
is the person who stands in the midst. 

Here observation is clearly proof. Since animals spring from 
a source, therefore what is to be enjoyed is the source. Thereby 
is explained the fact that Matter is what is to be enjoyed 
Therefore the person is an enjoyer, and Nature is what is to be 
enjoyed. Being therein, he enjoys. 

The food derived from Nature through the transformation 
m the partition of the three Qualities becomes the subtile 
body (hnga), which includes from intellect up to the separate 
elements (viiesa). Thereby an explanation is made of the 
fourteenfold course. 1 

Called pleasure, pain, and delusion (moha), 
Truly, this whole world exists as food ! 

There is no apprehension of the sweetness of the source, so 
long as there has been no production. 

It p. e. Nature] also comes to have the condition of food in 
these three conditions- childhood, youth, and old age. The 
condition of food is because of the transformation. 

Thus, as Matter passes on to the state of being manifest, 
there arises the perception of it And therein, [namely] in [the 
tasting of] sweetness, there arise intellect and the like, even 
determination, conception, and self-conceit. So, in respect to 
objects of sense, the five [organs of sense] arise in [the tasting 
of] sweetness. Thus arise all actions of organs and actions 
of senses. 2 

Thus the Manifest is food, and the Unmanifest is food. 

The enjoyer thereof is without qualities. [But] from the 
fact of his enjoying it is evident that he possesses consciousness 
(caitanya). 

As Agni (Fire), verily, is the eater of food among the gods 
and Soma is the food, 3 so he who knows this eats food with 
Fire. 4 

1 Of natnre through intellect, mind, thought, self-consciousness, the five organs of 
sense-perception, and the five organs of action. 

2 That is, in interaction with the correlated objects in Nature. 
8 So intimated in Bnh. r. 4. 6. 

4 By knowing this fact about fire he becomes identified with fire and so, like fire, 
is not defiled by the impurities of the food eaten. 

431 



6.io-1 MAITRI UPANISHAD 

The elemental soul (bhntatman) is called Soma. He who 
has the Unmanifest as his mouth is called Agni (Fire), because 
of the saying: The person, truly, with the Unmanifest as his 
mouth, enjoys the three Qualities.' 

The renouncer of objects of sense the true ascetic 

He indeed who knows this is an ascetic (samnyasin) and 
a devotee (yogiu) and a ' performer of the sacrifice to the Soul 
(Atman).' Now, as there is no one to touch harlots who have 
entered into a vacant house, so he who does not touch objects 
of sense that enter into him is an ascetic and a devotee and 
a 'performer of the sacrifice to the Soul (Atman).' 

Food, as tn life, source, goal, and desire of all, 
to be reverenced as the highest form of the Soul (Atman) 

11. This, verily, is the highest form of the Soul (Atman), 
namely food; for truly, this life (prdna, breath) consists of food. 
For thus has it been said 1 : 'If one does not eat, he becomes 
a non-thinker, a non-hearer, a non-toucher, a non-seer, a non- 
speaker, a non-smeller, a non-taster, and he lets go his vital 
breaths/ [And furthermore:] c If, indeed, one eats, he becomes 
well supplied with life; he becomes a thinker; he becomes 
a hearer; he becomes a toucher; he becomes a speaker; he 
becomes a taster ; he becomes a smeller ; he becomes a seer.' 
For thus has it been said 2 : 

From food, verily, creatures are produced, 
Whatsoever [creatures] dwell on the eaith. 
Moreover by food, in truth, they live. 
Moreover into it also they finally pass. 

12. Now, it has elsewhere been said : s Verily, all things here 
fly forth, day by day, desiring to get food. The sun takes 
food to himself by his rays. Thereby he gives forth heat. 
When supplied with food, living beings here digest. 3 Fiie, 
verily, blazes up with food.' This world was fashioned by 

1 The quotation is made loosely from Chand. 7. 9, i. 

2 In Tait. 2. 2. 

3 Literally : * When sprinkled with food, living beings here cook [it]. * 

433 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6.14 

Brahma with a desire for food. Hence, one should reverence 
food as the Soul (Atman). For thus has it been said l : 

From food created things are born. 

By food, when born, do they grow up. 

It both is eaten and eats things. 

Because of that it is called food, 

The theory of food 

13. Now, it has elsewhere been said: 'That form of the 
blessed Vishnu which is called the All-supporting that, verily, 
is the same as food. Verily, life (prana) is the essence of 
food ; mind, of life ; understanding (vijnaKO), of mind ; bliss, 
of understanding. 1 He becomes possessed of food, life, mind, 
understanding, and bliss who knows this. Verily, in as many 
things here on earth as do eat food does he eat food who knows 
this. 

Food does, indeed, prevent decay, 
Food is allaying, 'tis declared. 
Food is the life of animals. 
Is foremost, healing, 'tis declared. 

The theory of time 

14. Now, it has elsewhere been said : c Food, verily, is the 
source of this whole world ; and time, of food. The sun is 
the source of time/ 

The form thereof is the year, which is composed of the 
moments and other durations of time, and which consists of 
twelve [months]. Half of it is sacred to Agni : half, to Varuna. 
From the asterism Magha (the Sickle) to half of Sravishtha 
(the Drum) 2 in the [sun's southward] course is sacred to Agni. 
In its northward course, from Sarpa (the Serpent) to half of 
Sravishtha is sacred to Soma. Among these [asterisms] each 
month of Atman [viewed as the year] includes nine quarters 3 
according to the corresponding course [of the sun through the 
asterisms]. On account of the subtilty [of time] this [course of 

1 In Tait. 2. 2. 

2 That is, from June up to December. 

3 A twelfth part of the twenty-seven asterisms through. wHich the sun moves in 
the course of the year is two and a quarter, or nine quarters. 

433 F f 



6.I4-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

the sun] is the proof, for only in this way is time proved. 
Apart from proof there is no ascertaining of the thing to be 
proved. However, the thing to be proved [e. g. time] may 
come to be proved from the fact of its containing parts [e. g. 
moments, etc ], to the cognizance of the thing itself. For thus 
has it been said : 

However many paits of time 
Through all of them runs yonder [sun] I 

Whoever reverences Time as Brahma, from him time with- 
draws afar. For thus has it been said : 

From Time flow forth created things. 
From Time, too, they advance to growth. 
In Time, too, they do disappear. 
Time is a form and formless too. 

15. There are, assuredly, two forms of Brahma : Time and 
the Timeless. That which is prior to the sun is the Timeless 
(a~kdla) : without parts (a-kala). But that which begins with 
the sun is Time, which has parts. Verily, the form of that 
which has parts is the year. From the year, in truth, are 
these creatures produced. Through the year, verily, after 
having been produced, do they grow. In the year they dis- 
appear. Therefore,- the year, verily, is Prajapati, is Time, is 
food, is the Brahma-abode, and is Atman. For thus has it 
been said : 

'Tis Time that cooks created things, 

All things, indeed, in the Great Soul (makaimaii). 

In what, however, Time is cooked 

Who knows that, he the Veda knows ! 

1 6. This embodied Time is the great ocean of creatures. In 
it abides he who is called Savitri, 1 from whom, indeed, are be- 
gotten moon, stars, planets, the year, and these other things. 

And from them comes this whole world here, and whatever 
thing, good or evil, may be seen in the world. Therefore 
Brahma is the soul (atman) of the sun. So, one should 
reverence the sun as a name of Time* Some say 2 : * Brahma 
Is the sun/ Moreover it has been said : 

1 The stui : etymologically, the Begetter. 
* Quoted from Chand 3. 19. i. 

434 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6.18 

The offeier, the enjoyer, the oblation, the sacrificial formula 

(mantra)^ 

The sacrifice, Vishnu, Prajapati 

Every one whatsoever is the Lord (prabhu), the Witness, 
Who shines in yonder orb. 

The infinite Brahma the eternal, unitary Soul (Atman) 
of the world and of the individual 

^ 17. Verily, in the beginning this world was Brahma, the 
limitless One limitless to the east, limitless to the south, 
limitless to the west, limitless to the north, and above and 
below, limitless in every direction. Truly, for him east and 
the other directions exist not, nor across, nor below, nor above. 

Incomprehensible is that supreme Soul (Atman), unlimited, 
unborn, not to be reasoned about, unthinkable He whose 
soul is space (akaiatmari) 1 1 In the dissolution of the world 
He alone remains awake. From that space He, assuredly, 
awakes this world, which is a mass of thought. It is thought 
by Him, and in Him it disappears 

His is that shining form which gives heat in yonder sun and 
which is the brilliant light in a smokeless fire, as also the fire 
in the stomach which cooks food. For thus has it been said : 
f He who is In the fire, and he who is here in the heart, and he 
who is yonder in the sun he is one. 1 

To the unity of the One goes he who knows this. 

The Yoga method for attaining this pure unity 

1 8. The precept for effecting this [unity] is this: restraint 
of the breath (pranaydma), withdrawal of the senses (pratya- 
hara)> meditation (dhyand), concentration (dhdrana), contem- 
plation (tarka), absorption (samadhi). Such is said to be the 
sixfold Yoga. By this means 

When a seer sees the brilliant 

Maker, Lord, Person, the Brahma- source, 

Then, being a knower, shaking off good and evil, 2 

He reduces everything to unity in the supreme Imperishable. 

1 A phrase from Chand. 3. 14. 2 and Katish. 2. 14. 

2 The first thiee lines of this stanza = MtincL 3. i. 3 a, b, c. 

435 F f a 



6.i8-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

For thus has it been said : 

As to a mountain that's enflamed 
Deer and birds do not icsort 
So, \vith the Brahma-knowers, faults 
Do never any shelter find, 

Withdrawal from sense-objects into absence of all thought 

19. Now, it has elsewhere been said: * Verily, when a 
knower has restrained his mind from the external, and the 
breathing spirit (prand) has put to rest objects of sense, there- 
upon let him continue void of conceptions. Since the living 
individual (jlvd) who is named " breathing spirit " has arisen 
here from what is not breathing spirit, therefore, verily, let the 
breathing spirit restrain his breathing spirit in what is called 
the fourth condition (tiwya)! 1 For thus has it been said :- 

That which is non-thought, [yet] which stands in the midst 

of thought, 

The unthinkable, supreme mystery! 
Thereon let one concentrate his thought 
And the subtile body (lingo), too, without support. 

The selfless, liberated, joyous vision of the Self (Atman) 

20. Now, it has elsewhere been said : c One may have 
higher concentration than this. By pressing the tip of his 
tongue against the palate, by restraining voice, mind, and 
breath, one sees Brahma through contemplation/ When 
through self, by the suppressing of the mind, one sees the 
brilliant Self which is more subtile than the subtile, then 
having seen the Self through one's self, one becomes self-less 
(nir-atman). Because of being selfless, he is to be regarded as 
incalculable (a-sahkhya)^ without origin the mark of liberation 
(moksa). This is the supreme secret doctrine (rahasyd). For 
thus has it been said : 

For by tranquillity (prasdda) of thought 

Deeds (karman\ good and evil, one destroys ! 

With soul (dtman) serene, stayed on the Soul (Atman), 

Delight eternal one enjoys ! 

1 Described in Mand. 7. On the term twya see p. 392, note n. 
436 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6. 33 

The Yoga method of attaining 
to non-experiencing selflessness and to ultimate unity 

21. Now, it has elsewhere been said: < There is an artery, 1 
called the Sushumna, leading upwards, conveying the breath, 
piercing through the palate. Through it, by joining (Jyuj) 
the breath, the syllable Om, and the mind, one may go aloft. 
By causing the tip of the tongue to turn back against the 
palate and by binding together (sam-yojya) the senses, one 
may, as greatness, perceive greatness. 1 Thence he goes to 
selflessness. Because of selflessness, one becomes a non- 
experiencer of pleasure and pain ; he obtains the absolute unity 
(kevalatva). For thus has it been said : 

After having first caused to stand still 

The bieath that has been restrained, then, 

Having ciossed beyond the limited, with the unlimited 

One may at last have union in the head. 

Beaching the higher, non-sound Brahma 
by meditation on the sound e Om' 

22. Now, it has elsewhere been said : e Verily, there are two 
Brahmas to be meditated upon : sound and non-sound. Now, 
non-sound is revealed only by sound.' Now, in this case the 
sound-Brahma is Om. Ascending by it, one comes to an 
end in the non-sound. So one says: 'This, indeed, is the 
way. This is immortality. This is complete union (sayujyatva) 
and also peacefulness (mrvrtatva).* 

Now, as a spider mounting up by means of his thread (tantii) 
obtains free space, thus, assuredly, indeed, does that meditator s 
mounting up by means of Om, obtain independence (svd~ 
tan try a). 

Others expound the sound[-Brahma] in a different way. 
By closing the ears with the thumbs they hear the sound of the 
space within the heart. Of it there is this sevenfold comparison : 
like rivers, a bell, a brazen vessel, a wheel, the croaking of frogs, 
rain, as when one speaks in a sheltered place. 

Passing beyond this variously characterized [sound-Brahma], 

1 So described, but not so designated, in Chand. 8. 6. 6 and Katha 6. 16. 
Hinted at also in Tait. I. 6 and Prana 3. 7. 

437 



632-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

men disappear in the supreme, the non-sound, the unmanifest 
Brahma. There they are unqualified, indistinguishable, like 
the various juices which have reached the condition of honey. 1 
For thus has it been said : 

There are two Brahmas to be known: 
Sound-Brahma, and what higher is. 
Those people who sound-Biahma know, 
Unto the higher Brahma go. 

33, Now, it has elsewhere been said : ' The sound-Brahma 
is the syllable Om. That which is its acme is tranquil, sound- 
less, fearless, sorrowless, blissful, satisfied, steadfast, immovable, 
immortal, unshaken, enduring, named Vishnu (the Pervader). 
So for paramountcy one should reverence both these. For thus 
has it been said : 

Who is both higher and lower, 
That god, known by the name of Om, 
Soundless and void of being, too 
Thereon concentrate in the head! 



Piercing, in abstract meditation, through darkness 
to the shining, immortal, Brahma 

24. Now, it has elsewhere been said : ' The body is a bow. 2 
The arrow is Om. The mind is its point. Darkness is the 
mark. Having pierced through the darkness, one goes to 
what is not enveloped in darkness. Then, having pierced 
through what is thus enveloped, one sees Him who sparkles 
like a wheel of fire, of the color of the sun, mightful, the 
Brahma that is beyond darkness, that shines in yonder sun, 
also in the moon, in fire, in lightning. Now, assuredly, when 
one has seen Him, one goes to immortality/ For thus has it 
been said : 

The meditation that is on the highest principle within 
Is also directed upon outer objects. 
Hence the unqualified understanding 
Conies into qualifiedness. 

1 Cf. Chand. 6. 9. 1-2. 

2 For another parable of a bow and arrow in mystical meditation see Mund. 
3. 2. 3-4. 

438 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6.26 

But when the mind has been dissolved, 

And there is the joy whose only witness is the self 

That is Brahma, the immortal, the pure! 

That is the way ! That indeed is the world ! 

The vision of the brilliant Soul m the perfect unity of Yoga 

25. Now, it has elsewhere been said : * He who, with senses 
indrawn as in sleep, with thoughts perfectly pure as in slumber, 
being in the pit of senses yet not under their control, perceives 
Him who is called Om, a leader, brilliant, sleepless, ageless, 
deathless, 1 sorrowless he himself becomes called Om, a leader, 
brilliant, sleepless, ageless, deathless, sorrowless. 5 For thus 
has it been said : 

Whereas one thus joins breath and the syllable Om 

And all the manifold world 

Or perhaps they are joined ! 

Therefore it has been declared (smrta) to be Yoga ( 4 Joining '). 

The oneness of the breath and mind, 

And likewise of the senses, 

And the relinquishment of all conditions of existence 

This is designated as Yoga. 

In the sacrifice o-f suppressed breath in Yoga the light 
of the world-source becomes visible 

26. Now, it has elsewhere been said : i Verily, as the hunts- 
man draws in fish with his net and sacrifices them in the fiie 
of his stomach, thus, assuredly, indeed, does one draw in these 
breaths with Om and sacrifice them m the fire that is free 
from ill. 2 

Furthermore, it is like a heated caldron. Now, as ghee in 
a heated caldron lights up by contact with [lighted] grass or 
wood, thus, assuredly, indeed, does he who is called non-breath 
light up by contact with the breaths. 

Now, that which lights up is a form of Brahma, and that is 
the highest place of Vishnu, and that is the Rudra-hood of 

1 c Called Om . . . deathless * is a stereotyped expression from 6. 4. 

2 That is, Brahma-Atman, which, is designated by this same epithet at vet. 
3. 10. 

439 



6.26-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

Rudra. That, having divided i\.s\f(atmanam) thus unmeasured 
times, fills these worlds. For thus has it been said : 

And as, indeed, from fire the sparks do issue, 
And likewise, too, from out the sun its light-rays, 
From It repeatedly all breathing creatures 
Come forth into this woild, each in its older. 

The light of the Brahma hidden in the body, made fully 
manifest and entered into in Yoga 

27. Now, it has elsewhere been said : ' Assuredly, this is the 
heat of Brahma, the supreme, the immortal, the bodiless even 
the warmth of the body.' 

For that [heat] this [body] is the melted butter (ghee). 1 
Now, although it [i.e. the heat] is manifest, verily it is 
hidden 2 in the ether (nabkas) [of the heart]. Therefore by 
Intense concentration they so disperse the space in the heart 
that the light, as it were, of that [heat] appears. 

Thereupon one passes speedily into the same condition [of 
light], as a lump of iron that is hidden in the earth passes 
speedily into the condition of earthiness. As fire, iron- 
workers, and the like do not overcome a lump of iron that is 
in the condition of clay, so [in Yoga] thought together with its 
support vanishes away. 3 For thus has it been said : 

The ether-storehouse of the heart 
Is bliss, is the supreme abode! 
This is ourself, our Yoga too; 
And this, the heat of fire and sun. 

Entrance into the hall of Brahma 
after slaying the door-keeper, self-consciousness 

28. Now, it has elsewhere been said : 'Having passed 
beyond the elements (b/iuta), the senses, and objects of sense ; 
thereupon having seized the bow whose string is the life of 
a religious mendicant (pravrajya) and whose stick is steadfast- 
ness ; and with the arrow which consists of freedom from self- 
conceit (an-abhimana) having struck down the first warder of 

1 That is, because it manifests the presence of heat, 

2 As in Mund 2. 2. i a : * manifest, [yet] hidden.' 

3 and is not overcome. 

440 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6.29 

the door to Brahma [i. e. egoism, ahanikara\ he who has 
confusion (sammohd) as his crown, covetousness and envy as 
his ear-rings, lassitude, drunkenness, and impurity (agha) as 
his staff, lord of self-conceit, who seizes the bow whose string 
is anger and whose stick is lust, and who slays beings here 
with the arrow of desirehaving slain him, having crossed 
over with the raft of the syllable Om to the other side of the 
space in the heart, in the inner space which gradually becomes 
manifest one should enter the hall of Brahma, as the miner 
seeking minerals enters into the mine. Then let him disperse 
the fourfold I sheath of Brahma by the instruction of a spiritual 
teacher (guru). 

The unhampered soul the perfect Yogi 

Henceforth being pure, clean, void, tranquil, breathless, 
selfless, endless, undecaying, steadfast, eternal, unborn, inde- 
pendent, he abides in his own greatness. 2 

Henceforth, having seen [the soul] which abides in his own 
greatness, he looks down upon the wheel of transmigrating 
existence (samsara) as upon a rolling chariot-wheel.' 

For thus has it been said : 

If a man practises Voga for six months, 
And is constantly freed [from the senses], 
The infinite, supreme, mysteiious 
Yoga is perfectly produced. 

But if a man is afflicted with Passion (rajas) and Dark- 
ness (iamas\ 

Enlightened as he may be 
If to son and wife and family 
He is attached for such a one, no, never at all! 

Conclusion of the instruction on Brahma-knowledge 
and on Yoga 

39. Having spoken thus, absorbed In thought, Sakayanya 
did obeisance to him 3 and said : ' By this Brahma-knowledge, 

1 Consisting, accoiding to the commentator, of food, breath, mind, and under- 
standing, as in Tait. 2. 1-4. The same exhortation recurs below in 6. 38. 

2 The words * pure, clean . . . greatness* are repeated from 2. 4. 

3 That is, to Brihadratha, concluding the conversation begun at I. 2 and the 
course of instruction begun at 2. i. 

441 



6.2 9 -] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

O king, did the sons of Prajapati 1 ascend the path of 
Brahma. 

By the practise of Yoga^one gains contentment, endur- 
ance of the pairs of opposites (dvandva)> and tranquillity 
(santatva). 

This profoundest mystery one should not mention 2 to any 
one who is not a son, or who is not a pupil, or who is not 
tranquil. However, to one who is devoted to none other 
[than to his teacher] or to one who is supplied with all the 
qualifications (guna), one may give it. 

Liberation, into the real Brahma by relinquishment of all 
desires, mental activity, and self-consciousness 

30. Om\ One should be in a pure place, himself puie 
(hfct), abiding in pureness (sattva), studying the Real (sat), 
speaking of the Real, meditating upon the Real, sacrificing to 
the Real. 3 Henceforth, in the real Brahma which longs for 
the Real, he becomes completely other. So he has the reward 
(phala) of having his fetters cut ; becomes void of expectation, 
freed from fear in regard to others [as fully] as in regard to 
himself, void of desire. He attains to imperishable, immeasur- 
able happiness, and continues [therein]. 

Verily, freedom from desire (mskamatva) is like the choicest 
extract from the choicest treasure. For, a person who is 
made up of all desires, who has the marks of determination, 
conception, and self-conceit, is bound. Hence, in being the 
opposite of that, he is liberated. 

On this point some say : " It is a quality (guna) which by 
force of the developing differentiation of Nature (prakrti) 
comes to bind the self with determination [and the like], and 
that liberation results from the destruction of the fault of 
determination [and the like]." 

[But] it is with the mind, truly, that one sees. It is with the 
mind that one hears. Desire, conception, doubt, faith, lack of 

1 The Valakhil>as (according to the commentator Ramatirtha), who at 2. 3 are 
described as having come to Prajapati for this knowledge. 

2 This same prohibition is imposed near the end of two previous Upanishads, 
namely at Brih. 6. 3. 12 and at 3 vet. 6. 22. 

3 As directed at 6. 9. 

442 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6.30 

faith, steadfastness, lack of steadfastness, shame, meditation, 
fear all this is truly mind. 1 

Borne along and defiled by the stream of Qualities, unsteady, 
wavering, bewildered, full of desire, distracted, one goes on into 
the state of self-conceit. In thinking "This is I" and " That 
is mine" one binds himself with himself, as does a bird with 
a snare ! 2 Hence a person who has the marks of determina- 
tion, conception, and self-conceit is bound, Hence, in being 
the opposite of that, he ib liberated. 3 Therefore one should 
stand free from determination, free from conception, fiee from 
self-conceit. This is the mark of liberation (moksa). This is 
the pathway to Brahma here in this woild. This is the open- 
ing of the door here in this world. By it one will go to the 
farther shore of this darkness, for therein all desires are con- 
tained. 4 On this point they quote 5 : 

When cease the five 

[Sense-Jknowledges, together with the mind, 

And the intellect stirs not 

That, they say> is the highest course/ 6 

Sakayanya's final course upward tkrough the sun to Brahma 

Having spoken thus, Sakayanya became absorbed In 
thought. 

Marut, having done obeisance and shown proper honor to 
him, having attained his end, departed by the northern course 
of the sun, for there is no approach by a side-path here in 
the world. This is the path to Brahma here in the world. 
Piercing through the door of the sun, he departed aloft. On 
this point they quote 7 : 

Unending are the rays of him 
Who like a lamp dwells in the heart. 
They're white and black and brown and blue ; 
They're tawny and of pale red hue. 

1 This paragraph has already occurred in Biih. I. 5. 3. 

2 The paragraph up to this point has already occurred above at 3. 2. 

3 These two sentences have already occurred in this same section. 

4 The last clause of this sentence has already occurred in Chand. 8. I. 5. 

5 Katha 6. 10. 

6 The last line of this stanza recurs at BhG. 8. 21 b. 

7 Compare Chand. 8. 6. 6. 

443 



6. 3 o-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

Aloft arises one of these. 

Which, piercing through the sun's round disk, 

On to the Brahma-world extends. 

Thereby men go the highest course. 

What are its other hundied rays, 
Are similarly upwards ranged ; 
Thereby unto the various gods' 
Abiding-places one arrives. 

But by its feebly shining rays 
Which manifoldly downward lead 
One loams about here helplessly 
For the consuming of his deeds. 

Therefore yonder blessed sun is the cause of creation (sarga), 
of heaven (svarga), and of final emancipation (apavarga)^ 

The evidences of the Soul in the senses and in the mind 

31. Of what nature, verily, are these senses that range forth ? 
And who is the one here who goes forth and restrains them ? 
Thus has it been said. 

The answer is : ' They are of the nature of soul (atmaka),hr 
the soul is he who goes forth and restrains them. There are 
enticing objects of sense (apsaras)^ and there are so-called 
luminous rays. With his five rays he feeds upon objects 
(vtsaya).' 

' Which soul ? ' 

s He who has been described 2 as " pure, clean, void, tranquil, 
and of other marks." He is to be apprehended by his own 
peculiar marks. 

Some say 3 that the maik of Him who is without any mark 
is what heat and [anything] pervaded by it is to fire, and 
what a most agreeable taste is to water. 

Now others say 4 it is speech, hearing, sight, mind, breath ; 
now others 5 that it is intellect, steadfastness, memory, 

1 Ramatirtha, the commentator, explains this as . of re-creation for the man 
who does not worship the sun ; of heaven [with temporary enjoyment] for the man 
xvho worships the sun as a divinity ; of final cessation of rebirth for the man who 
\\oiships the sun as Brahma- Atman. 

2 As in 2. 4 and in 6. 28 s As in 6. 27. 

4 As in Brih. 4. 4. 18 and Kena 2. 6 As in Ait. 5. 2. 

444 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6.33 

intelligence. Now, verily, these are the marks of Him, even 
as sprouts here are the mark of a seed, as smoke, light, and 
sparks are the marks of a fire. On this point they quote 1 : 

The Soul, the source of all 

And as, indeed, fiom fire the 'sparks do issue, 
And likewise, too, from ore the sun its light-rays, 
From It repeatedly all breathing creatures 
Come forth into this world, each in its order. 

32. From Him, indeed, [who is] in the soul (atman) come 
forth all breathing creatures, all worlds, all the Vedas, all 
gods, all beings. The mystic meaning (upanisad) thereof is 
The Real of the real. 2 

Now, as from a fire, laid with damp fuel, clouds of smoke 
separately issue forth ; so, lo verily, from this great Being 
(bhuta) has been breathed forth that which is Rig- Veda, Yajur- 
Veda, Sama-Veda, [Hymns of] the Atharvans and Angirases, 
Legend (itih&sa), Ancient Lore (jturdrta), Sciences (pidya\* 
Mystic Doctrines (upanisad) , Verses (sloka\ Aphorisms (sutra\ 
Explanations (anuiyakhydna), and Commentaries (vyakhydna). 
From It, indeed, all beings here [were breathed forth].' 3 

The mystical significance of the three fires in the 
religious sacrifice 4 

33. Verily, this [Garhapatya] sacrificial fire with its five 
bricks is the year. For that [fire] the bricks are these : spring, 
summer, the rains, autumn, winter. So it has a head, two wings, 
a back, and a tail. In the case of one who knows the Person 
this sacrificial fire is the earth, Prajapati's first sacrificial pile. 
With its hands it raises the sacrificer up to the atmosphere, 
and offers him to Vayu (the Wind). Verily, the wind is breath. 

Verily, breath (prana) is a sacrificial fire [i.e. the second, the 

1 Already quoted in 6. 26. 

2 Most of this paragraph is repeated from Brih. 2. I. 20 with the addition of the 
words ' all the Vedas.' 

3 This paragraph is repeated from Brih. 3. 4. 10 with slight variation. 

4 The three fires which are used in the religious sacrifice are interpreted to represent 
the three successive sacrificial piles which were erected by the Lord of Creation in the 
cosmos, namely the earth, the atmosphere, and the sky. The power which rales ia 
each of these world-regions, namely the year, the wind, and the son, successively 
e^vates the sacuficer to the next superior, finally to the supreme Brahma. 

445 



6.33-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

Dakshina fire]. For that the bricks are these: the Prana 
breath, the Vyana breath, the Apana breath, the Satnana 
breath, the Udana breath. So it has a head, two wings, a back, 
and a tail. In the case of one who knows the Person this 
sacrificial fire is the atmosphere, Prajapati's second sacrificial 
pile. With its hands it raises the sacrificer up to the sky, and 
offers him to Indra. Veiily, Indra is yonder sun. 

He [Indra] is this [third, the Ahavamya] fire. For that 
the bricks are these : the Rig- Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the 
Sama-Veda, [the Hymns of] the Atharvans and Angirases 
[i. e'. the Atharva-Veda], Legend (itiJiasd), and Ancient Lore 
(purana). So it has a head, two wings, a back, and a tail, 
In the case of one who knows the Person this saciificial fire 
is that sky, Prajapati's third sacrificial pile. With its hands 
it makes a present of the sacrificer to the Knower of Atman 
(the Soul). 1 Then the Knower of Atman raises him up and 
offers him to Brahma. There he becomes blissful, joyful. 

One's own digestion to be attended to, as a compend 
of cosmic sacrificial fires 

34. The Garhapatya fire is the earth. The Dakshina fire is 
the atmosphere. The Ahavamya fire is the sky. Hence they 
are [called] 'Purifying' (pavamand), ' Purifier' (pavaka], and 
' Pure ' (hid)? Thereby one's sacrifice is made manifest. 

Since the digestive fire also is a combination of * Purifying, 
( Purifier/ and ' Pure/ therefore this fire should be worshipec 
with oblations, should be built up, should be praised, should be 
meditated upon. 

The Self intended in religious sacrifices and verses 
The sacrificer, when he takes the sacrificial butter, seeks 
meditation upon divinity thus : 

'Who is the bird of golden hue, 
Who dwells in both the heart and sun, 
Swan, diver-bird, surpassing bright 
Him let us worship in this fire I ' 

1 That is, to Prajapati. 

2 Epithets of three oblations offered in the fire at a sacrifice ; so, by transference, 
applied, as epithets, to the fire itself. 

446 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6.34 

And thus too one discerns the meaning of the sacred verse 
(mantra}^ 'That desirable splendor of Savitri 1 should be 
meditated upon as [the desirable splendor] of Him who is the 
meditator abiding in the intellect. Here in the world one 
reaches the place of tranquillity for the mind ; he places it 
in the Self (Atman) indeed. 

Liberation in the control of one's thoughts 
On this point there are these verses : 
As fire, of fuel destitute, 
Becomes extinct in its own source, 
So thought by loss of activeness 
Becomes extinct in its own source. 

Becomes extinct in its own source, 
Because the mind the Real seeks ! 
For one confused by things of sense, 
There follow action's false contiols. 

Samsdra is just one's own thought; 
With effort he should cleanse it then. 
What is one's thought, that he becomes ; 
This is the eternal mystery. 2 

For by tranquillity {prasada) of thought, 
Deeds (karman\ good and evil, one destroys, 
With soul serene, stayed on the Soul, 
Delight eternal one enjoys ! 3 

As firmly as the thought of man 
Is fixed within the realm of sense 
If thus on Brahma it were fixed, 
Who would not be leleased from bond? 

The mind is said to be twofold: 
The pure and also the impure; 
Impure by union with desire; 
Pure from desire completely free! 

By making mind all motionless, 
From sloth and from distraction freed, 
When unto mindlessness one comes, 
Then that is the supieme estate ! 

1 In RV. 3. 62. 10, 

2 This same great truth, of the character-making power of thought, is expressed 
also in the Buddhist scripture, Dhammapada i. i, 2. 

4 This quatrain has already occurred in 6. 20, 



6. 34-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

So long the mind should be confined, 
Till in the heait it meets its end. 
That is both knowledge and release ! 
All else is but a string of words ! l 

With mind's stains washed away by concentration, 
What may his joy be who has entered Atman 
Impossible to picture then in language ! 
Oneself must grasp it with the inner organ. 

In water, water; fire in fire; 
In air, air one could not discern. 
So he whose mind has entered in 
Released is he from everything ! 

The mind, in truth, is for mankind 
The means of bondage and release : 
For bondage, if to objects bound ; 
From objects free that 's called release 1 

Both, sacrifice and meditative knowledge needed 

Hence, for those who do not perform the Agnihotra sacrifice, 
who do not build up the fire, who do not know, who do not 
meditate, the recollection of the heavenly abode of Brahma is 
obstructed. Therefore, the fire should be worshiped with 
oblations, should be built up, should be praised, should be 
meditated upon. 

Brahma, transcending all fragmentary manifestations, 
the supreme object of worship 

35. Adoration to Agni (Fire), who dwells in the earth, who 
remembers the world ! 2 Bestow the world upon this wor- 
shiper ! 

Adoration to Vayu (Wind), who dwells in the atmosphere, 
who remembers the world! Bestow the world upon this 
worshiper 1 

Adoration to Aditya (Sun), who dwells in heaven, who re- 
members the world ! Bestow the world upon this worshiper ! 3 

1 Or perhaps 'an extension of the knots [that bind the soul].' 

2 According to the reading of the text, lokasmrte. Or, with the reading 
lofasprte of TS 7. 5. 24. i, who protects the world.* 

8 These same three invocations occur, with the variation 'who protects the 
world,' in TS. 7. 5, 24. i. 

448 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6.35 

Adoration to Brahma, who dwells in all, who remembers all ! 
Bestow all upon this worshiper ! 

With a golden vessel 
The Real's face is covered o'er. 
That do thou, Pushan, uncover 

Unto the Eternal Real (satya-dharma\ the Pervader 
(Vishnu). 1 

He who is yonder, yonder Person in the sun I myself 
am he. 

Verily, that which is the sunhood of the sun is the Eternal 
Real, That is the pure, the personal, the sexless (a-linga). 

Of the bright power that pervades the sky (nabkas) it is only 
a portion which is, as it were, in the midst of the sun, in the 
eye, and in fire. That is Brahma. That is the Immortal. That 
is Splendor. That is the Eternal Real. 

Of the bright power that pervades the sky it is only a portion 
which is the nectar in the midst of the sun, of which, too, the 
moon (Soma) and breathing spirits (prand) are only sprouts. 
That is Brahma. That is the Immortal. That is Splendor. 
That is the Eternal Real. 

Of the bright power that pervades the sky it is only a portion 
which shines as the Yajur-Veda 2 in the midst of the sun. That 
is Om> water, light, essence the immortal Brahma ! Bhur ! 
Bhuvas \ Svar \ Om \ 

Eight- footed, unde filed, a swan, 
Three-stringed, minute, immutable, 
To good, bad blinded, lustrous blight 
On seeing Him, one sees the all. 

Of the bright power that pervades the sky it is only a por- 
tion which, rising in the midst of the sun, becomes the two 
light-rays. That is the knower of unity, the Eternal Real. 
That is the Yajur-Veda. That is heat. That is fire. That is 
wind. That is breath. That is water. That is the moon. 
That is the bright. That is the immortal. That is the realm 
of Brahma. That is the ocean of light. In It, indeed, 

1 These lines and the following phrase occur \vith slight variations in Isa 15, 1 6 
andBrih. 5 15. i. 

2 Regarded as the highest of the Vedas, for it is the one to which this Maitri 
Upamshad is attached. 

449 Gg 



6.35-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

worshipers become dissolved like the lump of salt. 1 That, verily, 
is the Brahma-unity, for therein all desires aie contained. 2 On 
this point they quote : 

Transitory worshipers of the gods, and terminating 
knowers of real unity 

E'en as a lamp stiired by a gentle zephyr, 

So flares up he \\ho moves among the celestial gods. 

But he who kno\xs this he is a knower of unity, he is a 

kno\\er of duality ! 
He will go to the Sole Abode and become partaker of its 

nature ! 

They who r,se forth perpetually like the spi ay-drops, 
Like the lightning that is hid in the highest heaven 
They, verily, by force of their source of glorious light 
Correspond unto the fire [only] like its twisting flames. 

Sacrifice to the two forms of Brahma, 
in space and in one's own self 

36. Assuredly, indeed, of the light-Brahma there are these 
t\vo forms : on^ the Tranquil (sdnta) ; and the other, the 
Abounding. 

Now, of that which is the Tranquil, space (khd] is the 
support. And of that which is the Abounding, food here is 
the support. 

Therefore one should offer sacrifice in the sacrificial space 
(vedt) with sacred verses (mantra), herbs, ghee, flesh, sacrificial 
cakes, boiled rice, and the like, and also regarding the mouth 
as the Ahavamya fire with food and drink cast (avasrsta) 
in the mouth, for the sake of an abundance of vigor, for the 
winning of the holy (puny a) world, and for immortality. 

On this point they quote : ' One who is desirous of heaven 
(svarga) should offer the Agnihotra sacrifice. One wins the 
realm of Yama with the Agnishtoma sacrifice, the realm of the 
moon (Soma) with the Uktha, the realm of the sun (surya) with 
the Shodasin (the sixteen-day sacrifice), an independent realm 

1 For the simile see Brih. 2. 4. 12. 

2 The last clause has already occurred in Chand. 8, I. 5 and Maitri 6. 30, and 
recurs again in 6. 38. 

45 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-6.38 

with the Atiratra sacrifice, that of the Lord of Creation (Praja- 
pati) with the sacrifice which continues to the end of a thou- 
sand years.' 

The Inner Soul in the material world 
furnishes the individual's and the sun's existence 
As the existence of a lamp 

Is because of combination of wick, support, and oil, 
So these two, the self and the bright (sun), 
Exist because of the combination of the Inner One and 
the \\orld-egg. 

The offering of food passes through fire 
to the sun and back into life 

37. Therefore, one should reveience with Om that unlimited 
bright power. This has been manifested in threefold wise: 
in fire, in the sun, and in the breath of life. 

Now, the channel [which is between them] causes the abund- 
ance of food that has been offered in this fire to go unto the 
sun. The moisture which flows theiefrom rains down like a 
chant (Udgitha). Thereby living creatures here exist. Fiom 
living creatures come offspring. 

On this point they quote: "The oblation which has been 
offered in the fire it causes to go unto the sun. The sun rains 
that down with its rays. Thereby arises food ; from food, the 
production of beings.' 

For thus has it been said : 

The offering fitly cast in fire 

Arises up unto the sun, 

From out the sun, ram is produced; 

From lain, food; living creatures thence. 1 

The course to the ultimate Brahma 
even here in the body 

38. He who performs the Agnihotia sacrifice rends the net 
of eager desire (lobha). 

Thence, having cut off confusion (samwo/ia), he no longer 
approves of anger. 

1 This same stanza occurs also in Manava Dharma ijastia 3 76. 

45* G g a 



6.38-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

Meditating upon desire, he then cuts through the fourfold 
sheath l of Brahma. 

Thence he goes to the highest ether. There, truly, having 
cut through the spheres of the sun, of the moon, of fire, and 
of Pure Being, himself being purified (suddha\ he sees the 
Intelligence (caitanya) which abides within Pure Being (sattvd], 
immovable, immortal, unshaken, enduring, named Vishnu, 2 the 
ultimate abode, endowed with true desires and with omniscience, 
independent, which stands in its own greatness. On this point 
they quote : 

In the midst of the sun stands the moon (Soma) ; 

In the midvSt of the moon, fire. 

In the midst of fire stands Pure Being (sativa). 

In the midst of Pure Being -stands the Unshaken One. 

Having meditated upon him who is of the measure of <i 
thumb or of a span within the body, more subtile than the 
subtile, then one goes to the supreme condition ; for therein 
all desires are contained. 3 On this point they quote : 

Of size of thumb or span within the body, 
A light of twofold or of threefold brightness, 

This Brahma who is being praised, 
The great god He has entered in all beings I 

Om \ Adoration to Brahma ! yea, adoration ! 

SEVENTH PRAPATHAKA 
The Soul ( Atman) as the world-sun, and its rays 4 

i. Agni, the Gayatrl meter, the Trivrit hymn, the Rathan- 
tara chant, the spring season, the Prana breath, the stars, the 
Vasu gods, issue forth to the east ; they shine, they rain, they 
praise, they enter again within and peer through an opening. 

1 Composed of food, breath, mmd, and understanding according to Tait. 2 i 4. 
This same exhortation has occurred in 6. 28. 

2 The words < immovable . . . Vishnu * are repeated from 6. 23. 

3 The last clause is repeated from 6. 30 and 6. 35. 

4 An analytic and philosophic statement of the contents of this section, 1-6, 
would be . 

The various divinities, meters, hymns, chants, seasons, breaths, heavenly bodies, 
celestial gods, and earthly beings are transient emanations in the six different 
directions, returning again into the one unlimited Soul (Atman) of the whole woild. 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-7.5 

He is unthinkable, formless, unfathomable, concealed, unim- 
peachable, compact, inpenetrable, devoid of Qualities, pure, 
brilliant, enjoying Qualities (guna\ fearful, unproduced, a 
master Yogi, omniscient, munificent, immeasurable, without 
beginning or end, illustrious, unborn, intelligent, indescribable, 
the creator of all, the soul (dtman] of all, the enjoyer of all, 
the lord of all, the inmost being of everything. 

2. Indra, the Trishtubh meter, the Pancadasa hymn, the 
Brihad chant, the summer season, the Vyana breath, the moon, 
the Rudia gods, issue forth to the south. They shine, they 
rain, they praise, they enter again within and peer through an 
opening. 

He is without beginning or end, unmeasured, unlimited, not 
to be moved by another, independent, devoid of marks, formless, 
of endless power, the creator ; the enlightener. 

3. The Maiuts, the Jagati meter, the Saptadasa hymn, the 
Vairupa chant, the rainy season, the Apana bieath, the planet 
Venus, the Aditya gods, issue forth to the west. They 
shine, they rain, they praise, they enter again within and peer 
through an opening. 

That is tranquil, soundless, fearless, sorrowless, blissful, 
satisfied, steadfast, immovable, immortal, enduring, named 
Vishnu (the Pervadei), 1 the ultimate abode. 

4. The Visvadevas, the Anushtubh meter, the Ekavimsa 
hymn, the Vairaja chant, the autumn season, the Samana 
bieath, Varuna, the Sadhya gods, issue forth to the north. 
They shine, they rain, they praise, they enter again within and 
peer through an opening. 

He is pure within, clean, void, tranquil, breathless, selfless, 
endless. 

5. Mitra and Vaiuna, the Pankti meter, the Trinava and 
Trayastrirhs'a hymns, the Sakvara and Raivata chants, the winter 
and the dewy seasons , 2 the Udana breath, the Angirases, the 
moon, issue forth above. They shine, they rain, they praise, 
they enter again within and peer through an opening. 

1 The sentence np to this point is repeated from 6 23. 

2 The winter season (hemanta) in India is reckoned to last about two months, 
from the middle of November to the middle of January ; the dewy season (sihra} 
about two months, from the middle of January to the middle of March. 

453 



7.5-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

. . . Him who Is called Om, a leader, brilliant, sleepless, 
ageless, deathless, sorrowless. 1 

6. Sard (Saturn), Rahu (the Dragon's Head), Ketu (the 
Dragon's Tail), serpents, the Rakshasas (ogres), the Yakshas 
(sprites), men, birds, deer, elephants, and the like issue forth 
below. They shine, they rain, they praise, they enter again 
within and peer through an opening. 

.... He who is intelligent, the avenger, within all, im- 
perishable, pure, clean, shining, patient, tranquil. 

The one unlimited Soul (Atman) of the whole world 

7, He, truly, indeed, is the Self (Atman) within the heart, 
very subtile, kindled like fire, assuming all forms. This whole 
world fis his food. On Him creatures here are woven. 2 

He is the Self which is free from evil, ageless, deathless, 
sorrowless, free from uncertainty, free from fetteis, 3 whose con- 
ception is the Real, whose desire is the Real. He is the 
supreme Lord. He is the ruler of beings. He is the protector 
of beings. He is the separating bridge [or dam, setii\ * 

This Soul (Atman), assuredly, indeed, is Isana (Lord), 
Sambhu (the Beneficent), Ehava (the Existent), Rudra (the 
Terrible), Prajapati (Lord of Creation), Visvasrij (Creator 
of All), Hiranyagarbha (Golden Germ), Truth (satya), Life 
(prdna), Spirit (hamsa\ Sastri (Pumsher, or Commander, or 
Teacher), the Unshaken, Vishnu (Pervader), Narayana (Son of 
Man). 5 

He who is in the fire, and he who is here in the heart, and 
he who is yonder in the sun he is one. 6 

To Thee who art this, the all-formed, hidden in the real 
ether, be adoration ! 

1 A description repeated from 6. 4 and.aUo 6. 25. 

2 For the same metaphor of warp and -woof see Bnh 3. 6 and 3. S^ 

3 Reading vipasati. 

4 This same metaphor occnrs at Brih 4 4. 22 and Chand. 8. 4. i. 

5 This entire paragraph is repeated from 6. 8 with the addition of the epithet 
* the Unshaken.* 

6 The sentence is repeated from 6. 17. 



454 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-7.9 

Warnings against the disorderly and against false teachers 

8. Now then, the hindrances to knowledge, O king. 
Verily, the source of the net of delusion (moha) is the fact of 

the association of one who is worthy of heaven with those who 
are not worthy of heaven. That is it. Although a grove 
is said to be before them, they cling to a low shrub. 

Now, there are some who are continually hilarious, con- 
tinually abroad, continually begging, continually living upon 
handicraft. 

And moreover, there are others who are town-beggars, who 
perform the sacrifice for the unworthy, who are disciples of 
Sudias, and who, though Sudras, know the Scriptures (sdstra). 

And moreover, there are others, who aie rogues, who wear 
their hair in a twisted knot, who are dancers, mercenaries, 
religious mendicants, actors, renegades in the loyal service, and 
the like. 

And moreover, there are others who say ' For a price we 
allay [the evil influences] of Yakshas (sprites), Rakshasas 
(ogres), Bhutas (ghosts), spirit-bands, goblins, serpents, vam- 
pires, and the like.' 

And moreover, there are others who falsely wear the red 
robe, ear-rings, and skulls. 

And moreover, there are others who love to be a stumbling- 
block among believers in the Vedas by the stratagem of 
deceptive arguments in a circle, and false and illogical examples. 

With these one should not associate. Verily, these creatures 
are evidently robbers, unfit for heaven. For thus has it been 
said : ' 

By the jugglery of a doctrine that denies the Soul, 

By false comparisons and proofs 

Disturbed, the world does not discern 

What is the difference between knowledge and ignorance. 1 

Warning against ignorance and perverted doctrine 

9. Verily, Brihaspati [the teacher of the gods] became 
Sukra [the teacher of the Asuras], and for the security of 

1 Reading ved&mdyantat am. 

455 



7 . 9 -] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

Indra created this Ignorance (avidya) for the destruction of the 
Asuras (devils). 1 

By this [ignorance] men declare that the inauspicious is 
auspicious, and that the auspicious is inauspicious. They say 
that there should be attention to law (dharma) which is de- 
structive of the Veda and of other Sciiptures (sastra). Hence, 
one should not attend to this [teaching]. It is false. It is 
like a barren woman. Mere pleasure is the fruit thereof, as 
also of one who deviates from the proper course. It should 
not be entered upon. For thus has it been said 2 : 

Widely opposite and asunder are these two : 
Ignorance (avidya), and what is known as e knowledge.' 
I think Naciketas desnous of obtaining knowledge ! 
Many desires rend thee not. 

Knowledge and non-knowledge 
He who this pair conjointly (saha) knows, 
With non-knowledge passing over death, 
With knowledge wins the immortal. 3 

Those abiding m the midst of ignoiance, 

Self- wise, thinking themselves learned, 

Hard smitten, go around deluded, 

Like blind men led by one who is himself blind. 4 

Warning against devilish, false, non-Vedic doctrine 

10. Verily, the gods and the devils (Asuras), being desirous 
of the Self (Atman), came into the presence of Brahma. They 
did obeisance to him and said : * Sir, we are desirous of the 
Self (Atman). So, do you tell us/ 

Then, meditating long, he thought to himself : * Verily, these 
devils are desirous of a Self (Atman) different [from the true 
one].' Therefore a very different doctrine was told to them. 

Upon that fools here live their life with intense attachment, 
destroying the saving raft and praising what is false. They see 
the false as if it were true, as in jugglery. 

Hence, what is set forth in the Vedas that is true ! Upon 
what is told in the Vedas upon that wise men live their life. 

1 Compare the instruction of Indra, the representative of the gods, and Virocana, 
the representative of the devils, by Piajapati in Chanel. 8. 7, ff, 

2 In Katha 2. 4. s This quatr ain = Isa u. 

4 This stanza is repeated from Katha 2. 5 and Mun$. i. 2. 8 with slight variation. 

45 6 



MAITRI UPANISHAD [-7.11 

Therefore a Brahman (brdhmand) should not study what is 
non-Vedic. This should be the purpose. 

The bright Brahma in the heart, stirred 
into all-pervading manifestation by meditation on { Om ' 

ii. Assuredly, the nature of the ether within the space [of 
the heart] is the same as the supreme bright power. This 
has been manifested in threefold wise : in fire, in the sun, and 
in the breath of life. 1 

Verily, the nature of the ether within the space [of the heart] 
i^ the same as the syllable Om. 

With this [syllable] s indeed, that [bright power] is raised up 
from the depths, goes upwards, and is breathed forth. Verily, 
therein is a perpetual support for meditation upon Brahma. 

In the stirring up, that [bright power] has its place in the 
heat that casts forth light. In the stirring up, that is like [the 
action] of smoke , it rises up into a gieat tree in the sky, issuing 
forth into one branch after another. 

That is like the casting forth of salt into water, like the heat 
in melted butter, like the range [of the thought] of a meditator 
[i. e. all-pervading]. 

On this point they quote : ' Now, wherefore is it said to be 
like lightning? Because in the very moment of going forth 
it lights up the whole body/ 

Therefore, one should reverence with Om that unlimited 
bright power. 2 

The persons in the eyes, and their abode in the heart 

(1) This Person who is in the eye, 
Who has his place in the right eye 
This one is Indra; this, his wife, 
Who has her place in the left eye. 

(2) The meeting-place of these two is 
Within the hollow of the heart. 
The lump of blood which is therein 
Is the life-vigor of these two. 3 

1 The words i bright power . . . breath ofhfe' are repeated from 6. 37. 

2 This sentence is repeated from 6. 37. 

5 For this same thought see Brih. 4. 2. 3. 

457 



7. ii-] MAITRI UPANISHAD 

(3) Extended from the heart up to 
The eye and firmly fastened there, 
That artery serves both of them 
By being double, though but one. 

The utterance of the various sounds of the alphabet, 
produced by breath started from, the mind 

(4) The mind stirs up the body's fiie. 1 
The fire then sets in motion wind ; 

The wind then, moving through the chest, 
Produces pleasurable sound. 

(5) As stined in heart by means of fire of friction, 
Less is it than the least ; in throat, is doubled ; 
And know that on the tongue-tip it is tiebled ; 
Come forth, it is the alphabet ! They say thus. 

The true seer of the All beyond all evil 

(6) The seer sees not death, 

Nor sickness, nor any distress. 
The seer sees only the All, 
Obtains the All entirely. 2 

The larger self found in the superconscious ; 
but a purposeful duality in the Self 

(7) He \\ho sees with the eye, and he who moves in dreams, 
He who is deep asleep, and he who is beyond the deep 

sleeper 

These are a person's four distinct conditions. 
Of these the fourth (turya) is greater [than the iest], 

(8) In the three a quarter Biahma moves; 
A three-quarter, in the last. 3 

For the sake of experiencing the true and the false, 
The Great Atman (Soul, Self) has a dual nature 1 
Yea, the Great Atman has a dual nature ! 

1 The well-known usman* 

2 This stanza is repeated with slight verbal variation from Chand. 7. 26. 2. 

3 A re- assertion m somewhat different form of the thought of RV. 10. 90. 3, 4 
namely, that one quarter of Brahma exists in the actual and that three quarters 
constitute the eteinal part of existence. 

The four conditions have already been enumerated in the Mandukya Upanishad. 

458 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY 
OF THE UPANISHADS 

SELECTED, CLASSIFIED, AND ANNOTATED 



NATURE AND SCOPE OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHY 

SPECIAL attention is called to the three words in which the nature 
and scope of this bibliography are indicated 

It is a selected bibliography. Those titles only have been included 
which are likely to prove in some way useful, or which have a special 
interest, historic or other. A majority of the works listed have been 
consulted in. the preparation of the translation presented in this 
volume. 

It is a classified bibliography. The titles have been grouped in 
nine divisions, as indicated on the following page, in order to 
secure a more helpful collocation than would be afforded by one 
continuous alphabetic or chronological sequence. 

It is an annotated bibliography. The titles ha\ e been supplemented, 
in most cases, by descriptions, estimates, and quotations, with a view 
to indicating more precisely the nature and value of the publications 
recoided. Quotations have also been included to show the estimate 
in which the Upanishads have been held by numerous editors, 
translators, and expositors. 

In the compilation of this list of titles purely bibliographical con- 
siderations have everywhere been subordinated to those of practical 
usefulness. It seemed better to devote the available space to 
excerpts and annotations than to unimportant titles and a barren 
record of editions and reprints. Certain general works in division 9 
are thus cited only in their English translations. 

Titles in Sanskrit and in Indian vernaculars are given in con- 
densed English paraphrase, rather than in a tiansliteration of their 
native wording, so that the contents of the publications may be 
readily discernible, 



459 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



ARRANGEMENT OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The titles here brought together are grouped in nine divisions as 
follows 

1. TRANSLATIONS OF COLLECTED UPANISHADS. 

2. TRANSLATIONS OF SINGLE UPANISHADS. 

3. TRANSLATIONS OF SELECTIONS FROM THE UPANISHADS. 

4. TRANSLATIONS, WITH TEXT, OF COLLECTED UPANISHADS. 

5. TRANSLATIONS, WITH TEXT, OF SINGLE UPANISHADS 

6. TEXT-EDITIONS OF COLLECTED UPANISHADS. 

7. TEXT-EDITIONS OF SINGLE UPANISHADS. 

8. TREATISES, CHIEFLY LINGUISTIC. 

9. TREATISES, CHIEFLY EXPOSITORY. 

Within each of these nine main divisions the entries are arranged in 
chronological sequence, except in the case of reprints or translations 
of works listed, which immediately follow the main entry. 

The order of the individual Upanishads (in divisions 2, 5, and 7) 
is the same as that followed in the Translation, namely Bnhad- 
Aranyaka, Chandogya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Kaushltaki, Kena, 
Katha, I&a, Mundaka, Prasna, Mandukya, Svetasvatara, Maitn. 



460 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

i. TRANSLATIONS OF COLLECTED 
UPANISHADS 

DUPERRON, ANQUETIL. Oupnek'hat[i.e Upanishad]. Strassburg, 
Levrault, 2 vols, 1801-1802. 735 and 916 pp. 

A translation into Latin of a translation into Persian of the original 
Sanskrit of fifty of the Upanishads. The primary tianslation was made 
at Delhi 1656-1657 by pandits who had been brought from Benaies for 
this purpose by the Muhammadan Prince Dara Shukoh, son of the 
Moghul Emperor Shah Jahan. This secondary translation was made 
by the very first European who went to India for the purpose of studying 
oriental religions. At second remove from the original Sanskrit text, this 
translation is, nevertheless, of prime historical importance, because it 
was the first book which brought a knowledge of the Upanishads to the 
West. 

It was with reference to this indirect Latin translation of the Upanishads 
through a medieval Persian translation, that the pessimistic German 
philosopher Schopenhauer expressed an appreciation which has been oft 
quoted in India : ' It has been the most rewarding and the most elevating 
reading which (with the exception of the original text) there can possibly be 
in the world. It has been the solace of my life, and will be of my death.' 
See Parerga, 2, 185 (Werke, 6. 427). 

The foregoing translated into German : 

Das Oupnek'hat, In das Deutsche ubertragen von Franz 
Mischel Dresden, Hemrich, 1882. 618 pp. 

This work exhibits m a unique degree the continued fascination and the 
far-distant influence which the Upanishads have exercised. Perhaps never 
before, or since, has the linguistic work of translating an important 
religious document been carried so far as to the third remove from the 
original language, as has been done in this particular case of translating 
the Upanishads, namely from the Sanskrit into Peisian, thence into Latin, 
and thence into German. 

ROY, RAMMOHUN. Collected Woiks. London, Parbury Allen, 
2 vols,, 1832. 

Volume 2, entitled * Translation of Several Pimcipal Books, Passages 
and Texts of the Veds and of Some Controversial "Works in Brahmumcal 
Theology ' (282 pp ), contains (at pp. 23-105) translations of Mund, Kena, 
Katha, and Ha, which had previously appeared separately. 

The very first translation of collected Upanishads to be published in 
England. 

The translator, with a high but not unqualified estimate of the value of 
the Upanishads, had been the leader of that remarkable reform movement 
in India at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Brahma Samaj. 

461 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Indeed, he had gained his success as a theistic reformer partly by 
appealing to, and actually disseminating, the ancient sacred Upamshads, 
But these translations were executed as a pait of the great reformer's 
religious studies and propaganda, not with a distinctively scholarly 
purpose nor with scientific method ; the result is manifestly lacking in 
philological accuracy. 
The foregoing reprinted : 

The English Woiks of Raja Rammohun Roy, edited by Jogendra 
Chunder Ghose. Calcutta, Bhowanipore Oriental Press, 2 vols , 
1885-1887. 

Translations of Munch, Kena, Katha, and Isa aie contained m vol. i, 
at pp. 21-92. 
The same repi inted : 

Calcutta, Society for the Resuscitation of Indian Literature, 1903. 

ROER, E. Nine Upamshads, [viz. Tait, Ait., Svet., Kena, Isa, 
Katha, Prasna, Mund., and MandJ translated. Calcutta, 1853. 
170 pp. (Bibliotheca Indica.) 

MULLER, F. MAX. The Upamshads. Oxfoid, Clarendon Press, 
2 vols., 1879, 1884. (Sacred Books of the East, vols. i and 15.) 

At the time of its publication this was the best and most extensive 
translation into English. But it is padded with considerable extraneous 
matter, \\hich was added by the translator for the sake of greatei 
intelligibility, yet which in violation of modern rules of scholaily procedure 
is left undifTerentiated from the actual text. 

In this very woik the translator has declared the inherent difficulties of 
translating the Upamshads, e. g. These it is impossible to render m any 
translation; nay, they hardly deserve to be translated' (vol. I, p. 132). 

This translation by Max Muller has been severely cnticized by other 
scholars, e.g. by W. D, Whitney m his extensive and seaichmg review of 
the work in the American Journal of Philology, 1886, pp 1-26, especially 
on pp 4, 6, 7, 9, 25, 26; by C. R. Lanman m his Beginnings of Hindu 
Pantheism, p. 12, footnote, and by H. C. Tolman in his Art of Trans- 
lating, p. 37- 
The foregoing reprinted : 

New York, Christian Literature Society [= Scribners], 2 vols, 
bound in one, 1897. 

The Twelve Principal Upanishads : An English Translation, with 
Notes from the Commentaries of Sankaracharya and the Gloss of 
Anandagiri. Bombay, Tookaram Tatya, ' for the Bombay Theoso- 
phical Publication Fund/ 1891. 710 pp. 

Meiely a combined reprint of the translations of the Upanishads which 

463 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

had appeared in the Bibliotheca Indica, viz. of Chandogya by Mitra, 
of Kaushitaki by Cow ell, and of the following ten by Roer : Ait., Bnh., 
Svet , Katha, Tait , Isa, Mund , Kena, Prasna, and Mand. 

This list is the same as is contained in Max Mullet's Translation, 
except that this collection omits Maitn and adds Mandukya. 

'The UpanishadSj at least the ten principal ones, are in no way 
posterior to the Vedas' (pp i-ii, Preface by Mfamlal] N. DjVivedi]). 

The foregoing reprinted : 

Bombay, Rajaiam Tukaram Press, 1907. 719 pp. 

JOHNSTON, CHARLES. From the Upanishads. Dublin, Whaley, 
1896. 55 pp. 

Contains excellent translations of Katha, of Prasna, and of Chand, 
6, by a tetned member of the Bengal Civil Service. 

* I have found them wise, beyond all others ; and, beyond ail others, 
filled with that very light which makes all things new . . . That plowing 
heart within us, we are beginning to guess, is the heart of all things, 
the everlasting foundation of the woild . . . That teaching of oneness, 
of our hearts and the heart eternal as eternally one , . . You will find 
m these passages from the book of Wisdom, besides high intuition, a 
quaint and delightful flavour, a charm of childlike simplicity ; yet of 
a child who is older than all age, a child of the eternal and the 
infinite, whose simplicity is better than the wisdom of the wise 1 fp. x, 
Dedicatoiy Preface). 

The foregoing reprinted : 

Portland, Maine, Thomas B. Mosher, 1897. 60 pp. 

MEAD, G. R S , and JAGADISHA CHANDRA CHATTOPADHVAYA (Roy 
Choudhun\ The Upanishads. London, Theosophical Publishing 
Society, 2 vols , 1896. 

Vol. I contains Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mund., and Mand. Vol. 2 
contains Tait., Ait , and Svet. 

'The present translation is an attempt to place the sublime teachings 
of the Upanishads within the reach of every man and woman \\ho can 
read the English tongue. Its price is purely nominal. The Upanishads, 
we believe, should be allowed to speak for themselves, and not left to 
the mercy of artificial commentaries. They are grand outpourings of 
religious enthusiasm, raising the mind out of the chaos of ceremony 
and the metaphysical and philological word-spinning of the schools . . . 
the Upanishads as a world-scripture, that is to say, a scripture appealing 
to the lovers of religion and truth in all races and at all times, without 
distinction ' (Preamble, vol. i, pp. 4-5.), 

The foregoing translated into French : 

Neuf Upanishads, tr. E. Marcault. Paris, Libr. de FArt Ind^pen- 
dant, 1905. 192 pp. 

463 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The same translated into Dutch : 

Tr. Clara Streubel. Amsterdam, Theosophical Society, 2 vols , 
1908. 

DEUSSEN, PAUL. Sechzig Upanishad's des Veda. Leip/u;, 
Brockhaus, 1897. 946 pp. 

Contains the classical Upanishads, all of the fifty included m Duperron's 
Oujfttek* hat, together with the more impoitant of the later Athaivjin 
Upanishads. 

The most scholarly translation of the Upanishads which has hitheito 
been made. By the late Professor of Philosophy at the University of Kiel. 
Brings to bear an extensive, intimate, and appreciative knowledge of 
European, as well as of Indian, philosophy. Contains informing and 
interpietative introductions to each separate section of each Upanish.ul, 
as well as to each Upanishad as a whole, also ci oss-rcferences and 
explanatory notes 

This translation is virtually indispensable to any thoroughly scholarly 
attempt to translate the Upanishads into any othei language. 

a. TRANSLATIONS OF SINGLE UPANISHADS 
Brihad-Aranyaka Upanisliad 

POLEY, L. H. Th. Colebrooke's Abhandlung uber die heiligen 
Schnften der Indier, aus dem Englischen ubersetet, nebst Fragments 
der altesten lehgiosen Dichtungen der Indier. Leip/ig, Teubncr, 

1847. l82 PP- 

In his Carman translation of Colebrooke's ' Essay ' Poley has added it 
pp. 130-176, among other translations fiom the Upanishads, this original 
German translation of Brih. I, I - 3. 2. 

ROER, E. Bnhad Aranyaka Upanishad. Calcutta, 1856. 276 
pp. (Bibliotheca Indica.) 

An English translation of the text and of paits of the Commentary of 
Sankara Acharya. 

The foregoing reprinted : 

Calcutta, Society for the Resuscitation of Indian Literature, 1908, 
2 95 PP- 

HEROLD, A.-F. L'Upanishad du Grand Aranyaka, Bnhadaranya- 
kopanishad, Paris, Saint-Amand, 1894. 159 pp, 

According to the Madhyamdma recension, 

JOHNSTON, CHARLES. The^ Song of Life. Flushing, New York, 
published by the author, 1901. 69 pp. 
A rather free rendering of Bnh. 4. 3-4. 

464 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

' The Gospels are the perfect flower of Palestine. The Upanishads arc 
the chiefest treasuie of most ancient India The heart of the Galilean 
message is hidden in the Paiables of the Kingdom, The deepest seciet 
of Mothei India is embodied in these dramatic fragments and still 
peifect dramas- which aie the strongest paits of the Upanishads. Of 
these Mystery plays iheic are many ; and, greatest of all, the Dialog ue of 
Janaka and the Sage, translated heic.' (Fiom the Foiewoid.) 

The foiegomg translated into Get man: 

Das Lied dcs Lcbcns. Berlin, P. Raat/, no date. 66 p]). 

CMndogya Upanishad 

MriRA, RAIENDR \L\IA. Chandogya Upanishad of the Sanaa 
\Vda, with Kxtiacts from the Commentaiy of Sankaui Achaiya, 
translated. Calcutta, 1862. 144 pp. (Bibhotheca Indica.) 

Aitareya Upanishad 

COLKHROOKK, HioNuv THOMAS. A tumslation of the Aitaieya 
Upanishad is contained in the essay 'On the Vcdas or the Sacred 
Writings of the Hindus/ published and lepimted us follows : 

Astatn /\Vftw</<6'v, \ol. 8, Calcutta, 1805, pp. 408-414; 

*W/jft Mvttw/s /ivujyj 1 , vol. I, London, Williams & Noijjatc, 1837 (new 
niition, 1858), pp. 47 53; 

Life (ind Essays, vol. 2, London, Tiubnei, 1873, PP- 4 2 M7- 

ICckSTKiN, UAKON D'. Analyse du (juatrienie diapitic do 1'Aitareya 
Upanishad, extiait du Rig-Veda. \^ Journal Asiatiqne, series 2, \ol. 
it, pp. 103-221, 289 317, 4x4-446; vol. 12, pp. 53-78; Pans, 
Irnprimeiie Royale, 1833. 

< 'ont.nns a Kicm h tianslalion and discussion of the fourth chapter of the 
Aitnioya Upanishad, based on Dupciron's Latin tinnslation in Ins 
Oupnetfhtit) vol. 2, pp. 57 63, and on Colebi coke's English tianshilion in 
A \lafic A't'SiWC/u's, \ol. 8, pp. 421-425. 

KausMtaki Upanishad 

HARLKX, C. JDE. Knushitaki-Upanishad, avcc Ic Commcntairc de 
^'ankarananda et Sarvopanishadarthi\nublH\tipraka9as, chapitrc viii. 
Louvain, Lcfever, 1887. 4^ PP- 

The rendering in some places should more propcily be designated 
a paraphrase than a translation. And in some places, by icason of 
lollowing the native commentator so closely (as did Cowcll and M toiler 
More him), this author quite misses the inherent sense, Thcic occurs 
umlcsignatcd extraneous matter in the midst of the text, somewhat as 
in Mxiller's translation, though not to the same extent, 

465 II h 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

'We have followed generally the text of the Dipaka; and for the 
translation, the commentary of Cankarananda has been used with profit.' 
(Preamble, p. 2.) 

Kena TJpanishad 

ROY, RAMMOHUN. Translation of the Ce*na Upanishad, one of the 
Chapters of the Sarna Veda, according to the gloss of the celebrated 
Shankaracharyu, establishing the unity and the sole omnipotence of 
the Supreme Being, and that He alone is the object of worship. 
Calcutta, Philip Pereira, Hindoostanee Press, 1816. 12 pp. 

Katha Upanishad 

ROY, RAMMOHUN. Translation of the Kut'h-Oopanishud of thr 
Ujoor-Ved, according to the gloss of the celebrated Sunkuracharyu. 
Calcutta, 1819. 

'This work not only treats polytheism with contempt and disdain, but 
inculcates invariably the unity of God as the intellectual principle, the 
sole origin of the individual intellect, entnely distinct fiom matter and 
its affections ; and teaches also the mode of directing the mind thereto.' 
(Preface.) 

POLEY, L. Kathaka-Oupanichat extrait du Yadjour-Veda, traduit 
du Sanskrit en Frangais. Paris, Dondey-Dupre, 1835. 22 pp. 

ECKSTEIN, BARON D*. Analyse du Kathaka-Oupamschat, extrait 
du Yadschour-Ve'da. In Journal de Plnstitut Historique, Pans, 1835, 
pp. 97-117- 

Contains short extracts of the text in Roman transliteration, together 
with translations of short extracts from other San ski it books. 

POLEY, L Kathaka-Oupanichat, extrait du Yadjour-Veda, el 
Moundaka-Oupanichat, extrait de 1'Atharva-Veda : traduit du Sans- 
krit en Francais. Pans, Dondey-Dupre, 1837. 39 pp. 

This is a revised edition, and in combined form, of the same author \ 
previous separate French Translations of the Katha Upanishad in 1835 
and of the Mundaka Upanishad in 1836, 

POLEY, L. H. Th. Colebrooke's Abhandlung iiber die hciligen 
Schnften der Indier, aus dem Enghschen ubersetzt, nebsl Fragmented 
der altesten religiosen Dichtungen der Indier. Leipzig, Teubnei, 
1847. 282 pp. 

In his German translation of Colebrooke's famous 'Essay on the Sacred 
Scriptures of the Hindus/ Poley added, at pp. 113-128, among other 
translations, this original German tianslation from the Sanskrit of th< 
Katha Upanishad. 

466 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

ARNOLD, EDWIN. The Secret of Death, with some Collected 
Poems, London, Triibner, 1885 , repiinted 1899. 

Contains (at pp 14-45 f l $$5 e ^-> PP- 7~4 of 1899 ed.) a free metri- 
cal version of the first three Vallis (or * Lotus-stems ') of the Katha 
Upamshad. 

'The subtle thought, the far-off faith, 

The deathless spirit mocking Death, 

The close-packed sense, hard to unlock 

As diamonds from the mother- rock, 

The solemn, bnef simplicity, 

The insight, fancy, mystery 

Of Hindoo scriptures all are had 

In this divine Upamshad.' (Introduction, p. 2.) 

WHITNEY, W. D. Translation of the Katha-Upanishad. In Trans- 
actions of the American Philological Association^ vol. 21, pp. 88-112, 
Boston, 1890, 

By the late Professor of Sanskrit at Yale University, one of the most 
eminent of Amencan philologists and Sanskntists, a conservative text- 
editor and scrupulously exact translator. 

This is the first English translation of an Upanishad in which the 
verse-portions were indicated as diffeient from the piose-poitions. A 
veiy careful translation, with an Intiocluclion, valuable exegetical 
and linguistic Notes, and a number of pioposed textual emendations. 

*The ciowning weakness of the whole tieatise [ie. of the Katha 
Upamshad] is that, after all, it reaches no definite result; the revelation 
of Death amounts to nothing at all, so far as concerns the mam subject 
as to which knowledge is sought. The revelator manages to waste 
a chapter in commendations of his young friend for preferring spiritual 
knowledge to earthly blessings ; and then he raaundeis on from topic 
to topic, dropping now and then an allusion to matters of cschatology, 
but entering into no exposition, advancing no argument, making no 
definite statement; theicis neither beginning, middle, nor end in what 
he says.* (Introduction, pp. 91-92.) 

BUTKNRCHON, A. Kathaka-upanishad, ofversatt fr. Sanskrit, 
Stockholm, Norstcdt, 1902. 62 pp, 
A translation into Swedish. 

Bttuxwi-Fiuppi, FKKDINANOO. Kiithaka-Upanisad, tradotta in 
italiano e preceduta da una notizia sul panteismo indiano. Pisa, 
Orsolini-Prosperi, 1905. 158 pp. 

A translation into Italian. 



467 ii h a 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Isa TJpanishad 

JONES, SIR WILLIAM, fsavasyam; or, An Upanishad fiom the 
Yajur Veda. In his Works, vol. 6, pp. 423-425, London, Robinson, 
1799. 

A translation by no means literal, but noteworthy as having been the 
very first translation of any of the Upanishads into English 

By the pioneer British Onentahst. 

Reprinted in his Works, London, Stockdale, 1807, vol. 13, pp. 374-377- 

ROY, RAMMOHUN. The fshopamshad, one of the chapteis of the 
Yajur Veda, according to the commentary of the celebrated Shankara- 
Acharya, establishing the Unity and incomprehensibility of the Supreme 
Being, and that His worship alone can lead to eternal beatitude. 
Calcutta, Philip Pereira, Hindoostanee Press, 1816. 36 pp. 

RAMASWAMIER, S. The Vaja-saneya-samhitopamshud with the 
Bhashya of Srimat Sankaracharya. Madras, National Press, 1884. 
19 pp. 

A translation of the 18 stanzas of this Upanishad and also of the 
Commentary of the chief Indian Commentator on all the classical 
Upanishads. 

'This translation was originally made for the benefit of the Maduia 
Branch, Theosophical Society. It is now published that it may be of 
some use to otheis \\ho are not conversant with Sanskrit, but who 
are interested in the sublime philosophy ot the Upanishads as expounded 
by the holy Sage Sumat Sankaracharya.' (Prehminaiy explanatory 
statement.) 

VASU, SRISA CHANDRA. The isavasyopanishad, with the Com- 
mentaries of Sn Sankaracharya and Sii Anantacharya, and Notes from 
the Tikas of Anandagiri, Uvatachaiya, Sankarananda, Ramchandia, 
Pandit and Anandabhatta. Bombay, Tatva-Vivechaka Press, Punted 
for the Bombay Theosophical Publication Fund, 1896. 74 pp. 

GRIFFITH, R. T. H. The Texts of the White Yajurveda, with a 
Popular Commentary. Benares, Lazarus, 1898. 364 pp. 

The Isa Upanishad, being originally the fortieth chapter of the 
Vajasaneyi Saihhita, is here translated at pp. 304-308, 

By the transktoi of the Rig- Veda, of the Atharva-Vedn, and of the 
Sama-Veda; formerly a Professor at the Benaics College, and later 
Director of Public Instruction in the Northwest Provinces and Oudh. 

Mundaka TJpanisliad 

ROY, RAM MOHUN. Translation of the Moonduk-Opunishud of 
the Uthurvu-Ved according to the gloss of the celebrated Shunkuru- 
Charyu. Calcutta, D. Lankpeet, Times Press, 1819. 17 pp. 

468 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

An attentive perusal of this, as well as ot the icmaining books of 
the Vedantu, will, I trust, convince e\cry unprejudiced mind that they, 
with great consistency, inculcate the unity of God, instructing men at the 
same time in the puie mode of adoring him in spirit. It will also appeal 
evident, although they toleiate idolatry as the last provision for those 
who arc totally incapable of laismg their minds to the contemplation 
of the invisible God of nature, yet repeatedly urge the lelmqmshment 
of the iites of idol- worship and the adoption of a purei system of ichgion 
on the express giounds that the obsenancc of ulolatious rites can nc\er 
be productive ofctcin.il beatitude. 1 (Introduction ) 

POLKY, L. Moundaka-Oupamchat , cxtrait dc 1'Atharva-Yeda, 
tiaduil du Sansknt en Fiancaib. Pans, Beitiand, 1836. 15 pp. 

-- The foiegomg repnnted : 

Katha-Oupamchat, extiait du Yadjotn-Yeda, et Moundaka-Oupa- 
nichat, cxtrait de PAthaiva-Yeda, liaduit du Sanskrit en 1/raneais 
Pans, Dondey-Dupie, 1837. 39 pp. 



POLKY, L. H Th. Colcbi coke's Abhundlung uber die 
Schnften der Indier, aus detn Englischen ubeisetzl, nebbt Fiag 
nienten dcr altcsten icligiosen Dichtungen der Indier. Leip/iU>, 
Teubner, 1847. 182 pp 

In his German tianslation of Colcbrookc's famous ' Essay on the 
Sacred Scuptures of the Hindus' Poley added, among othei translations, 
this original German translation from the Sansknt of the Mundaka 
Upamshad. 

^votasvatara ITpanisliad 

NXLLASWAMI PILLAI, J. M. The Swetaswatara Upanishad, trans- 
lated and expounded. In Madras Review, vol. 6 (1900), pp. 369- 
376; vol. 7 (*90PP- 267-279. 

' The Swetaswatara Upanishad is a genuine Upauishad of the Black 
Yagur Veda, and is one of the oldest of its kind. It is not a Sectarian 
Upanishad. It expounds both a theoretic philosophy and a practical 
religion, all-comprehensive and all-embracing, a system which was at 
once Samkhya and Yoga, dualistic and monistic, and appealing to all 
classes of society ' (vol. 7, p. 267). 

Marxdiikya Upanishad 

DVIVEDI, MANILAL N. Mandukyopanishad with Gaudapada's 
Kaiika and the Bhashya of Sankara. Bombay, Tattva-Vivechaka, 
Press, 1894. X37 pp. 
- The foregoing repnnted : 

Bombay, Rajaram Tukaram, 1909, 

469 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



3. TRANSLATIONS OF SELECTIONS FROM THE 
UPANISHADS 

POLEY, L. H. Th. Colebrooke's Abhandlung ubei die heihgen 
Schnften der Indier, aus dem Englischen ubersetzt, ncbst Fragmenten 
der altesten rehgiosen Dichtungen der Indier. Leipzig, Toubnei, 
1847. 182 pp. 

The German translator added at pp. 110-176 original translations from 
the Sanskrit of Katha, Isa, and Bnh. I. 1-3-2. The text-basis used 
lor these translations was the text published by Poley himself in 1844. 

WEBER, ALBRECHT. Indische Studien. Berlin, Dummlei. Vol i, 
1849-1850; vol. 2, 1853. 

By the first Professor of Sanskrit at Berlin University. 

A series of articles entitled * Analyse der in Anquetil du Pci ion's Ueber- 
etzung enthaltenen Upamshad,' contains tianslations of mipoilant paits, 
together with summaries of intervening parts and also valuable claboiate 
discussion of Chand , Maitn, Mund., and Isa m vol. i, pp, 254-301 ; of 
Kaush., Svet, and Piasna m vol. I, pp. 392-456; of Mfind. in \ol. 2, 
pp, loo-iii ; and of Kena, Katha, and Tail. 2-3 in vol. 2, pp. 181-236. 

MUIR, JOHN. Original Sanskrit Texts on the Ongm and Histoiy 
of the People of India, their Religion and Institutions. London, 
1858-1870. Vols. 1-3, Williams & Noigate; vols. 4-5, Trubnei. 
Second edition, 1868-1872. 

By one of the most scholarly of British admmistiators in India, who 
served as Principal of Victoria College, Benares, and who founded 
the Professorship of Sanskrit at Edinburgh University. 

The most comprehensive treasury of excerpts, in transliteiation and 
translation, from a wide range of Sanskrit literature. The numerous, 
mostly brief, translations from the Upanishads aie gathered under a 
\ariety of topics, but are available from the indices. 

MONIER-WILLIAMS, SIR MONIER. Indian Wisdom ; or Examples 
of the Religious, Philosophical; and Ethical Doctrines of the Hindus. 
London, Luzac, 1875 4th ed., 1893. 575 pp. 

By the eminent former Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxfoid Univer- 
sity, founder of the Indian Institute at Oxford. 

Chap. 2 on 'The Brahmanas and Upanishads' contains original 
translations of representative selections from the Isa, Katha, 6vet., and 
Maitn, together with briefer extracts from Brih., Chand., and Mun 1. 
' 'These Upanishads are practically the only Veda of all thoughtful 
Hindus in the present day ' (p. 33). 

REGNAUD, PAUL. Mate'riaux pour servir & 1'histoire dc la philo- 
sophic de PInde. Paris, Vieweg, 2 vols., 1876, 1878. 

470 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

This was the standard work in French on the subject until the 
appearance in 1907 of Oltramare's mh^toite. 

Contains numeious extracts from the Upanishads, assembled under 
various topics. 

This author's estimate of the philosophic and religious value of the 
Upanishads is expressed in the two final sentences of the work, which are 
< ited on p. 4 of the piesent Translation. 

MUIR, JOHN. Mctncal Tianslations from Sanskrit Wuleis, with 
an Inti eduction, Many Prose Versions, and Parallel Passages fiom 
(Classical Authors. London, Trubncr, 1879. 37^ PP- 

Contains tianslations from the Bnh , Katha, and Svct. 

SCHKRMAN, LUCIAN. Philosophihche Ifymnen aus der Rig- und 
Athaivii-Veda-Samhita verghchen mit den Philosopheinen der alteien 
Upamshad's. Stiasbburg and London, Trubner, 1887. 96 pp. 

Contains a number of exliacts from the Upanishada with footnotes 
t ollectmg comparative translations of the same. The ' Index der Upani- 
shad-Citate' renders all this matenal easily accessible. 

MULLKU, F. MAX. Three Lectures on the Vcdanta Philosophy, 
London, Longmans Gieen, 1894. 173 pp. 

These lathei general, unsystematic lectures on 'The Ongin of the 
Vedfinta Philosophy,' 'The Soul and Gorl,' and 'Similanties and 
Diffeicnces betv\een Indian and Kuiopean Philosophy' contain, beside 
numerous remaikb on the Upanishads, a ummnjj summary and 
extracts of the Katha at pp. 47-53 and a bnei sketch of the Maili^ 
<itpp. 55-61. 

DUTT, ROMKSH CHANDRA. Lays of Ancient India: Selections 
from Indian Poetiy rendered into English Veise. London, Trubner, 
1894. 221 pp. 

Along with selections from Vedic and Buddhist books, there are 
Knglish versified translations of eight episodes from the Upanishads, 
viz. Chand. 3. 14 j 4. 4 ; Hrih, 3. 1 -8 ; 4, 5 ; Kena 3-5 ; Katha I ; Ka ; and 
Kaush. 4. 

* The essence of the Hindu religion and of Hindu thought wo find in its 
purest form in the Upanishads.' (Piefacc, p. ix.) 

DVIVKDI, MANILAL N. The Imitation of ^ankara, being a Collec. 
tion of Several Texts bearing on the Advaita, Bombay, Tattvu- 
Vivechaka Press, 1895. 255 pp. 

Contains selections, assembled under eighteen topics, from all of the 
thirteen Upanishads included in the present translation, except the Maitri. 

*The Philosophy of the Upanishads scarcely needy recommendation. 
Philosophers from Plato to Schopenhauer are unanimous in their testimony 
to the elevating, alleviating influence of the Vcdftnta . . . The deservedly 
popular book of Thomas a Kempis, *The Imitation of Christ/ fascinated 

471 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

my attention, and Bowdon's ' Imitation of Buddha ' suggested the plan of 
the woik ... I have tried . . . stringing the pieces together in a kind of 
fictitious context from end to end. Many of the passages could have been 
given m much better language, for several of them have been translated 
before by abler hands, but I have my reasons for attempting ficsh 
translation . . . giving a free rendering of every text . . . Texts horn the 
Upanishads and other works are often referred to in Vedanta wntings/ 
(Introduction, pp. vii-vm ) 

* This philosophy and the manner m which Sankara applied it to the 
situation of his time has been the true saviour of India. It is destined 
to be the saviour of the \voild ... I have evciy coniidencc that he [i. e 
the reader] will never part fiom this collection ; he will ceitimly set 
apart a quiet morning or evening hour to its grave contemplation oveiy 
day. It has been so with me, and the immense benefit this icadmg has 
done me is my only excuse in thus earnestly inviting my fellow-men to 
this elevating study ' (pp. xxv-xxvi). 

DUTT, ROMESH CHANDRA. The Epics and Lays of Ancient India, 
condensed into English Verse. Calcutta, R. P. Mitia, 1903. 
5 10 pp. 

This is an abridged combined Indian reprint of three earlier publications 
of the same author which had appealed m England, viz. veisified 
lenderings of portions of the Mahabharata, of the Ramay/ma, and of 
ceitain Indian scriptures. 

In the third section there is a collection of six passages from the 
Upanishads (pp. 55-82), namely, Chand. 3. 14; 4. 4; Bnh. 3. i. 8 ; 4, 5 ; 
Kaush. 4; Katha i. 

Selections from the Upanishads. Madras, Christian Literature 
Society, 1895. 1 06 pp. (Repnnted 1904, 109 pp.) 

Contains complete translations of the Katha, I4fi, and Svet, by Roer, 
part of Roer's Bnh. and part of Mitra's Chand., together with a very 
disparaging * Examination of the Upanishads ' by an anonymous compiler. 

JOHNSTON, CHARLES, The Kingdom of Heaven, and the Upani- 
shads. In Open Court > vol. 19, pp. 705-716, Chicago, 1905. 

Gives original translations of eleven quotations from the Upanishads as 
parallels to passages from the New Testament. 

BARNETT, LIONEL D. Some Sayings from the Upauishads, done 
into English with Notes. London, Luzac, 1905. 59 pp. 

Contains translations of Chand. 6. 3. 14, Brih. 4. 3-5, and Katha I, 2, 
5, and 6. 

A work of scholarly and liteiary merit, 

DEUSSEN, PAUL. Die Geheimlehre des Veda : Ausgewahlte Texte 
der Upanishad's, aus dem Sanskrit ubersetzt. Leipzig, Brockhaus, 
1907, 221 pp. 

473 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Consists almost cntiiely of German tianslations of selected passages ftorn 
fouitecn Upanishads exactly as rcndeied in the same author's ^Sev Jizig 
UpanishatT? de Veda. Heie the extiacts aic ananged topically under 
each Upanishad. The Isfi is pi esented complete. 

The Spirit of the Upanishads ; or, The Aphoiisms of the Wise A 
Collection ol Texts, Sayings, Pioveihs, &c , horn the Upanishads or 
Sacred Wntings of India, compiled and adapted from ovci lifts 
Authontics, expiessing the c"ieam of the Hindu Philosophies! 
Thought. Chicago, ^ ogi Publishing Society, 1907. 85 pp. 

JOHNSTON, CII-VRLFS. The Diamatic Element in the Upanishads 
In Afonut) vol. 20, pp. 185-216, Chicago, 1910. 

Contains ouginal tianslations of seveial passages, mostly dialogues, m 
the JJiih., Chand., Katha, Prusna, and Mfincl. Upamshiidb. 

BARNKTT, LIONEL I). Brahma-Knowledge: An Outline of the 
Philosophy of the Vedanta as set forth by the Upanishads and by 
Sankara. New Yoik, Dutton, 191 L. 113 pp. 

IJy the Professor of Sanskrit at UmveiMty College, London. 

Pait I (55 pp.) consists of an exposition, 'An Account of the Vedanta ' 
Part 2 (46 pp.) contains UansLitions ot iitteen impoitant episodes fiom the 
Upanishads, 

A translation of hi^h liteiary ineiit. But unfoitunately there is 
no Index or Table of Citations to make the mateiial readily available 
from the &OLIICCS. 

KHKKHARDT, PAUU Dor Wcishcit leUter Schluss * Die Religion 
cler Upanishads mi Sinne gefdsst. Jena, Dieclenchs, 1912. 126 pp. 

A German translation of Unity-seven passages fiom the Upanishacls, 
topically ananged. 



4. TRANSLATIONS, WITH TEXT, OF COLLECTKI) 
UPANISHADS 

PAUTHIEK, GUILLAUMK. Memouc sui 1'ori^inc et la propagation 
de la doctrine clu Tao, londee par Lao-tseu ; traduit du chinois, rt 
accom[)agnt5 d'un conimentaire tire des livres vsanskiitset du 'J'ao-te 
king de Lao-tsou ; c'tablissant la conformite de ceitaines opinions 
philo.sophi<iues de la Chine et de 1'Inde; orne (Fun dessein chinois ; 
suivi de deux Oupanichads des Vedas, avec le texte Sanskrit et persan, 
Paris, 1831, 

Contains a French translation of the Kena and Isa Upanishads, 
together with the Sansknt and Peisian texts ot the same. 

No copy of this work is in the British Museum. The foiegoing 

473 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

particulars are taken from a notice of the book in the Nouveau Journal 
Asiatzgue, vol. 7 (1831), p. 465. 

POLEY, L. Collection des Oupanichats, extiaits des Vddas, 
traduits du Sanskrit en Frar^ais. Paris, six instalments, 1835-1837; 
the first four published by Dondey-Dupre ; the last two, by Beitrand. 

The first part, with 39 consecutively numbered pages, is occupied 
with a French translation of the Katha and Munclaka Upamshads, both 
of which had appeared separately. 

The second part, with 199 consecutively numbered pages, is occupied 
witrnhe text of the preceding two Upanishads and of the Kena, iollowed 
by Sankara's commentanes on these three, followed by the text of 
the Isa. 

This would seem to be the fhst published edition of collected 
Upanishads in the Devanagaii character. 

BOHTLINGK, OTTO. Drei kritisch gesichtete und ubersetzte Upani- 
shad mit erklarenden Anmerkungen. la JBerichte uber die Vcrhand- 
lungen der Konighch Sackszschen Gesdhchaf ten zu Leipzig, fhilologisch- 
histonsche Classe, vol. 24, pp, 127-197, Leipzig, 1891. 

Contains the Devanagari text of the Katha, Altai eya, and Prasna 
Upanishads, together with German translation and critical notes. 

The translator was one of the most eiudite of Western Sanskrit scholars, 
the editor of several Sanskrit texts, and joint author of Bohtlmgk and Roth's 
monumental 7-volume Sanskrit-German Dictionary. 

The position of such an authority is extremely weighty in itself, and too 
Is quite typical of Western scholars on the subject of the woith of Sankara's 
Commentaries. 

' In the mam I have paid very little attention to (Jamkara's Commen- 
tary, since the man knows the older language very impeifectly, has no 
presentiment of philologacal criticism, and explains the text from his own 
philosophical standpoint. If any one wishes to place a deepei meaning 
in the often obscure expressions, let him do so at his own nsk without 
any prepossession. I have refrained from any soit of inteipietaUon, and 
have striven only to give a philologically justifiable translation.' (Trans- 
lated from the preliminary explanations on p, 128.) 

SASTRJ, S. SITARAMA, and GANGANATH JHA, The Upanishads 
and Sn Sankara j s Commentary. Published by V. C Sesaehani at 
the Press of Natesan, Madras, 5 vols,, 1898-1901. ' Dedicated by 
kind permission to Mrs. Annie Besant. 5 

The contents and authorship are as follows : 

Vol. I, Isa, Kena, and Mundaka, Sastn, 1898. 174 pp. 

Vol. 2 ; Katha and Prasna, Sastii, 1898. 193 pp. 

Vol. 3, Chandogya 1-4, Jha, 1899. 311 pp. 

Vol. 4, Chandogya 5-8, Jha, 1899. 374 PP* 

474 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Vol. 5, Aitareya and Taitttrlya, Sastn, 1901. 230 pp. 

'The increasing intciest evinced by the thinking world in the 
Philosophy and Religion of the Hindus has led me to undeitake the 
publication ot the translation o the principal Upn.msh.itls . . . The woik 
has been undertaken chiefly with <i view to bung within easy reach of the 
I'-nghsh-icading public the pnceless teachings of the Upanibhads in 
the light of the inteipietation of Sri Sankarachaiya.' (Piciace, vol. I.) 

TATTVAKHUSHANA, SITANATIIA. The Upamshads, edited with 
Annotations and English TuxnbLition. Calcutta, Som 13i others, 3 
vols , 1900-1904, 

The contents ue as follows 

Vol. i, Ls<"l, Kcna, Katha, Piasna, Muncl , and MTind. ; 1900. 163 pp. 

Vol. 2, Svct., Ait., Tail., and Kaush 5^1904. 225 pp. 

Vol. 3, Chfind. and Bnh. 

The Kaushitaki Upanishad in vol. 2 is presented m the same lecenslou 
as in the Anandfisi ama edition of that Upanibhad, which is designated as 
A in the footnotes of the present Translation, in distinction fiom the recen- 
sion picsentedin the Bibhotheca Indica edition, which is designated as B. 

VASU, SRISA CHANDRA. Isa, Kena, Katha, Piasna, Mundaka, 
and Munduka. Allahabad, Panmi Office, 1911. 321 pp. (The 
Sacied Books of the Hindus, vol. r.) 

Text, translation, notes, and exli acts horn M.Idhava's Commentary. 



TRANSLATIONS, WITH TEXT, OF SINGLE 

UPANISIIADS 
Brihad-Aranyaka ITpanishad 

K, KUGI>NK. Conimcntanc sui le Yat;na, Paiis, 1833. 
At pp. clxx-clxxm theic are cxtiacts iiom the Hrih. in Devanagari 
characteis, together with Fiench or Latin uanbUtions. 

UOIITLINC/K, OTTO. Bihadaranjakopanishad in dcr Madhjamdina- 
Recension, herausgegeben und ilberset/t. St. Peteisbuig, Kaiser 
liche Akademie der \Vissenschaften, 1889. 172 pp. 

VASU, SR^ CHANDRA, Biihadaranyaka-Upanisad : r Fext and 
English Translation, together with translations of parts of Madhava's 
Commentary. Allahabad, Panini Office, 1913-, (The Sacied 
Books of the Hindus, vol. 14.) 

CMndogya Upanisliad 

liOHTfJNCJK, OTTO. Khandogjopamshad, kritisch herausgegeben 
und Uberbeut. Leipzig, Haessel, 1889. 201 pp. 
Along with the same author's edition of the Brih., which appeared m 

475, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

the same year, this edition of the Chandogya is the first text-edition of 
any Upanishad in which the attempt has been made to differentiate the 
verse-portions from the prose-portions, namely by giving to the verse 
a wider margin in the text than to the piose, and by using, in the 
metrical part of the text, the modern method of arranging the vcises in 
their metrical form. 

The text is in notably distinct DevanagarT characters. 

In contrast with the customary method of punting Sanskrit prose texts 
without a single punctuation mark, this edition indicates clause-divisions 
and sentence-divisions by a simple upright bar a method which icndeis 
the sense much moie easily intelligible to a reader who is accustomed 
to helpful modern punctuation. 

In spite of certain criticisms which may be dnected against this work 
of thirty years ago, the total estimate of Rohtlmgk's editions both of the 
Brill, and of the Chand. must be very high. Thus did Whitney in 
a detailed review of these two works of Bohthngk justly observe (AJP , 
vol. II, pp. 407-408): 'Within the past year the two longest of the 
ancient or genuine Hindu Upamshads, the Chfmdogya and the Hrhad- 
Aranyaka . . . have been edited and translated by the veteran sc holnr 
Bohthngk, as a new example of his unwearied, many-sided and most 
fruitful activity. No so peimanently valuable addition to our knowledge 
of this class of works has been made hitherto. The texts themselves are 
carefully revised and (especially that of the Chandogya, which is more 
faulty than the othei) m a host of places emended. No such version has 
been even attempted before, and the next one pieccding this in time (th.it 
contained in vols. i and xv of the Sacred Books of the East) is, 
unfortunately, also made in so slovenly a manner as to be practically 
worthless , it is a pity that it will find, especially among men of English 
speech, vastly more numerous leaders than the piesent veisum.' 

The character of Bohthngk's translation is explicitly defined by the 
translator himself m his Vorwort (p. ix) : 'It is a pinery philological 
work, in which no leference has been made nor need be made to the 
Vedantic interpretation of Camkar^klrja, since that impi esses upon the 
Upanishad an entirely false stamp.' 

Bohthngk's estimate of Sankara is stated as follows : ( I do not demui 
to regard this famous Vedantist as a great scholar in his department ; but 
I unhesitatingly deny that he had a thorough knowledge of the old language, 
and I characterize a multitude of his explanations as absolutely absuid' (p. v). 

Bohthngk's estimate of the Chandogya Upanishad itself is thus 
stated in the closing sentence of his Voiwort (p. x) : 'A gieat thought 
runs through the whole work, but by what strange, indeed absurd, fancies 
so often marred 1 ' 

VASU, SRISA CHANDRA. Chhandogya Upanisad, with [extract.-- 
from] the Commentary of ri MadhvacMrya called also Anandu- 
tirtha, translated. Allahabad, Panmi Office, 1909-1910 (reprinted 
1917). 623 pp. (The Sacred Books of the Hindus, vol. 3.) 

476 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Taittiriya Upanishad 

SARTRI, A. MAHAPEVA. The Tuittiiiya Upanishad, with the 
Commentanes of Sankaiachaiya, Sures\achai}a, and Sayana (Vtdy- 
aranya), translated into English. Mysore, G. T. A. Punting \\oiks, 
1903. 791 pp. 

With its analytical headings for chapters and sections, and \\ith the 
different fonts of type used to distinguish the matenal of the Upanishad 
itself and that of each of the Commentaries, this Translation has the best 
elaborated form of all that have appeared in India. And the rendering of 
the Sanskrit ongmal is unusually close. 

Aitareya Upanishad 

BHAGAVATA, RAJ ARAM RAMKRISIINX, The Aitaieya Upamshad : 
An Attempt to Inteipiet in Maiathi the Eleven Upanishads, with 
Preface, Tianslation, and Notes in English; rstof theSenes. "Bom 
buy, Tukarama Juvaji, Nnnaya-sagar Piess, 1898. 40 pp. 

By the Piofessor of Sanskiit at St. Xavier's College, Bombay. 

1 This is an attempt to tianslate into Marathi and Knglish those 
Upanishads, only eleven in numbci, which have had the good foitune ot 
being commented upon by Shankarachaiy.i . * . II is system is sine to 
last u as long ab the Moon and Sun enduie." 3 (Pieiace, p, 5.) 

KausMtaki Upanishad. 

COWKM., K. H. Kaushitaki-Htahmana-Upanishacl, with the Corn- 
men taiy of Sankarananda, edited with an English Translation. 
(Calcutta, BibhothociL Indiea, 1861. 191 f)p. 

The icccnsion whidi is piintcd in this edition of KaushTtaki is 
designated as B in the footnotes of the piesent TtansLition, thus being 
distinguished from the lecension printed in the Anandfibrdina edition of 
the Kaublutaki, which ib designated as A. 

Kena Upanishad 

OKRTKL, HANNS. r rhc Jaiminiya, or Talavakftra-Upanisad-Brah- 
mana. l\\ Journal of the American Oriental Society ^ vol. 16, pp. 79- 
260, New Haven, 1894. 

By the former Professor of Linguistics and Comparative Philology in 
Vale Univetsity. 

In the Hiahmana which is heie piesentccl with tianslitenited text, 
translation, and notes, the Kena Upani&hadis imbedded at pp 215-219. 

PRASAD, I)UR(iA. An English Translation of the Kena Upanishat, 
with Exposition. Lahore, Virajanand Press, 1898. 34 pp. 

* The perusal of these Upanishads makes one leligious. Nowhere 

477 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

God is so truly described as in those wonderful metaphysical books of 
India.' (Exposition, p. 7.) 

VASU, SRIS CHANDRA, and A. C. THIRLWALL. Kenopanishad with 
the Sanskrit text, anvaya, vntti, word-meaning, translation, notes, and 
index. Allahabad, Indian Press, 1902. 105 pp. 

SINGH, CHHAJJU. Kamopanishat, translated into English, after 
Consulting every Gloss available. Lahore, Anglo-Sanskrit Press, 
1891. 44 PP- 

An elementary ' word-and-word tianslation,' intended appaiently as 
a reading-text for beginners in the Sanskiit language and also as a religious 
tract. 

Katha Upanisliad 

POLEY, L. Kathaka-Oupanichat, extrait du Yadjour-VeVla, traduit 
du Sanskrit en Frangais. Pans, Dondey-Dupre, 1835. 22 pp. 

Text and Fiench translation. 

REGNAUD, PAUL. Etudes Vediques et Posl-Vtfdiques. Paris, 
LerouXj 1898. 217 pp. 

By the Professor of Sanskiit and Comparative Giammar at the 
University of Lyons. 

The text of the Katha Upanisliad in Roman transliteration, stanza by 
stanza, with translation and commentary, occupies pp. 57-167. The 
verse-portions of the original aie lined in quatrain metrical form. 

A thorough, scholarly piece of work. 

YASU, SRIS CHANDRA. Kathopanishad, with the Sanskrit text, 
anvaya, vntti, word-meaning, translation, notes, and index. Allaha 
bad, Panini Office, 1905. 230 pp. 

Isa Upanishad 

DATTA, GURU. Ishnopanishad, with Sanskrit Text arid English 
Translation, to which an Exposition is appended. Lahore, Vua- 
janand Press, 1888. 34 pp. 

The Exposition is a passionate appeal for a pure i-eligion based upon 
the teachings of this Upanishad. 

The translating is quite free a typical instance of the way in whif h 
a number of enthusiastic, but uncritical, translations have, unwittingly, 
injected modern ideas into the transmitted utterances of the ancient 
Upanishads. For example : 

Guru Dattds translation The present translation 

2. Aspire, then, man, to live Even while doing deeds here, 

by virtuous deeds for a hundred One may desire to live a hunch ud 

years m peace with thy neighbouis. years. 

47 8 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Guru Dattds translation The present translation 

12. Miseiable are they who Into blind darkness enter they 

woiship atoms as the efficient Who worship non-becoming, 

cause of the world. But far more Into darkness greater than that, 
miseiable are they who woiship as it weie, they 

the visible things born of atoms. Who delight in becoming. 

15. O Thou who givcst suste- With a golden vessel 
nance to the vvoild, unveil that face The Real's face is covered o"er. 
of the tiue sun which is now hidden That do thou, O Pushan, uncover 
by a veil of golden light; so that For one whose law is the Re;J 
we may see the truth and know our to see. 
whole duty. 
The foregoing reprinted in : 

Works of the late Guru Datta, Vklyarthi, M.A. Lahore, Aryan 
Punting & G, Trading Co., 2d edition, 1902, at pp. 107-124, 

MOZOOMDAR, YADUNATHA. Isa Upanishad, or the last chapter of 
the Sukla Yajur Veda, with text, easy Sanskrit notes, English and 
Bengali translations. Jessore, Subhakari Press, 1893. 1 ^ PP- 

GOSVAMI, SRI SYAMALALA. Isa Upanishad, with the Bhashyas of 
Balaclava, Vidyabhushana, Sn Sankarachai yya, and the Tika of 
Anandagiri, etc., with Bengali translation and commentary, and with 
an English translation and commentary. Calcutta, Aghornath Datta, 
People's Press, 1895. 70 pp. 

c This short Upanishad . . . appears to be composed for the purpose of 
exalting the realisation of the Supreme Spirit over eveiy other object. It 
embodies the sum total of human wisdom. 1 (Introduction.) 

PRASAD, DUR*;A. The Third Vcdic Reader, in the Dayanand High 
School Scries*. Lahore, Virajanand Piess. 2d ed., 1896. 34 pp. 

Contains at pp. 8-31 the Ka Upanishad (as the Fortieth Chapter of the 
Yajui-Voda) both in Devanfigan and in Roman characters, with a 'word- 
and-word ' English-Sanskrit translation. 

SiNdif, CHUAJJU. Lshopanishat, translated into English, to which 
is appended The Vedic Truth Vindicated. Lahore, Anglo-Sanskiit 
Press, 1891. 40 pp. 

An elementary * word-and-word ' Sanskrit-Kn^lish translation. The 
'Vcdic Truth' is 'vindicated' against the charge of *a very revolting 
moral teaching' in Ya]ur-Veda 23, 18-31 by presenting a correct 
translation * of that passage. 

VASU, SRIS CHANDRA, and A. C. THIKLWALT,, Isavasya Upanishad, 
with the Sanskrit text, anvaya, vritti, word-meaning, translation, notes, 
and index. Allahabadj Indian Press, 1902. 62 pp, 

* This Upanishad has been the subject of several commentaries, "We 

479 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

give the interpretation according to the three well-known schools,- 
Advaita (Sankara), Visista Advaita (Ramanuja), and Dvaita (Maclha\a).' 
(Introduction, p. n.) 

Mundaka Upanishad 

PRAS\D, DURGA, corrected by Pandit GURU DATTA, Vidyaithi. 
The Mundakopamshat with English Tianalation. Lahoie, Vnaiaiiand 
Piess, ad ed., 1893. 13 pp 

On the reverse of the title-pa.ee is quoted the following Iroin Max 
Muller: 'Whatever othei schoLus may think of the difficulty ot 
tianslatmg the Upanibhats, I can only repeat what I have said bcfoic, 
that I know few Sanskrit texts piesentmg moie formidable piohlcms to 
the translator than these philosophical treatises. I have agrim and again 
had to translate ceitam passages tentatively only, or iollouing- the 
commentators, though conscious all the time that the meaning which they 
extiact from the text cannot be the right one.* 

The foregoing repnnted in . 

The works of the late Guru Datta, Vidyailhi, M.A. Luhoie, 
Aryan Punting Co , 2d edition, 1902, at pp. 151-1:67. 

Prasna TJpamsliad 

PRASAD, DURG\. An English Translation of the Pmslmopanishat, 
containing Six Questions of Life and Death , with Smsknt Text. 
Lahore ; Virajanand Piess, 1899. 35 PP* 

'It has six questions of vital impoitancc to all human beings. As 
arranged m this spnitual treatise, they foim a systematic and scientific 
search after God.' (Introduction to the Piashnopanishat, or Catechism 
of Spiritual Knowledge, p. I ) 

Mandukya Upanishad 

DATTA, GURU. The Mandukyopanishatj being the Exposition of 
OM, the Great Sacred Name of the Supieme Being in the Veclus, 
translated and expounded. Chicago edition, printed and published 
under the auspices of the Arya Pratmidhi Sabha, Punjab. Lahoie., 
Virajanand Press, 1893. 34 pp. 

By the late Professor of Science, Government College, Lahore. 

* Worship is the first act of pure religion ... A tiuc mode of wot ship 
is the subject of the Mandukyopanishat. It enjoins the woiship of the 
Supreme Deity alone, the Eternal Omnipresent Being-, the Supreme Soul 
of Nature. For, what but a true conception, knowledge and realisation 
of this Universal Spirit can be consistent with that overflowing, exultant, 
blissful attitude of the mind, otherwise designated as worship I The 
woiship of the Eternal Being is the only worship that is inculcated in the 

480 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Upanishats ; and this Eternal Being is everywhere named Omkanu' 
(* Exposition,' pp. 8-9.) 

The foregoing reprinted in : 

Works of the late Guru Datta, Vidyarthi, 1VLA. Lahore, Aryan 
Punting Co, 2d edition, 1902, at pp. 125-149. 

NARAYANA, HAR. Vedic Philosophy ; or ; An Exposition of the 
Sacred and Mysterious Monosyllable AUM ; The Mandukya Upani- 
shad Text, with an English Tianslation and Commentary and an 
Introduction. Bombay, Tatva-Vivechaka Press, 1895. 171 pp. 

' 1 venture to advise my readers to try to fit themselves for the study 
of Brahma-Vidya. I tiustfully ventuie to say that they will thus finally 
attain libciation from rcmcai nation by the realization of Self, which is the 
only reality, the substratum ot all appearances. I ventuie to express the 
hope that the leader will earnestly take the subject toheait, and studiously 
examine it for himself; and not lose the opportunity afforded him of 
lemovmg the ignorance of Self, under which his soul is labouring ' 
(Conclusion of the Introduction, pp. xiu-xlni.) 

Svetadvatara Upanishad 

BHAOAVATA, RAJ ARAM A RAM KRISHNA. An Attempt to Interpret 
in Marathi the Eleven Upani&hads, with Piefacc, Tianslation and 
Notes in English : The Shvctashvataia Upanishad, 2d of the Series. 
Bombay, Nnnuya-sagaia Pi ess, 1900. 119 pp. 

A companion volume to the author's translation of the Aitareya 
Upanishad. 

The c creed of the Upanishad J is formulated in the Preface as follows : 
* The unity of God pervades Ihiough the whole of the Upanishad. " God 
is one ; he is without a second, without an equal " is the burden of 
almost all the vczscs. This all-pervading God has been pleased to place his 
image into the heart of every human being to guide him, is another 
point . . . Independently of its monotheistic doctnne, the one special 
feature which will stiike the student as charactexistic of this Upanishad 
is that it inspires a sense of dependence and of pi ayerf illness. The 
general tone of the Upanishacls is either contemplative or discursive to 
a fault ; but in this Upanishad even the additions made to it arc for the 
most part in keeping with this prayetful tone of the original. This con- 
stitutes the human interest which will always secure to this Upanishad 
a high place in our affections.* (Picfacc, p. 5.) 

A detailed examination of the sectauan statements in the Upanishad is 
presented to the reader in support of the theory that * the original and 
sweet Upanishad was enciusted with layers successively added by the 
Rudra-worshippers, the Kapilas, the Yogins and the followers of some o'f 
the schools now completely forgotten.' This explanation will * prepare 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

him for its unconnected and at times contradictory, though varied and 
therefore interesting, contents/ (Preface, p. 8.) 

In the Preface the author also contends that the Shankaracharya to whom 
the received commentary on the Upanishad is ordinarily ascribed is not 
the same as the great Commentator of that name. This same theory, by 
the way, had been previously urged by Regnaud in 1876 in his Matfrnnix-^ 
vol. I, p. 28, and also by Col. G. A. Jacob in his ai tide on the Niibimha- 
tapanl Upanishad in the Indian Antiquary for March 1 886. 

Maitri Upanishad 

COWELL, E. B. The Maitri or Maitrayanlya Upanishad, with the 
Commentary of Ramatirtha, edited with an English Translation. 
London, Watts, 1870. 291 pp. (Bibhotheca Indica.) 

By the late Professor of Sanskrit at Cambndge University. 



6. TEXT-EDITIONS OF COLLECTED 
UPANISHADS 

ROY, RAMMOHUN. Four Upanishads in the Bengali chmactcr, 
viz. Katha,, Isa, Kena ; and Mund. Calcutta, 1818. 191 pp. 

By the pioneer Hindu reformer of the nineteenth century The very 
first punted appearance of any collected text of the Upanibhacls. 

POLEY, L. Four Upanishads, viz. Katha, Mund , Kcna, ami Isa, 
with the Commentary of Sankara on the first thiee. Paris, Dondey- 
Dupre, 1835. 200 pp. 

POLEY, L. Vnhadaranyakam, Kathakam, lea, Kena, Mundakam ; 
oder funf Upanishads aus dem Yagur-, Sama- und Atharva-Veda, nach 
den Handschnften der Bibhothek der Ost-Indischen Compagnie f /u 
London. Bonn, Marcus, 1844. 124 pp. 

Noteworthy as containing the first printed appeaiancc of the Brihacl- 
Aranyaka Upanishad. The text of the other four in this collection 
had already appeared, together with a French translation by the same 
author, in 1835. 

Seven Upanishads in the Bengali character, viz. Katha, Viijasancya- 
samhita, Talavakaia, Mund., Mand., Prasna, and Ait., with a verbal 
commentary for instruction in Ena-hmist schools. Calcutta, 1845, 
127 pp. 

ROER, E. Three Upanishads, viz. the Taittariya and the Aittarcya 
Upanishads, edited with the Commentary of Sankara Adiarya and 
the Gloss of Ananda Gin; and the wetas"watara Upanishad, edited 
with the Commentary of Sankara Acharya. Calcutta, 1850. 
378 pp. (Bibliotheca Indica.) 

482 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

ROER, E. Six Upanishads, viz. Isa J5 Kenn, Katha, Prasna, Muml , 
and Mand , edited with the Commentaiy of Sankaia Achatyaand the 
Gloss of Ananda Giii. Calcutta, 1850. 598 pp. (Bibhotheca 
Indica.) 

VIDYASAGARA, JinANANDA. Six Upanishads, MZ. Ka, Kena, Katha, 
Prasna, Mund , and Mand., with the Commentary of Sankaiacharya 
and the Gloss of Ananda Giii. Calcutta, 1873. 598 pp. 

VIDYASAGARA, JIIUNAND\. Three Upamshach, viz. Tait and Ait , 
\\ith the Commentaiy of Sankara Acharya and the Gloss of Ananda 
Giii ; and Svet. with the Commentaiy of Sankara Acharya. Calcutta, 

1874. 361 pp. 

Ten Upamshads in the Telugu chat actor, vi/ lin, Kena, Kathn, 
Piasna, Mund., Mand , Tait, Brih., Chand., and Ait, with a verbal 
Commentary by Ramanujacharya. Madias, Vivcka Kalanidhi Press, 

1875. 540 pp. 

The foregoing icprmted, 1876. 298 pp. 

PALA, MAHRSACHANDRA. Nine Upanishads in the Bengali chaiac- 
ter, viz. Ait., Lsa, Kena, Svct,, Katha, Tait., Mand., Mund., and 
Piasna, with Sankara Acharya's Commentaries, and Bengali Trans- 
lations. Calcutta, 1881-1889. 

SAvnu, SUHRAHMANYA, Hundiccland Eight Upanishads. Madias, 
1883. 1029 pp. 

r Fen Upanishads. Bombay Venkatcsvara Press, 1885. 357 pp. 

RAMACHANDRA, VKNKATARAU. Upanishatsangraha : A Collection 
of Upanishads, edited with Sanskrit Glosses and Marathi Paraphrases, 
Notes, and Intioductions Poona 1885. 

ICloven Upanishads, vh. Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mund., Mand., 
Tait,, Ait, Chand., Brih., and vet., edit-cd by Kesavala'Hatiratmaja. 
IJombay, Nirnaya-sagara Press, 1886. 242 pp. 

This is perhaps the most convenient and xelmble text-edition of the 
eleven Upanishads thcicm contained. 

PITAMRAKA, SKI. Eight Upanishads, viz. Lsa, Kenn, Katha, Tait., 
Ait,, Mund., Prasna, and Mand., with a Commentary in Sanskrit. 
Bombay, 1890. 800 pp. 

Twelve Upanishads, viz, Lsit, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mund,, Mand., 
Tait., Ait., Chand, Buh,, Svet., and Nrisiifthatapanlya. Bombay, 
Venkatesvara Pi ess, 1890. 372 pp. 

Hundred and Eight Upanishads. Bombay, Tatva-vivechaka Press, 
1895. 868 pp. 

483 I i * 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Thirty-two Upanishads, with the Dipika of Narayana Sankarananda. 
Poona, Anandasiama Press, 1895. 

Of the thirteen Upanishads contained in the present English Translation 
this edition contains the text of only two, viz. Kaush. at pp. 113-144, and 
Maitn at pp. 345-476. 

SASTRI, K. VENKATAKRISHNA, and MUNJURPATIU RAMACHANDR\ 
SASTRI. Hundred and Eight Upanishads in Grantha character. 
Madras, Star of India Press, 1896. 893 pp. 

UDDHAVAJI, RANACHHODAJI. Four Upanishads, viz. Isa, Kcna, 
Mund , and Ait., with Gujarati translations and commentaries. 
Bombay, Sarasvati Printing Press, 1896. 103 pp. 

TATACHARYA, A SRINIVASA. Ten Upanishads in Grantha and 
Telugu characters, viz. Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mund., Hand., Ait., 
Bnh , Chand., and Tait, \uth a Tamil commentary compnsing word- 
for-word interpretations of the text, and translations of the Commen- 
taries of Sankara and Ramanuja, together with the Kankas of 
Gaudapada in Sanskrit and Sankara's Commentary in Tamil. Madias, 
1897-1898. 

PHANSIKAR, VASUDEV LAXMAN SHASTRI. Twenty-eight Upani- 
shads, Isa, etc. Bombay, Nirnaya-sagaia Press, 1904, 334 pp. ; 1906 
edition, 372 pp. 

Contains all of the Upanishads which are contained in the present 
Tianslation, except Maitn. 

Ten Upanishads. Benares, Tara Printing Works, 1906. 
BHAGAWAN, SWAMI ACHINTYA, Eleven Upanishads. Bombay, 
Nirnaya-sagara Press, 1910. 732 pp. 



7. TEXT-EDITIONS OF SINGLE UPANISHADS 
Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad 

ROER, E Bnhad Aranyaka Upanishad, edited with the Com- 
mentary of Sankara Acharya and the Gloss of Ananda Giri. Calcutta, 
2 vols., 1849. (Bibliotheca Indica.) 

WEBER, ALBRECHT. The fatapatha Brahmana. Berlin, 1855. 

Contains in the Madhyamdina recension as 10 6. 4. 5 and 14. 4-9 what 
in the Kanva recension is the separate Bnhad-Aranyaka Upanishad. 

VIDYASAGARA, JiBANANDA. Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad, with 
the Commentary of Sankaracharya and the Gloss of Anandagiri, 
Calcutta, 1875. 1094 pp. 

484 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad, with the Commentary of Sankaia- 
chaiya and the Super-commentary of Anandagin. Benares, 1885 
328 pp. 

AGASE, KASHINATHA SHASTRI. Biihad-Aranyaka Upanishad, 
edited with the Commentary of Sankara and the Tika of Anandagiri. 
Poona, Anandasrama Press, 1891. 835 pp. 

PITAMBARA, SARMA. Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad, with a Hindi 
Translation, a Hindi Commentary founded on the works of Sankara 
and Anandagiri, and Notes. Bombay, Nirnaya-sagaia Press, 2 vols., 
1892. 

AGASE, KASHINATIIA BAL \ SHASTRI. Bi ihad-Aranyaka Upanishad, 
edited with the Commentary entitled Mitakshara, of Nitycinandu. 
Poona, Anandasrama Press, 1895. 271 pp, 

Chaudogya Upanishad 

ROER, E. Chhandogya Upanishad, edited with the Commentaiy 
of Sankara Achaiya and the Gloss of Ananda Gin. Calcutta, 1850. 
628 pp. (Bibhotheca Indica.) 

VmYASAr.ARA, JIIUNANDA. Chdndogya Upanibhad, with the 
Commentary of Sankaia Achaiya and the Gloss of Anandagiri. 
Calcutta, 1873. 634 pp. 

Chandogya Upanishad, with the Commentary of Sankara 'Acharya 
and the (/loss of Anandagin. Benares, 1884. 

PALA, MAHKSACIIANDKA. Chandogya Upanishad, with the Com- 
mentaiy of Sankara Achaiya and a Bengali Tianslation. Calcutta, 
1885-1887. 674 pp. 

AGASK, KASHINATIIA SASTRI. Chandogya Upanishad, with the 
Commentary of Sankaia Acharya and the Gloss of Anandagiri. Poona, 
Anandasrama Press, 1890. 482 pp. 

PANTOUJ, M. B. Chandogya Upanishad, with a Telugu Trans- 
lation and Commentary. Madras, Sice Kajah Ram Mohan Roy 
Press, 1899. 674 pp. 

Chandogya Upanishad, with the Commentary of Madhavacharya 
and the Gloss of Veclesha Tirtha. Kumbakonam, 1904. 524 pp. 

SARMA, SIVASANKARA, Chandogya Upanishad, with Hindi Trans- 
lation and Commentary, also a Sanskrit Commentary setting forth 
the doctrines of the Arya Samaj, Ajmere, 1905, 1003 pp. 

45 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Taittiriya Upanishad 

Taittiriya Upanishad, with the Commentaiy of Sankaia Achaiya 
and a Supercommentaiy corresponding in its text to that of Ananda- 
gm, but here attributed to Jnanamrita Yati. Benares, 1884. 42 pp. 

Taittinya Upanishad, with the Commentary of Suresvacharya and 
the Supercommentary of Anandagiri. Poona, Anandasiama Press, 
1889. 213 pp. 

PANTULU, M. B. Taittiriya Upanishad; with Telugu tianslatioti 
and Commentary, Madras, Sree Rajah Ram Mohan Roy Press, 
1889. 150 pp. 

ISLAMAPURKARA, VAMANASHASTRi. Taittinya Upanishad with 
the Commentaiy of Sankara and the Supei commentary of Sankara- 
nanda and Vidyaranya. Poona, Anandasrama Press, 1889, 330 pp. 

SARMA, BHIMASENA. Taittinya Upanishad, with a Hindi and a 
Sanskrit Commentaiy. Allahabad, Sarasvati -Pi ess, 1895. 180 pp. 

SANDRANANDA ACHARYA. Taittiriya Upanishad, with Bengali 
Translation and Notes. Calcutta, Sandrananda Pi ess, 1896. 66pp. 

ISALAMAPURAKARA, VAMANASHASTRj. Taittiuya Upanishad, with 
the Commentary of Sankara Acharya and the Supercommentary of 
Anandagiri, also with the Dipikas of Sankarananda and of Vidyaranya,. 
Poona, Anandasrama Press, 1897; 163 pp. 

RAMAKRISHNA SASTRI. Taittiriya Upanishad, in the Grantha 
character, together with selections from the Taittiriya-Biahmana and 
the Taittiriya- Aranyaka. Palghat, 1900. 78 pp. 

SINGH, ZALIM. Taittiriya Upanishad, .with Hindi glossaries. 
Lucknow, 1 900. 127, pp. 

VENKATAKRISHNAIYA, R. S. Taittiriya Upanishad, in the Kannada 
character, with Kannada Translation and Notes. Bangalore, 1901. 
82 pp. 

VAIDYANATHA, MULLANGUDI. Taittinya Upanishad, in the Giantlm 
character and in the Diavidian recension. Kumbakonam, 1903. 
44 PP. 

SUTAIYA, GORTI. Taittiriya Upanishad, in the Telugu character, 
\uth the Commentary of Sa>ana. Madras, 1904. 319 pp. 

Aitareya Upanishad 

The longer recension of the text, known as the Mahaitareya, or 
Bahuvricha, Upanishad, i.e. Aitareya Aranyaka 2 and 3, with the 
Commentary of Sankara Acharya. Benares, 1884. 70 pp. 

486 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The shorter recension of the text, i.e. Aitareya Aranyaka 2. 4-7, 
with the Commentaiy of Sankaia Acharya, the Supercommentary of 
Anandagiri, and a Dipika of Vidyaianya. Poona, Anandasrama 
Press, 1889. 120 pp. 

S\RMA, BHIMASKNA. Aitareya Upanishad, with Commentaries in 
Sanskrit and Hindu Etawah, Saiaswati Pi ess, 1900. 104 pp. 

SINI.H, ZALIM. Altai eya Upanishad, with Hindi glossaries. 
Lucknow, 1900. 50 pp. 

Kena Upanishad 

Ro\, RuiMOiiUN. Talavakaui, i e. Kcna Upanishad, with a 
short Commentary in Bengali. Calcutta, rSr6. 17 pp. 

AGASK, BALA SASTRI. Kena Upanishad, v\ith the Commentary of 
Sankara and the Supercommentary of Anandagui, together with the 
1 )ipikas of Sankarananda and Narayana. Poona, Anandasrama Press, 
1888. 89 pp. 

SARMA, BHIMASKNA. Kcna Upanishad, with Commentaries in 
Sanskrit and Hindi, Allahabad, Saiasvati Press, 1893. 5^ PP- 

AGASK, KASIIINATHA BALA SASTRI. Kena Upanishad, with the 
(Commentary of Sankara and the Dipikas of Sankarananda and 
Naiayana. Poona, Anandasiama Pi ess, 1896. 79 pp. 

Kena Upanishad, in the Tclugu character, with the Commentaiy 
of Balasubiahmanyu Biahmasvami in Telugu. Madras, Kalaratnakara 
Press, 1900. 126 pp. 

Kena Upanishad, in the Grantha and also in the Tamil characters, 
with the Commentary of Balasubrahmanya Brahmasvann in Tamil. 
Madras, Kalauitnakara Press, 1900, 207 pp. 

SAUMA, BVDAUIDATTA. Kena or Talavakara Upanishad, with a 
Hindi translation and exposition. Meerut, 1901, 32 pp. 

Katha Upanishad 

SARMA, BHIMASKNA, Katha Upanishad, with Sanskrit and Hindi 
Commentaries. Allahabad, Sarasvati Pi ess, 1893. 220 pp. 

RAJVADE, VAIJANATH KASHINATH. Katha Upanishad, with the 
Commentary of Sankara Acharya and two Supereommentaries by 
Anandagiri and Gopalayatindra. Poona, Anandasrama Pi ess, 1897. 
127 pp. (Reprinted 1906, 132 pp.) 

SARMA, BADARIDATTA. Katha Upanishad, with Hindi translation 
and exposition. Meerut, 1903. 96 pp 

487 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Isa Upanishad 

Rov, RAMMOHUN. Isa Upanishad, with a Commentary in Bengali. 
Calcutta, 1816. 37 pp. 

TARKARATNA, TARACHARANA. Isa Upanishad, with a Commen- 
tary called Vimala. Benares, 1880. 30 pp. 

Isa Upanishad, with a Sanskrit Commentary. Punganur, 1887. 
8pp. 

Isa Upanishad, with the Commentary of Sankara Achaiya and seven 
other Commentaries. Poona, Anandasrama Press, 1888. 87 pp. 

MUHAMMAD, SATYANANDA. Isa Upanishad, with a Hindi Tians- 
lation in verse. Lucknow, 1890. 12 pp. 

SARMA, BHIMASENA. Isa Upanishad, with Sanskrit and Hindi 
Commentaries. Allahabad, Sarasvati Press, 1892. 42 pp. 

BRAHMASWAMY, BALA SUBRAMANIA. Isa Upanishad in Telugti 
and Tamil characters, with Tamil Commentaiies. Madias, 1899. 
107 pp. 

KRIPARAMA. lia Upanishad, with an Urdu Translation and 
Commentary based on the teachings of the Arya Samaj. Moiadabacl, 
1899. 32 pp. 

SARMA, BADARIDATTA, I&a Upanishad, with Hindi Tianslation 
and Exposition. Meemt, 1901. 18 pp. 

GANDA, BRAHMANISHTA. Isa Upanishad, with the Commentary of 
Sankara Acharya and Gujarati Explanations. Bioach, C9o6. 82 pp. 

Mundaka Upanishad 

YAMUNA SANKARA. Mundaka Upanishad, with a Commentary in 
Hindi founded on the Commentaries of Sankara and Anandagin. 
Lucknow, 1884. 138 PP* 

SARMA, BHIMASENA. Mundaka Upanishad, with Commentaries 
in Sanskrit and Hindi. Allahabad, Saiasvati Press, 1894. 154 pp. 

Mundaka Upanishad, with the Commentary of Sankaia Acharya 
and the Supercommentary of Anandagin and also a Dipika by 
Narayana. Poona, Anandasrama Press, 1896, 61 pp. 

SINGH, ZALIM. Mundaka Upanishad, with Hindi Glossaries. 
Lucknow, 1900. 84 pp. 

Prasna TJpanisliad 

YAMUNA SANKARA. Prasna Upanishad, with a Commentary in 
Hindi founded on the Commentaries of Sankara and Anandagiri. 
Lucknow, 1884. 177 pp. 

488 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Prasna Upanishad, with the Commentary of Sankara Acharya and 
the Super-commentary of Narayanendra Sarasvati. Benares, 1885, 
40 pp. 

SARMA, BHIMASENA. Prasna Upanishad, with Commentaries in 
Sanskrit and Hindi. Allahabad, Sarasvati Pi ess, 1894. 148 pp, 

Prasna Upanishad, with the Commentary of Sankara Acharya, the 
Supercommentary of Anandagin, and also a Dipika of Sankarananda. 
Poona, Anandasrama Press, 1896. 90 pp. 

SINGH, Z-VLIM. Piasna Upanishad, with Hindi Glossaries. Lucknow, 
1900. 90 pp. 

Mandukya Upanishad 

SARMA, BHIMASRNA. Mandukya Upanishad, with Sanskiit and 
Hindi Commentaries. Allahabad, Saiasvati Piess, 1894. 62 pp. 

KATHAVATE, AKAJI VISHNU'S-SON. Mandukya Upanishad, with 
the Karika of Gaudapada, the Commentary of Sankara Acharya, the 
Supercommentary of Anandagin, and a Dipika of Sankaiananda. 
Poona, Anandasrama Press, 1900. 233 pp. 

Svetasvatara Upanislxad 

Svetasvatara Upanishad, with the Commentaiy of Sankara Acharya, 
a Dipika of Sankaiananda, a Dipika of Narayana, and a Vivarana of 
Vijnana Uhagavat. Poona, Anandasrama Press, 1890. 210 pp. 
(Repiinted 1905, 225 pp.) 

SARMA, BHIMASKNY. Svetasvatara Upanishad, with Sanskiit and 
Hindi Commentaries. Ktawuh, Sarasvati Pi ess, 1897. 211 pp. 

TULSIRAMA, SWAM i. Svetasvatara Upanishad, with Sanskrit and 
Hindi Commentaries. Meerut, 1897. 112 pp. 



8. TREATISES, CHIEFLY LINGUISTIC 

WHITNRY, W, D. The Upanishads and theii Latest Translation. 
In American Journal of Philology, vol. 7 (1886), pp. 1-26. 

Chiefly a detailed review of Max Mullet's translation. ' If the non- 
Sansknt-ieacling public is to have these obscure treatises placed in its 
hands at all for study, it ought fiist of all to know just what they say and 
what they do not say. Thus far it has had no means of doing this ; no 
simple philological translation, none that was not filled in and tinged 
throughout with the later Hindu comment, has been given to the world* 
(P- 4). 

489 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

WHITNEY, W, D. Bohthngk's Upanishads. In American Journal 
of Philology, vol. ii (1890), pp. 407-439. 

A detailed review of Bohthngk's editions of the text and translation of 
the Chandogya and the Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishads. 'In all lespects 
so good as to tempt to a detailed examination, in oidei to the collection 
of occasional oversights and the suggestion of diffeiences of view which 
may peihaps be found worthy of notice in case of a levisal of the woiks ' 
(pp. 407-408). 

Then the reviewer proceeds to point out 518 such instances. 

BOHTLINGK, OTTO, A series of articles in the Bcrlchte nber die 
Verhandlungen der Komgtich SachsLchen Gesellscliaften zu Leipzig, 
philologisih-hstorische Classe, Leipzig, Hirzel, 1890-1897 : 

(i) tJber eine bisher arg missverstandene Stclle in der Kaushitaki- 
Brahmana-Upanishad Vol. 42 (1891), pp. 198-204. 

An elaborate discussion of the variant readings and translations ot 
Kaush. I. 2, together with a reconstructed text and accoidant translation. 
Moie leained and ingenious than necessary or convincing. 

(2) Zu den von mir bearbeiteten Upamshaden. Vol. 43 (1891), 
pp. 70-90. 

A reply to Whitney's reviews of Bohtlmgk's editions of Chanel,, Brih , 
Ait., Prasna, and Katha. 

(3) Uber die Verwechselung von pra-st/ia und prati-stha in den 
Upamshaden. Vol 43 (1891), pp 91-95. 

Proposes text-emendation and newinteipietation of 6 vet. I. 1-3. 

(4) Versuch Kaushitaki-Brahmana-Upanishad i. i. zu douton* 
Vol. 47 (1895), pp. 347-349- 

Proposes the omission of the second dhdsyasi. This change doubtless 
leaves the passage easier. But, inasmuch as the received text is perfectly 
intelligible, the proposed change is not necessaiy, except 111 the inteiest of 
a degree of literary perfection which perhaps was not the stanclaid of the 
original author. 

(5) Bemerkungen zu einigen Upamshaden. Vol. 49 (1897), 
pp. 78-100. 

A review of Deussen's Translation, Sechsig Upaniskads* Contains 
numerous criticisms and dissenting opinions, e.g. on 96 passages in the 
Chandogya alone. 

(6) Kritische Beitrage. Vol. 49 (1897), pp. 127-138. 

Critical notes on several important Sanskrit works, but chiefly on the 
translation of passages in the Upanishads. 

(7) Kritische Beitrage. Vol. 50 (1898), pp. 76-86. 
A continuation of the preceding series of critical notes, 

490 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

JACOB, GEORGE A. A Concordance to the [56] Principal Upani- 
shads and Bhagavad Gila. Bombay, Government Central Book 
Depot, 1891. 1083 pp. 

A gieat and painstaking labor. An exceedingly useful implement foi 
detailed and exhaustive study of the texts of these Upamshads and also 
of the BhG. 

LITTLE, CHARLES EDGAR. A Grammatical Index to the Chan- 
dogya-Upamshad. New Yoik, American Book Co., 1900. 193 pp. 
(Vanderbilt Onental Series.) 

Both a dictionary and a concordance. Every occurrence of every word 
is iccoided, and the grammatical form in which eveiy inflected word 
occurs is explicitly stated. ' Its aim is to classify the linguistic matenal 
of this Upamshad. Its second aim is to fumibh sufficient giammatical 
and lexical data to serve as a special dictionaiy ior those who shall lead 
this piece of literature foi the first time. Bohtlmgk's text has been taken 
as the standard/ (Pieface, p. v.) 

WECKER, OTTO. Der Gebrauch der Kasus in der altercn Upani- 
sad-hteratur vcrglichen mit der Kasuslehre der indischen Giamma- 
tiker. Tubingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1905. 92 pp. 

An exhaustive investigation and tabulation of all the varying uses of the 
six oblique cases in the ten Upamshnds, viz. Chand., lirih., Maitri, Ait., 
Kaush., Kena, Ka, Tait., Katha, and Svet. One important result of the 
investigation ib the following conjectuial chronological order and giouping 
of the Upanishads relative to the gieat grammanan Pfimm, viz. Gioup 1, 
the earliest, Hnh, Chand., and Kaush. ; Group II, also pre-Panmi, Ait , 
Tait., and Katha; Group III, possibly prc-Pamni, Kena and Ka ; Gioup 
IV, post-Pan in i, vct. and Maitri. 

The foregoing was printed alsojn two instalments in Bcitragc s. K untie 
d. mdogcrmtin. bfracheti, vol. 30, pp. i~6i, 177-207, Gottingen, 1906. 

WINDISCII, ERNST. Zu Kau^itaki-Brahmana-Upanisad T. 2. In 
Bcrichtc tibar die Vvrhandlungcn der KonigUch Slithsischen Gese//~ 
scfiaften zu Lefyzi$,p/u!ologisch~/itstori$chc Classe, vol. 59, pp. 111-12$, 
Ix'ipzig, Teubner, 1907. 

Consists of ciitical notes, compaiing OeiteFs text and tianslation with 
that of otheis. 

DKUSSKN, PAUL. tJber die Chronologic der Upani.shad-Textc. 
In Transactions of the International Congress for the History of 
Religions^ vol. 2, pp. 19-24, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1908. 

KIRFKL, WILLIBALD. Beitrage zur Gcschichte der Nominal- 
komposiiion in den Upanisads und im Epos. Bonn, Geoigi, 1908. 
99 pp. 

An exhaustive investigation, with statistically tabulated results, of all 

491 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

the phenomena of compound nouns of the five classes, dvandi'a, itpapada, 
tat-fiurusa^ balm-vrihi) and aiyaylbhd'ua^ as these occur m five of the 
Upamshads, viz. Katha, Prasna, Brih., Mund., and Svet., and also in 
three episodes of the MBh. and in two chapters of the Ramayana. 



9. TREATISES, CHIEFLY EXPOSITORY 

COLEBROOKE, HENRY THOMAS. On the Vedas, or Sacied Wi i tings 
of the Hindus. In Asiatic Researches, vol. 8, pp. 369-476, Calcutta, 
1805. 

This exposition of the literature of the Vedas contains at pp. 408-414 an 
oiigmal translation of the Aitareya Upamshad entne and also of other 
important sections of the Upamshads, viz. Chand. 5 11-24; Tait. 3. 
1-6; and Mund. i. 

This article is notable for showing how over a centm y ago, before the 
great advance in modern Sanskrit scholarship, the impoitance of the 
Upamshads had been recognized, and also how the Upanuhadb wcie being 
actually mediated to the West. 

This essay was reprinted m : 

Essays on Religion and Philosophy of the Hindus. London, Williams 
& Norgate, 1837 , new edition, 1858 ; pp. 1-69. 

Life and Essays of H. T. Colebiooke, by his son, T. E. Colebiooke. 
London, Trubner, 1873, v l- 2 ? PP- 8-132. 

In the latter edition the * Essay* is provided with numerous supple- 
mentary notes by W. D. Whitney. 

RIXNER, THADDAUS ANSELM. Versuch eincr Darstollung der 
uralten indischen All-Eins-Lehre, odcr der beruhmtcn Sammlung 
Oupnek'hat; Erstes Stuck, Oupnek'hat Tschebandouk gcnannt, 
Nurnberg, Stein, 1808. 

The fust appieciation on the continent of Europe, through the medium 
of a modern language, of the ancient religio-philosophical scriptures of 
India. An attempt to make more generally available the contents of Oil- 
perron's extensive (two-volume) Latin tianslation. Includes a German 
translation of the first part of the Oupnek'hat. 

WINDISCHMANN, FREDRICK HEiNRiCH HUGO, in the work of his 
father, CARL JOSEPH HIERONYMUS WINDISCHMANN, Die Philosophic 
im Fortgange der Weltgeschichte. Bonn, Marcus, 3 vols., 1827 * 

1833- 

Book II (comprising volumes 2 and 3) deals with 6 Philosophy in India.' 
Chap. 10 m vol. 3 deals with * The Mystical Contents of the Upanislmds.' 

Contains tianslations of selections from Chand., Bnh,, Kena. Katha 
Isa, Mund. 

49* 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

LANJUINAIS, ]. D. Recherches sur les Langues, la Literature, la 
Religion et la Philosophic des Indiens. Pans, Dondey-Dupre', 1832. 

Vol. 2 (at pp. 246-357) contains an Essay entitled * La Religion dcs 
Hindous selon des Ve*das, ou Analyse de 1'Oupnek'hat publiee par Anquetil 
cki Perron en 1802 ' This was the first icnduion into Ficnch of the sub- 
stance of Dupcrion's epoch-making Latin translation of the Upanishads. 

WINDISCHMANN, FRiEDRiCR HEiNRicH HUGO. Sancaia, sive de 
Theologumenis Vedanticorum. Bonn, Habicht, 1833. 20 5 PP- 

An exposition of the Vedanta philosophy in Latin. One of the veiy 
eailiest treatises on the subject. Notewoithy as being the fust attempt 
to use gi,immatico.l and histoiical considerations for determining the age of 
the Upanishads. 

Chap. 2 (pp. 34-88) is 'On the Life of Sancara and the Antiquity of the 
Vedanta.' Chap. 3 is <A Brief Exposition of the Vedantic Doctrines.' 
Contains numerous quotations, both in the Devanagau characters of the 
original and in Latin Uanslation, from the Sutias as well as from the 
Upanishads. 

WEBER, ALBRKCHT. Akademische Vorlesungen uber indische 
Literaturgcscbichte. Berlin, Dummler, 1852, 291 pp.; 2d edition, 
1876-1878, 370 pp. 

The foregoing translated into Fiench : 

Hibtone de la Literature indienne, traduite par Alfred Sadous. 
Paris, A. Durancl, 1859. 495 pp. 
The same translated into English : 

The History of Indian Liteiatuie, translated by Mann and Zachariae. 
London, Tuibner, 4th edition, 1904. 383 pp. 

By the late Professor of Sanskrit at Berlin University, most erudite of 
German scholais on the subject. 

Contains (at pp. 153-171) a section dealing with the Upanishads. 

MttLLKR, F. MAX. History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature. 
London, Williams & Norgate, 1859. 607 pp. 

Contains at pp. 316-328 an exposition of the Upanishads, together with 
tianslations of extracts. 

'The old Upanishads did not pretend to give more than guesses at 
truth ; and when, in the course of time, they became invested with an 
inspired character, they allowed great latitude to those who professed to 
believe in them as revelation ' (p. 317). 
The foiegoing reprinted : 

Allahabad, Panini Office, 1912. 

MANNING, Mrs* Ancient and Mediaeval India. London, Allen, 
2 vols., 1869. 

Chap. 7 of vol I (pp. 122-147) presents a sketch of the period of the 

493 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Upanishads with extracts from the Translations of Roy, Mitni, Roer, and 
Mullen 

[KREMPELHUBER, MAX KARL VON.] Maha-bak, das grosse Woit 
der Geheim-Lehre der Brahmanen, oder die Umfikation des \Velt- 
Ganzen: Grundgedanken uber das Wesen dei Wcltsubstanz im All- 
gemeinen und des Menschengeschlechtes insbcsondcre : Reflexionen 
aus dem beruhmten Oupnek'hal (Ausmge aus den Veden) fur 
gebildete denkende Leser. Munich, G. Fran/, 1869. 87 pp. 

An exposition of the philosophy of the Upanishads ns found m 
Duperron's Latin tianslation, particulaily in lelation to Western philo- 
sophy. 

REGNAUD, PMJL. Mate'riaux pour seivir ^, 1'Histoire dc la Philo- 
sophic de PInde. Pans, Vieweg, 2 vols., 1876-1878. 

While this book has already been listed above (p, 470) among Transla- 
tions of Selections from the Upanishads, it aims pi i manly to be a 
systematic exposition of the philosophy of the Upanishads, arranged under 
various outstanding categories. 

EARTH, AUGUSTE. The Religions of India. Authored Tians- 
lation [from the French] by J. Wood. London, Tiubner, 1882. 
3d edition, 1891. 

4 We shall now [i e. in the chapter on "Brahmanism : II. Philosophic 
Speculations," pp. 64-86] give, in a summary form, an anal) sis of such 
of the doctrines of the Upanishads as are more especially connected with 
the history of religion ; we shall indicate at the same time the essential 
developments they have undergone m the systems propeily so called* 
(p. 68). 

A brief sketch, but thoroughly scholarly and in coirect proportions. 
The estimates expressed are sympathetically appreciative, yet keenly 
discriminating, withal judicial. The presentation of the main concep- 
tions of the Upanishads is made with a histoncal perspective which 
exhibits clearly the course of previous development as well as the 
subsequent action and reaction. 

' They aie pre-eminently exhortations to the spnitual life, perplexed 
and confused indeed, but delivered at times- with a pathos that is both 
lofty and affecting. The tone which pievails in them, especially in their 
manner of address and m the dialogue, in which there is at times a touch 
of singular sweetness, is that of a preaching which appeals to the 
initiated' (p. 77). 

' India will remain at heart attached to the manner of philosophizing 
found in the Upanishads. To that its sects will come back again one 
after another; its poets, its thinkers even, will always take pleasure in 
this mysticism, with its modes of proceduie, at once so vague and so full 
of contradictions ' (p. 68). 

494 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

'All the aspirations, good and bad, of the Hindu people will henceforth 
find in them their fit expression. They will supply to all the sects a theo- 
logical science of a high oider. Some will be inspned by them as with 
an ideal, and under their inspiration will arise at intervals a set of works 
of incomparable elevation and delicacy of sentiment, while others 
will drag them down to their own level and treat them as a repertory 
stored with commonplaces. The less religious will borrow from them 
the externals of devotion; the baser soit and more worthless will wrap 
themselves up m their mysticism and appropriate their formulas. It 
is with the woid biahman and deliverance on his lips that the alchemist 
will form to himself a religion of his scaich for the philosophers stone, 
that the votaries of Kali will slaughter their victims, and ceitain of the 
(^ivaites will give themselves o\er to then notous revels. No literature 
bo demonstrates as this does the vanity of mysticism and Us inability 
to found anything that will piove durable* (pp. 84-85). 

OLDKNBERG, HERMANN. Buddha: His Life, His Doctrine, His 
Older, translated from the original German by William Hoey. 
London, Williams & Norgate, 1882. 454 pp. 

Chap. 2 (pp. 1 6-60) presents ' Hindu Pantheism and Pessimism befoie 
Buddha.' Reports 'the ideas, images, and expressions which passed to 
Buddhism as an inheritance from Hrahmamcal speculation '(p. 54). 

Contains tianslations of portions of the Katha Upamshad at pp. 54-58 
and the entire conversation of Yajnavalk>a with his wile Maitreyl with 
limning exposition at pp. 33-40. 

* If I am correct in my surmise as to the time of the production of this 
[Katha] Upamshad, it contains an important contribution to the history 
of thought preparatory to Uuddhist thought : namely, we here find the Satan 
of the Buddhist world, Mai a, the Temptei, the demon death-foe of tlic 
deliverer, in the form of Mntyu, the God of Death ' (pp. 54-55). 

GOUGH, ARCHIKAU) K. The Philosophy of the Upanibhads and 
Ancient Indian Metaphysics. London, Tiubner, 1882; 2d edition, 
1891 ; 3d edition, 1903. 268 pp. 

By a former Principal of the Calcutta Madrasa. 

Six aiticlcs oiiginally appearing in the Calcutta Review^ rewritten and 
extended. 

Contains tianslatirms of four complete Upanishads, vu. Mund., Katha, 
$vet, and MancL, the laiger part of Tait. and Hrih,, and portions of the 
Chand. and Kena, together with extracts fiom the works of the Indian 
schoolmen. 

The renderings in many places are really paraphrases, rather than 
exact versions. Indeed, in spite of a liberal use of quotation marks, the 
work as a whole is a popular exposition of the popular Veclunta 
philosophy, rather than a scientifically rigorous translation of difficult 
texts. 

The author states explicitly his judgment on the relation of the later 

495 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

' schoolmen * to these early documents : f The teaching of Sankaia himself 
is the mtural and legitimate interpietation of the doctnnes of the 
Upanishads' (Preface, p. viu). And again. 'The Vedanta is only a 
systematic exposition of the philosophy of the Upamshads ' (p. 240). 

His estimate of the Upamshads themselves is indicated by the follow- 
ing : ' The Upamshads exhibit the pantheistic view of things in a naively 
poetical expression, and at the same time in Us coaiscst foim ' (Pieface, 
pp. v-vi); and he proceeds to quote Hegel's estimate: 'If we wish to 
get so-called Pantheism in its poetic, most exalted, 01 if one will most 
crass form, one has to look for it in the oriental poets; and the most 
extensive expositions aie found in the Indian poets.' 

'The Upamshads are an index to the intellectual peculiarities of the 
Indian character. The thoughts that they express aie the ideas that 
prevail through all subsequent Indian liteiature, much of which will be 
fully comprehensible to those only who carry with them a knowledge of 
these ideas to its perusal. A study of the Upamshads is the stai ting- 
point in any intelligent study of Indian philosophy. As regards religion, 
the philosophy of the Upanishads is the ground-work of the vaiious forms 
of Hinduism, and the Upanishads have been justly chaiactcnzccl by 
Goldstucker as " the basis of the enlightened faith of India." ? (Preface, 
p. vi.) 

* The philosophy of ancient India ... is sublime, and it is puerile. It 
is marked at once by sagacity and by poverty, by daring independence 
and by grovelling superstition ' (p. 89).* 

'The Upanishads are the loftiest utterances of Indian intelligence. 
They are the woik of a rude age, a detenorated race, and a baibarous 
and unp regressive community. Whatever value the leader may assign 
to the ideas they present, they are the highest pioduct of the ancient 
Indian mind, and almost the only elements of inteiest in Indian literature, 
which is at every stage replete with them to saturation/ (The last 
paragraph of the book, p. 268.) 

DEUSSEN, PAUL. Das System des Vedanta. Leipzig, Biockhaus, 
1883, 550 pp.; 2d ed. 1906, 540 pp. 

The standard European treatise on the Vedanta. Contains copious 
references to, and translated extracts fiom, the principal Upanishads* 
All the Upanishad quotations are conveniently listed. 

The foregoing translated : 

The System of the Vedanta according to Baclarayana's Brahma- 
Sutras and fankara's Commentary thereon, set forth as a Com- 
pendium of the Dogmatics of Biahmanism from the Standpoint of 
ankara; Authorized Translation by Charles Johnston. Chicago, 
Open Court, 1912. 513 pp. 

* The great Upanishads are the deep, still mountain tarns, fed from the 
pure waters of the everlasting snows, lit by clear sunshine, or by night 

49 s 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

mnroring the high serenity of the stais . . . And now, in this oui clay, 
when the ancient waters are somewhat clogged by time, and their old 
course hidden and choked, you come as the Rcsloier, tiacing the old holy 
streams, clearing the reservoir, making the pninal waters of life potable 
for our own people and oiu own day . . . May the sunlit waters once 
moie flow in hfe-iestormg streams, bunging to the world the benedic- 
tion of spiritual light.' (Translators Pieiace, Dedicatory to the Author, 
pp. v-vi.) 

BOSE, RAM CHA.NPRV. Hindu Philosophy, Popukuly Explained: 
the Orthodox Systems. New Yoik, Funk Wagnalls, 1884. 420 pp. 

The fiist three chapters (pp. 1-95) present an extensive suivey ot the 
Upanishads, and icfciences to these documents occm frequently elsewheie 
in, the book. 

A superficial account, without keen philosophical discernment, though 
quite reliable so far as it goes in facts. 

' The Upamshads are the sources not only of Hindu pantheism, but of 
Hindu philosophy in all its phases of development ' (p. 312). 

'The Upamshads were roughly handled, twisted and tortuied by all 
classes of thmkcis, both oithodox and hetciodox, hiend and foe. They 
were appealed to, not only by the Sankhyas m support of their apparently 
dualistic but really materialistic creed, not only by the Vaishcshikas in 
support of their theory of vauous kinds of atoms led into varieties of 
combination by unseen fences, but even by the champions of heterodoxy 
in favor of then anti-Vedic sentiments and theones ' (pp. 309-310). 

SREKRAJSI LAT,A. Vichar Sugar The Metaphysics of the LJpani- 
shads, Translated. Calcutta, H. Dhole, 1885. 40^ pp. 

This is a translation into English of a Sanskrit compendium which, 
the Translator explains, * has made its way m the outlying districts of the 
Punjab ; and every Saclhu who knows how to read and write receives 
instructions fiom his Gum on this veiy work, so that perusing it he learns 
all that is worth knowing ot the Upamshads ' (p. i of Translator's 
Preface). 

'Thanks to the late Swamy Dayanand Saraswati and othei allumini [!] 
there is an increasing activity noticeable everywhere for a study of our 
Shastras and what they teach. The impulse to this novel movement 
received no mean help from the Thcosophical Society. 

'Thus then, if the present work would tend to incieasc the national 
spirituality, if it would be the means of inciting the active sympathies of 
our young men and old, and stimulate them to study our ancient wi itings 
and the faith they inculcate, if it would stem the tide of materialism and 
supplant it with the noble and high asphations which Non-duality teaches, 
if it will suppress bad karma and incite the good of our fellow creatures, 
we would think ourselves highly gratified and amply repaid.' (Translator's 
Preface, p. ii.) 

497 K k 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

SCHROEDER, LEOPOLD VON. Indiens Lileialui und Cultui in 
histonscher Entwicklung- Ein Cyklus von funf/ig Vorlesungcn, 
zugleich als Handbuch dei mdischcn Litcialuigcschichtc, nebst 
zahlreichen, in deutschei Ubeisetzung mitgetbeiltcn Proben aus 
Indischen Schriftwerken. Leipzig, Haessel, 1887 785 pp. 

Lectures 15 and 16 (pp. 212-240) give a sketch of the philosophy of the 
Upanishads with illustrative extracts from IJnh., Chand,, Kfi, K.itha, etc. 

WHITNEY, W, D. Hindu Eschatology and the Katba Upunishad- 
In Journal of tfie American Oriental Society, \u\ 13(1889), pp. ciii- 

CVlll. 

DUTT, ROMESH CHUNDER. A Histoiy of Civili/ation in Ancient 
India, based on Sanskrit Literature Calcultn, Thackei, 3 vols., 
1889-1890; London, Trubnei, 2 vols., 1893 

Chap. 9 of vol. I is devoted to * The Religious Doctrines ot the 
Upanishads/ and contains original translations fiom Chand., Kcn.i, Isfu 
Bnh., and Katha. Interspeised throughout this volume aie also vanous 
extracts from the Upanishads illustrating the civilization ol then periods. 

By one of the foremost of Indian htteiateuis wilting m Knghsh. 

'The monotheism of the Upanishads, which has been the monotheism 
of the Hindu religion ever since, recognizes God as the Universal Being. 
This is the great idea which is taught in the Upanishads in a hundred 
similes and stories and beautiful legends, which impart to the Upanishads 
their unique value in the literatuie of the world ' (vol. I, p. 289). 

'Who can, even in the piesent day, peiusc these pious inqmnes and 
fervent thoughts of a long buried past without lechng a new emotion 
in his heart, without seeing a new light befoie his eyes? The first 
recorded attempts to solve them [i.e. the mystenes of the unknown 
future] will ever have an abiding inlet est for every patriotic Hindu and 
for every thoughtful man * (vol. i, p. 302). 

LANMAN, CHARLES ROCKWELL. The Beginnings of Hindu Pan 
theism. Cambridge, Mass., 1890. 25 pp. 

By the Professor of Sanskrit at Harvaid University. A Picsidential 
Address before the Amen can Philological Association. A brief, but 
appreciatively discriminating, treatment, with illustiative extracts from the 
Upanishads. 

'A good critical text of all the old Upanishads, conveniently assembled 
in -one volume, with a philologically accurate translation and various 
useful appendices, is still one of the piessmg needs of Indology* (p. 12, 
footnote). 

DUTT, ROMESH CHANDRA, Ancient India, London, Longmans 
Green, 1893. 196 pp. 

Assigns the date of the Upanishads to the Epic Age, 1400-1000 B.C. 

498 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

'Nothing is moie fiesh and life-giving than the earnest speculations 
which aie known as the Upanishads' (p. 49), 

4 The Upanishads are among the most lemarkable works in the 
hteratuie of the woild* (p. 66). 

' Though in these ancient ideas we find much that is fanciful, and though 
they are clothed m quaint similes and legends, yet it is impossible not 
to be shuck with the freshness, the earnestness and the vigour of thought 
which mark these yearnings after the tiuth* (p. 72). 

DEUSSEN, PAUL. Elements of Metaphysics * A Guide to Truth. 
London, Macmillan, 1894. 337 pp. 

Contains as an Appendix the author's Address delivered before the 
Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, in which he concluded 
with this peroiation: 'The Veclanta in its unfalsifiecl foim is the 
stiongest support of pure morality, is the gieatest consolation m the 
sufFenngs of life and death. Indians, keep to it ! ' (p. 337). 

DKUSSEN, PAUL. Eiinnerungcn an Indicn. Kiel & Leipzig, 
Lipsius & Tischei, 1.894. 254 pp. 

Contains as an Appendix the author's English Address 'On the 
Philosophy of the Veclanta in its Relation to Occidental Metaphysics ' 
delivered before the Bombay Ihanch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
a quotation from which is made m the preceding" entry. 

GAUP.K, RICHARD. Die Samkhya-Philosophie : cine Daistcllung 
tics Indischcn Rationahsmus nach den Quellen. Leipzig, Haessel, 

^94- 353 PP- 

Contams a thorough discussion of the relation of the Upanishads to 
the Sftnkhya system. By the foremost European authority on that 
philosophic system. 

' The influence of the Samkhya system on Brahman ism occurs first 
in the time which lies between the origin of those Upanishads which 
belong to the three older Vcdas and the composition of the Katha, 
Maitri, C^vetaqvatara, Piacjna and similar Upanishads' (p, 21). 

1 The pre-Buddhistic Upanishads represent a time (perhaps from the 
eighth to the sixth centimes) in which theie developed those ideas 
which became determinative of Indian thought in the later time' (p. 107). 

The Theosophy of the Upanishads. London, Theosophical 
Publishing Society, 1896. 203 pp. 

An attempt to expound modern theosophy as being the clear and 
systematic teaching of the Upanishads. 

APTR, RAGHUNATH N. The Doctrine of Maya : Its Existence in 
the Vedantic Sutra, and Development in the later Vedanta, Bom- 
bay, 1896. 

' His conclusions are, that the doctrine of Maya, although it had its 
germ m the Upanishads, does not exist in the Sutras, and that it aiose 

499 K k a 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

from the fourth century A. D. on a revival of Bicihmanism and vigoious 
speculation of Gaudapada and Sankaia' (quoted concealing the above 
Essay from Frazer's Liteiary Hutoty of India, p. I 9, n. i). 

SLATER, T E. Studies m the Upamshads. Madias, Chnstian 
Literature Society for India, 1897. 74 pp. 

<I find m all their best and noblest thoughts a true iclijjious img, 
and a far-off presentiment of Christian tiuth ; theii finest passages having 
a striking paiallehsm to much of the teaching of the Chnstian Gospels 
and Epistles, and so supply